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Zoisite

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Sigmund Zois Freiherr von Edelstein
Formula:
{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Colour:
Colourless, purple, greyish-white, grey, yellowish-brown, yellow, pink, green
Lustre:
Vitreous
Hardness:
6 - 7
Specific Gravity:
3.15 - 3.36
Crystal System:
Orthorhombic
Name:
Originally named saualpite for the locality Saualpe in Carinthia, Austria, where it occurs in eclogites. The name zoisite was introduced by A.G. Werner in 1805 to honour Sigmund Zois, Baron von Edelstein (1747-1819), Austrian scholar who financed mineral-collecting expeditions. It was from Baron Zois that Werner obtained the holotype specimen from Saualpe (found by mineral dealer Simon Prešern in 1804).
Dimorph of:
Formerly assigned to the Epidote Group. Since Zoisite is the orthorhombic polymorph of Clinozoisite, zoisite is no longer considered a member of this group, according to the new nomenclature of the Epidote Supergroup (Armbruster et al., 2006; Mills et al., 2009).



Visit gemdat.org for gemological information about Zoisite.


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Classification of ZoisiteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
8/C.23-100
9.BG.10

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
B : Sorosilicates
G : Sorosilicates with mixed SiO4 and Si2O7 groups; cations in octahedral [6] and greater coordination
58.2.1b.1

58 : SOROSILICATES Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups
2 : Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups with cations in [6] and higher coordination; single and double groups (n = 1, 2)
16.9.8

16 : Silicates Containing Aluminum and other Metals
9 : Aluminosilicates of Ca

Physical Properties of ZoisiteHide

Vitreous
Transparency:
Transparent, Translucent
Comment:
Pearly on cleavage {010}
Colour:
Colourless, purple, greyish-white, grey, yellowish-brown, yellow, pink, green
Streak:
White
Hardness:
6 - 7 on Mohs scale
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Perfect
Perfect on {010}
Imperfect on {100}
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven, Conchoidal
Density:
3.15 - 3.36 g/cm3 (Measured)    3.35 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of ZoisiteHide

Type:
Biaxial (+)
RI values:
nα = 1.696 - 1.700 nβ = 1.696 - 1.702 nγ = 1.702 - 1.718
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.006 - 0.018
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
High
Dispersion:
relatively strong
Pleochroism:
Visible
Comments:
X= pale pink to red violet
Y= nearly colourless to bright pink or deep blue
Z= pale yellow to yellow-green

Chemical Properties of ZoisiteHide

Formula:
{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
IMA Formula:
Ca2Al3(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Common Impurities:
Fe,Mn,Mg,Cr,Ti,Ca,Na,V,Sr,H2O

Crystallography of ZoisiteHide

Crystal System:
Orthorhombic
Class (H-M):
mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) - Dipyramidal
Space Group:
Pnma
Cell Parameters:
a = 16.19 Å, b = 5.54 Å, c = 10.03 Å
Ratio:
a:b:c = 2.922 : 1 : 1.81
Unit Cell V:
899.62 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
4
Morphology:
Prismatic crystals, columnar to compact, massive

Crystallographic forms of ZoisiteHide

Crystal Atlas:
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Zoisite no.4 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Zoisite no.16 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Transparency
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X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

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Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Type Occurrence of ZoisiteHide

Synonyms of ZoisiteHide

Other Language Names for ZoisiteHide

Croatian:Zoisit
Dutch:Zoisiet
Finnish:Zoisiitti
French:Zoïsite
Hungarian:Zoizit
Italian:Zoisite
Japanese:灰簾石
Lithuanian:Zoisitas
Polish:Zoisyt
Portuguese:Zoisite
Romanian:Zoisit
Russian:Цоизит
Simplified Chinese:黝帘石
Swedish:Zoisit
Traditional Chinese:黝簾石

Varieties of ZoisiteHide

Chrome-ZoisiteA Cr-bearing variety of Zoisite.
PseudozoisiteA zoisite with anomalous optical properties.
TanzaniteA gem variety of zoisite with a blue to blue-violet colour.

Note that a significant percentage of tanzanite crystals on the market have been heat-treated (400-500°C) to produce or enhance this colour, many are originally brown or pale grey (Hurlbut...
ThuliteA pink variety of zoisite, frequently manganian, i.e. containing trivalent Mn (not manganoan, which refers to divalent Mn). Originally described from Kleppan, Sauland, Hjartdal, Telemark, Norway.

NOTE: "Thulite" from granite pegmatites and some metamo...

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Ruby47 photos of Zoisite associated with Ruby on mindat.org.
Pargasite41 photos of Zoisite associated with Pargasite on mindat.org.
Calcite14 photos of Zoisite associated with Calcite on mindat.org.
Actinolite13 photos of Zoisite associated with Actinolite on mindat.org.
Quartz9 photos of Zoisite associated with Quartz on mindat.org.
Adularia8 photos of Zoisite associated with Adularia on mindat.org.
Prehnite7 photos of Zoisite associated with Prehnite on mindat.org.
Corundum5 photos of Zoisite associated with Corundum on mindat.org.
Tschermakite5 photos of Zoisite associated with Tschermakite on mindat.org.
Diopside4 photos of Zoisite associated with Diopside on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

9.BG.XCyprineCa19Cu2+(Al10Mg2)Si18O68(OH)10Tet. 4/m : P4/n
9.BG.05bAllanite-(Ce){CaCe}{Al2Fe2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)Mon. 2/m : P21/m
9.BG.05bAllanite-(La){CaLa}{Al2Fe2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)Mon. 2/m : P21/m
9.BG.05bAllanite-(Y){CaY}{Al2Fe2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)Mon.
9.BG.05aClinozoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)Mon. 2/m : P21/m
9.BG.05bDissakisite-(Ce){CaCe}{Al2Mg}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)Mon. 2/m : P21/m
9.BG.05Dollaseite-(Ce){CaCe}{MgAlMg}(Si2O7)(SiO4)(OH)FMon. 2/m : P21/m
9.BG.05aEpidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)Mon. 2/m : P21/m
9.BG.05Hancockite{CaPb}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)Mon.
9.BG.05Khristovite-(Ce){CaCe}{MgAlMn2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)(OH)FMon. 2/m : P21/m
9.BG.05Mukhinite{Ca2}{Al2V3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)Mon.
9.BG.05Piemontite{Ca2}{Al2Mn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)Mon. 2/m : P21/m
9.BG.05Piemontite-(Sr){CaSr}{Al2Mn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)Mon.
9.BG.05bManganiandrosite-(La){Mn2+La}{Mn3+AlMn2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)Mon.
9.BG.05Tawmawite{Ca2}{(Al,Fe3+,Cr)3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
9.BG.05Tweddillite{CaSr}{Mn3+AlMn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)Mon. 2/m : P21/m
9.BG.05bFerriallanite-(Ce){CaCe}{Fe3+AlFe2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)Mon. 2/m : P21/m
9.BG.05Niigataite{CaSr}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)Mon. 2/m
9.BG.05Manganiandrosite-(Ce){Mn2+Ce}{Mn3+AlMn2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)Mon. 2/m : P21/m
9.BG.05Dissakisite-(La){CaLa}{Al2Mg}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)Mon. 2/m : P21/m
9.BG.05Vanadoandrosite-(Ce){Mn2+Ce}{V3+AlMn2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)Mon. 2/m : P21/m
9.BG.05Uedaite-(Ce){Mn2+Ce}{Al2Fe2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)Mon. 2/m : P21/m
9.BG.05Epidote-(Sr){CaSr}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)Mon. 2/m : P21/m
9.BG.05bAllanite-(Nd){CaNd}{Al2Fe2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)Mon. 2/m : P21/m
9.BG.05bFerriallanite-(La){CaLa}{Fe3+AlFe2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)Mon. 2/m : P21/m
9.BG.05bÅskagenite-(Nd){Mn2+Nd}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O2Mon. 2/m : P21/m
9.BG.15MacfalliteCa2Mn3+3(SiO4)(Si2O7)(OH)3Mon.
9.BG.15SursassiteMn2+2Al3(SiO4)(Si2O7)(OH)3Mon. 2/m : P21/m
9.BG.20Julgoldite-(Fe2+)Ca2Fe2+Fe3+2(Si2O7)(SiO4)(OH)2 · H2OMon.
9.BG.20OkhotskiteCa2(Mn,Mg)(Mn3+,Al,Fe3+)2(Si2O7)(SiO4)(OH)2 · H2OMon.
9.BG.20Pumpellyite-(Fe2+)Ca2Fe2+Al2(Si2O7)(SiO4)(OH)2 · H2OMon.
9.BG.20Pumpellyite-(Fe3+)Ca2(Fe3+,Mg)(Al,Fe3+)2(Si2O7)(SiO4)(OH,O)2 · H2OMon.
9.BG.20Pumpellyite-(Mg)Ca2MgAl2(Si2O7)(SiO4)(OH)2 · H2OMon.
9.BG.20Pumpellyite-(Mn2+)Ca2Mn2+Al2(Si2O7)(SiO4)(OH)2 · H2OMon.
9.BG.20ShuiskiteCa2MgCr2(Si2O7)(SiO4)(OH)2 · 2H2OMon.
9.BG.20Julgoldite-(Fe3+)Ca2Fe3+Fe3+2(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH) · H2OMon.
9.BG.20Pumpellyite-(Al)Ca2Al3(Si2O7)(SiO4)(OH,O)2 · H2OMon.
9.BG.20PoppiiteCa2(V3+,Fe3+,Mg)(V3+,Al)2(Si2O7)(SiO4)(OH,O)2 · H2OMon. 2/m : B2/m
9.BG.20Julgoldite-(Mg)Ca2MgFe3+2(Si2O7)(SiO4)(OH)2 · H2OMon.
9.BG.25GanomalitePb9Ca5Mn(Si2O7)4(SiO4)OHex.
9.BG.30RustumiteCa10(Si2O7)2(SiO4)(OH)2Cl2Mon.
9.BG.35Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10Tet.
9.BG.35WiluiteCa19(Al,Mg)13(B,☐,Al)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(O,OH)10Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P4/nnc
9.BG.35ManganvesuvianiteCa19Mn3+(Al,Mn3+,Fe3+)10(Mg,Mn2+)2(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10O(OH)9Tet. 4/m : P4/n
9.BG.35FluorvesuvianiteCa19(Al,Mg,Fe2+)13(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10O(F,OH)9Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m)
9.BG.40Vyuntspakhkite-(Y)(Y,Yb)4Al2.5-1.5(Si,Al)1.5-2.5(SiO4)4O(OH)7
9.BG.45DellaiteCa6Si3O11(OH)2Tric.
9.BG.50Gatelite-(Ce)CaCe3Al2(Al,Mg)(Mg,Fe2+,Al)(Si2O7)(SiO4)3(O,F)(OH,O)2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
9.BG.55Västmanlandite-(Ce)Ce3CaMg2Al2Si2O15(OH)2FMon. 2/m : P21/m

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

16.9.1GehleniteCa2Al(AlSiO7)Tet. 4 2m : P4 21m
16.9.2AnorthiteCa(Al2Si2O8)Tric. 1 : P1
16.9.3Yoshiokaite(Ca,Na)[Al(Al,Si)O4]Trig. 3 : P3
16.9.4SvyatoslaviteCa(Al2Si2O8)Orth.
16.9.5DmisteinbergiteCa(Al2Si2O8)Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P6/mmm
16.9.6GrossularCa3Al2(SiO4)3Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Ia3d
16.9.7VuagnatiteCaAl(SiO4)(OH)Orth.
16.9.9Clinozoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)Mon. 2/m : P21/m
16.9.10PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2Orth. mm2
16.9.11KamaishiliteCa2(Al2SiO6)(OH)2Tet.
16.9.12BicchuliteCa2(Al2SiO6)(OH)2Iso. 4 3m : I4 3m
16.9.13MargariteCaAl2(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2Mon.
16.9.14ChantaliteCaAl2(SiO4)(OH)4Tet. 4/m : I41/a
16.9.15CebolliteCa5Al2(SiO4)3(OH)4Orth.
16.9.17KatoiteCa3Al2(SiO4)3-x(OH)4xIso.
16.9.18LawsoniteCaAl2(Si2O7)(OH)2 · H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Cmcm
16.9.19ParthéiteCa2(Si4Al4) O15 (OH)2•4H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
16.9.20WairakiteCa(Al2Si4O12) · 2H2OMon. 2/m
16.9.21VertumniteCa4Al4Si4O6(OH)24 · 3H2OMon. 2/m : P21/m
16.9.22ScoleciteCaAl2Si3O10 · 3H2OMon. m : Bb
16.9.23LaumontiteCaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2OMon. 2/m : B2/m
16.9.24YugawaraliteCaAl2Si6O16 · 4H2OMon.
16.9.25Gismondine-CaCaAl2Si2O8 · 4H2O
16.9.26EpistilbiteCaAl2Si6O16 · 5H2OMon.
16.9.27GoosecreekiteCa[Al2Si6O16] · 5H2OMon.
16.9.28CowlesiteCaAl2Si3O10 · 6H2OOrth.
16.9.30StelleriteCa4(Si28Al8)O72 · 28H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Fmmm
16.9.31SträtlingiteCa2Al2SiO7 · 8H2OTrig.
16.9.32AmstalliteCaAl(Si,Al)4O8(OH)4 · (H2O,Cl)Mon. 2/m : B2/b

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

Zoisite in petrologyHide

An essential component of rock names highlighted in red, an accessory component in rock names highlighted in green.

References for ZoisiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Jameson R. (1804) A system of mineralogy, Edinburgh. 2, 597.
Klaproth, M.H. (1807) Untersuchung des Zoisits von der Saualpe, Beiträge zur chemischen Kenntniss der Mineralkörper, Vierter Band, Rottmann Berlin, 179-185.
Dollase, W.A. (1968) Refinement and comparison of the structures of zoisite and clinozoisite. American Mineralogist: 53: 1882-1898.
Maaskant, P. (1985) The Iron Content and the Optic Axial Angle in Zoisites from Galicia, NW Spain. Mineralogical Magazine: 49: 97.
Schmidt, M.W., Poli, S. (1994) The stability of lawsonite and zoisite at high pressures: experiments in CASH to 92 kbar and implications for the presence of hydrous phases in subducted lithosphere. Earth and Planetary Science Letters: 124: 105-118.
Pawley, A.R., Redfern, S.A.T., Holland, T.J.B. (1996) Volume behavior of hydrous minerals at high pressures and temperatures: 1. Thermal expansion of lawsonite, zoisite, clinozoisite, and diaspore. American Mineralogist: 81: 335-340.
Holland, T.J.B., Redfern, S.A.T., Pawley, A.R. (1996) Volume behavior of hydrous minerals at high pressure and temperature: II. Compressibilities of lawsonite, zoisite, clinozoisite and epidote. American Mineralogist: 81: 341-348.
Grevel, K.-D., Nowlan, E.U., Fasshauer, D.W., Burchard, M. (2000) In situ X-ray diffraction investigation of lawsonite and zoisite at high pressures and temperatures. American Mineralogist: 85: 206-216.
Armbruster, T., Bonazzi, P., Akasaka, M., Bermanec, V., Chopin, C., Gieré R., Heuss-Assbichler, S., Liebscher, A., Menchetti, S., Pan, Y., Pasero, M. (2006) Recommended nomenclature of epidote-group minerals. European Journal of Mineralogy: 18: 551-567.

Internet Links for ZoisiteHide

Localities for ZoisiteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListShow

Mineral and/or Locality  
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