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About CentennialiteHide

CaCu3Cl2(OH)6 · nH2O (n ~ 0.7)
Pale to azure blue
Crystal System:
For the type locality, the Centennial mine, Calumet, Houghton County, Michigan, USA.
Related to kapellasite, haydeeite and misakiite, but also to calumetite.

Probably identical to (1) "unidentified Cu-Ca-Cl mineral" of Heinrich’s Mineralogy of Michigan, and (2) hexagonal basic calcium-copper hydroxychloride monohydrate of Erdös et al. (1981).

Centennialite's structure is characterized by kagome net of planar CuO4 units with Jahn-Teller-coordinated Cl apices; thus formed octahedra share edges with flattened CaO6 octahedra. Layers in the structure are stacked along the <001> direction, and there are two Cl sites between layers, thus resembling kapellasite topology; there is however an extra c/2 site with variable water occupancy, extending the Ca coordination to 8, thus making centennialite also similar to murdochite.

Classification of CentennialiteHide

Approval Year:
First Published:

D : Oxyhalides, hydroxyhalides and related double halides
A : With Cu, etc., without Pb

Physical Properties of CentennialiteHide

Pale to azure blue

Chemical Properties of CentennialiteHide

CaCu3Cl2(OH)6 · nH2O (n ~ 0.7)

Crystallography of CentennialiteHide

Crystal System:
Class (H-M):
3m (3 2/m) - Hexagonal Scalenohedral
Space Group:
Cell Parameters:
a = 6.6606(9) Å, c = 5.8004(8) Å
a:c = 1 : 0.871
Unit Cell V:
222.85 ų
Botryoidal encrustations.

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Powder Diffraction Data:
5.799 (100)
2.886 (51)
2.583 (75)
2.045 (32)
1.665 (20)
1.605 (17)
1.600 (15)
1.444 (11)

Type Occurrence of CentennialiteHide

General Appearance of Type Material:
Encrustations (often botryoidal)
Place of Conservation of Type Material:
Type material is deposited in the collections of the Musée de Mineralogie, Paris, France, collection number 83080 and 14073, and the Mineral Museum of the University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, USA, catalogue number 19588 and 8789
Geological Setting of Type Material:
A secondary alteration phase, formed due to interaction of supergene Cu mineralization with acid water
Associated Minerals at Type Locality:
Crichton, W. & Müller, H. (2017): Centennialite, CaCu3(OH)6Cl2.nH2O, n = 0.7, a new kapellasite-like species, and a reassessment of calumetite. Mineralogical Magazine: 81: 1105-1124.

Synonyms of CentennialiteHide

Relationship of Centennialite to other SpeciesHide

Structurally related to group(s):

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

3.DA.10aAtacamiteCu2(OH)3ClOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
3.DA.10bBotallackiteCu2(OH)3ClMon. 2/m : P21/m
3.DA.10bClinoatacamiteCu2(OH)3ClMon. 2/m
3.DA.10aKempiteMn2+2(OH)3ClOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
3.DA.10cParatacamiteCu3(Cu,Zn)(OH)6Cl2Trig. 3m (3 2/m)
3.DA.10bBelloiteCu(OH)ClMon. 2/m : P21/b
3.DA.10cHerbertsmithiteCu3Zn(OH)6Cl2Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
3.DA.10cKapellasiteCu3Zn(OH)6Cl2Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1
3.DA.10cGillarditeCu3Ni(OH)6Cl2Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
3.DA.10cHaydeeiteCu3Mg(OH)6Cl2Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1
3.DA.15ClaringbulliteCu4ClF(OH)6Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
3.DA.15BarlowiteCu4BrF(OH)6Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
3.DA.20SimonkolleiteZn5Cl2(OH)8 · H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1
3.DA.25ButtgenbachiteCu19(NO3)2(OH)32Cl4 · 2H2OHex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
3.DA.25ConnelliteCu19(SO4)(OH)32Cl4 · 3H2OHex. 6 m2 : P62c
3.DA.40AnthonyiteCu(OH,Cl)2 · 3H2OMon. 2/m
3.DA.40CalumetiteCu(OH,Cl)2 · 2H2OOrth.
3.DA.45KhaidarkaniteNa0.34Cu4Al3(OH)14F3 · 2H2OMon.
3.DA.50BobkingiteCu5Cl2(OH)8 · 2H2OMon. 2/m : B2/m
3.DA.55AvdoniniteK2Cu5(OH)4Cl8 · H2OMon. 2/m
3.DA.60DroninoiteNi6Fe2+3(OH)16Cl2 · 4H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m

Other InformationHide

Indivisible from the other associated Cu-bearing minerals
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for CentennialiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Crichton, W.A., Müller, H. (2014) Centennialite, IMA 2013-110. CNMNC Newsletter No. 19, February 2014, page 168; Mineralogical Magazine: 78: 165-170.
Sun, W., Huang, Y.X., Pan, Y., Mi, J.X. (2016) Synthesis and magnetic properties of centennialite: a new S= ½ Kagomé antiferromagnet and comparison with herbertsmithite and kapellasite. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals: 43: 127-136.
Crichton, W., Müller, H. (2016) Centennialite, CaCu3(OH)6Cl2.nH2O, n = 0.7, a new kapellasite-like species, and a reassessment of calumetite. Mineralogical Magazine: 81: 1105-1124.
Brandes, P.T. and Robinson, G.W. (2002) A Preliminary Study of Calumetite and Other Copper Chloride Mineralization on the Keweenaw Peninsula, Michigan. Unpublished MSc thesis, Michigan Technological University, USA.

Internet Links for CentennialiteHide

Localities for CentennialiteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
  • Michigan
    • Houghton Co.
      • Centennial
Crichton, W.A. and Müller, H. (2014) Centennialite, IMA 2013-110. CNMNC Newsletter No. 19, February 2014, page 168; Mineralogical Magazine, 78, 165-170; Crichton, W. & Müller, H. (2017): Centennialite, CaCu3(OH)6Cl2.nH2O, n = 0.7, a new kapellasite-like species, and a reassessment of calumetite. Mineralogical Magazine:, 81: 1105-1124.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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