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About CyprineHide

Blue, bluish green, green, dark red with a lilac hue (type material),
Vitreous, Sub-Vitreous
Specific Gravity:
Crystal System:
The historical name cyprine (derived from Latin cuprum, copper) was given by Jöns Jakob Berzelius in 1821 for a Cu-bearing vesuvianite. By 1892, Edward S. Dana listed cyprine as a blue vesuvianite containing "trace amounts" of copper. In 1986, Sharon Fitzgerald, A. L. Rheingold, and Peter B. Leavens, studied the crystal structure of cyprines and found that Cu#2+# occurred in only one site and that in some instances, Cu#2+# was the dominant cation in that site. In 2017,
T. L. Panikorovskii, V. V. Shilovskikh, E. Yu. Avdontseva A. A, Zolotarev, Ivan V. Pekov, S. N. Britvin, and S. V. Krivovichev reported on a highly manganian vesuvianite that had insufficient Mn#3+# to qualify as a new species, but that there was dominant Cu#2+# in the site as had been previously identified by Fitzgerald, et. al. (1986). On the basis of the ordered Cu#2+#, cyprine was re-introduced as a copper-bearing species in the vesuvianite group.
The name 'cyprine' was previously given to any blue variety of vesuvianite on the (not always correct) assumption that it contained abundant copper.
Some blue 'cyprine' specimens may in fact contain sufficient copper, but many specimens do not contain enough for a Cu-dominant occupancy (Cu >0.5 apfu) of the relevant cation site in the crystal structure. Consequently some samples labelled as 'cyprine' have been misidentified, although some specimens from Norway and Franklin, New Jersey, USA contain sufficient Cu#2+# in the appropriate site to be called cyprine by the current definition.

Classification of CyprineHide

Approval Year:
First Published:

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
B : Sorosilicates
G : Sorosilicates with mixed SiO4 and Si2O7 groups; cations in octahedral [6] and greater coordination

Pronounciation of CyprineHide

PlayRecorded byCountry
Jolyon & Katya RalphUnited Kingdom

Physical Properties of CyprineHide

Vitreous, Sub-Vitreous
Blue, bluish green, green, dark red with a lilac hue (type material),
Color on single crystals
Usually white to pale tints of the body color
6½ on Mohs scale
Irregular/Uneven, Splintery, Hackly, Sub-Conchoidal
3.40 g/cm3 (Measured)    3.41 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of CyprineHide

Isotropic (-)
RI values:
nω = 1.744() nε = 1.732(2)
Isotropic minerals have no birefringence
Surface Relief:
Ranging from O = dark purple, E = pale red to O = dark reddish brown, E = pale yellowish brown; O>>E.

Chemical Properties of CyprineHide

IMA Formula:

Crystallography of CyprineHide

Crystal System:
Class (H-M):
4/m - Dipyramidal
Space Group:
Cell Parameters:
a = 15.5652(5) Å, c = 11.7921(4) Å
a:c = 1 : 0.758
Unit Cell V:
2863.2 ų
Crystals up to 1 cm. Dominant forms: {100}, {110}, {001}, and {331}.

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Powder Diffraction Data:

Type Occurrence of CyprineHide

General Appearance of Type Material:
As chaotic aggregates (up to 5 cm across) in open cavities or embedded in coarse-grained colourless calcite.
Place of Conservation of Type Material:
Type material is deposited in the collections of the Mineralogical Museum of St. Petersburg State University, catalogue no. 1/19536.
Associated Minerals at Type Locality:

Synonyms of CyprineHide

Other Language Names for CyprineHide


Relationship of Cyprine to other SpeciesHide

Other Members of this group:
AlumovesuvianiteCa19Al(Al10Mg2)Si18O69(OH)9Tet. 4/m : P4/n
FluorvesuvianiteCa19(Al,Mg,Fe2+)13(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10O(F,OH)9Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m)
HongheiteCa19Fe2+Al4(Fe3+,Mg,Al)8(◻,B)4BSi18O69(O,OH)9Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P4/nnc
MagnesiovesuvianiteCa19Mg(Al10Mg2)(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH)10Tet. 4/m : P4/n
Manaevite-(Ce)Ca11(Ce,H2O,Ca)8Mg(Al,Fe)4(Mg,Ti,Fe3+)8[Si2O7]4[(SiO4)8(H4O4)2](OH)9Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P4/nnc
ManganvesuvianiteCa19Mn3+(Al,Mn3+,Fe3+)10(Mg,Mn2+)2(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10O(OH)9Tet. 4/m : P4/n
MilanriederiteCa19Fe3+Al4(Mg4Al4)Si18O67(OH)11Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P4/nnc
Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P4/nnc
WiluiteCa19(Al,Mg)13(B,☐,Al)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(O,OH)10Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P4/nnc

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

9.BG.05bAllanite-(Ce){CaCe}{Al2Fe2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)Mon. 2/m : P21/m
9.BG.05bAllanite-(La){CaLa}{Al2Fe2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)Mon. 2/m : P21/m
9.BG.05aClinozoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)Mon. 2/m : P21/m
9.BG.05bDissakisite-(Ce){CaCe}{Al2Mg}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)Mon. 2/m : P21/m
9.BG.05Dollaseite-(Ce){CaCe}{MgAlMg}(Si2O7)(SiO4)(OH)FMon. 2/m : P21/m
9.BG.05aEpidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)Mon. 2/m : P21/m
9.BG.05Khristovite-(Ce){CaCe}{MgAlMn2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)(OH)FMon. 2/m : P21/m
9.BG.05aPiemontite{Ca2}{Al2Mn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)Mon. 2/m : P21/m
9.BG.05Tweddillite{CaSr}{Mn3+AlMn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)Mon. 2/m : P21/m
9.BG.05bFerriallanite-(Ce){CaCe}{Fe3+AlFe2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)Mon. 2/m : P21/m
9.BG.05Niigataite{CaSr}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)Mon. 2/m
9.BG.05Manganiandrosite-(Ce){Mn2+Ce}{Mn3+AlMn2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)Mon. 2/m : P21/m
9.BG.05Dissakisite-(La){CaLa}{Al2Mg}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)Mon. 2/m : P21/m
9.BG.05Vanadoandrosite-(Ce){Mn2+Ce}{V3+AlMn2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)Mon. 2/m : P21/m
9.BG.05Uedaite-(Ce){Mn2+Ce}{Al2Fe2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)Mon. 2/m : P21/m
9.BG.05aEpidote-(Sr){CaSr}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)Mon. 2/m : P21/m
9.BG.05bAllanite-(Nd){CaNd}{Al2Fe2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)Mon. 2/m : P21/m
9.BG.05bFerriallanite-(La){CaLa}{Fe3+AlFe2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)Mon. 2/m : P21/m
9.BG.05bÅskagenite-(Nd){Mn2+Nd}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O2Mon. 2/m : P21/m
9.BG.10ZoisiteCa2Al3[Si2O7][SiO4]O(OH)Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
9.BG.15SursassiteMn2+2Al3(SiO4)(Si2O7)(OH)3Mon. 2/m : P21/m
9.BG.20Julgoldite-(Fe2+)Ca2Fe2+Fe3+2(Si2O7)(SiO4)(OH)2 · H2OMon.
9.BG.20OkhotskiteCa2(Mn,Mg)(Mn3+,Al,Fe3+)2(Si2O7)(SiO4)(OH)2 · H2OMon.
9.BG.20Pumpellyite-(Fe2+)Ca2Fe2+Al2(Si2O7)(SiO4)(OH)2 · H2OMon.
9.BG.20Pumpellyite-(Fe3+)Ca2(Fe3+,Mg)(Al,Fe3+)2(Si2O7)(SiO4)(OH,O)2 · H2OMon.
9.BG.20Pumpellyite-(Mg)Ca2MgAl2(Si2O7)(SiO4)(OH)2 · H2OMon.
9.BG.20Pumpellyite-(Mn2+)Ca2Mn2+Al2(Si2O7)(SiO4)(OH)2 · H2OMon.
9.BG.20ShuiskiteCa2MgCr2(Si2O7)(SiO4)(OH)2 · 2H2OMon.
9.BG.20Julgoldite-(Fe3+)Ca2Fe3+Fe3+2(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH) · H2OMon.
9.BG.20Pumpellyite-(Al)Ca2Al3(Si2O7)(SiO4)(OH,O)2 · H2OMon.
9.BG.20PoppiiteCa2(V3+,Fe3+,Mg)(V3+,Al)2(Si2O7)(SiO4)(OH,O)2 · H2OMon. 2/m : B2/m
9.BG.20Julgoldite-(Mg)Ca2MgFe3+2(Si2O7)(SiO4)(OH)2 · H2OMon.
9.BG.35Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P4/nnc
9.BG.35WiluiteCa19(Al,Mg)13(B,☐,Al)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(O,OH)10Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P4/nnc
9.BG.35ManganvesuvianiteCa19Mn3+(Al,Mn3+,Fe3+)10(Mg,Mn2+)2(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10O(OH)9Tet. 4/m : P4/n
9.BG.35FluorvesuvianiteCa19(Al,Mg,Fe2+)13(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10O(F,OH)9Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m)
9.BG.50Gatelite-(Ce)CaCe3Al2(Al,Mg)(Mg,Fe2+,Al)(Si2O7)(SiO4)3(O,F)(OH,O)2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
9.BG.55Västmanlandite-(Ce)Ce3CaMg2Al2Si2O15(OH)2FMon. 2/m : P21/m

Fluorescence of CyprineHide

Not fluorescent in UV

Other InformationHide

IR Spectrum:
Absorption bands in the IR spectrum are 443, 490, 574, 604, 671, 814, 905, 972, 1015, 3354, 3640cm-1.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for CyprineHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Berzelius, Jöns Jakob (1820): Om blåsrörets Användande i Kemien och Mineralogien. 302pp., p. 257.
Berzelius, Jöns Jakob (1821): Die Anwendung des Löthrohrs in der Chemie und Mineralogie. p. 263.
Fitzgerald, S., Rheingold, A.L., and Leavens, P. B. (1986): Crystal structure of a Cu-bearing vesuvianite. American Mineralogist. 71: 1011-1014.
Panikorovskii,T.L.,Shilovskikh,V.V., Avdontseva, E.Y., Zolotarev, A.A., Pekov, I.V., Britvin, S.N. and Krivovichev, S.V. (2015) Cyprine, IMA 2015-044. CNMNC Newsletter No. 27, October 2015, page 1228; Mineralogical Magazine, 79, 1229–1236.
Panikorovskii, T.L., Shilovskikh, V.V., Avdontseva, E.Yu., Zolotarev, A.A., Pekov, I.V., Britvin, S.N., Krivovichev, S.V. (2017): Cyprine, Ca19Cu2+(Al,Mg,Mn)12Si18O68(OH)10, a new vesuvianite-group mineral from the Wessels mine, South Africa. European Journal of Mineralogy, 29, 295-306.

Internet Links for CyprineHide

Localities for CyprineHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
  • Aust-Agder
    • Valle
Kjerulf, Th. (1879): Udsigt over det sydlige Norges Geologi. Christania 1879, p 249
  • Buskerud
    • Drammen
      • Konnerud
Anonymous: (1983): Jensen-skjerpene ( P4-16). DG-nytt [A local magazine for the Drammen geological society, Norway] nr 5, 1983, p.14.
  • Telemark
    • Hjartdal
Ohkawa et al. (1992), Amer. Mineral. 77, 945-953. 1.01% CuO, 0.37 Cu p.f.u, Cu > Mg in Y.
        • Kleppan
Berzelius, Jöns Jakob (1820) Om blåsrörets Användande i Kemien och Mineralogien. 302pp., p. 257; Neumann, H. & Svinndal, S. (1955) The Cyprin-Thulite deposit at Øvstebø, near Kleppan in Sauland, Telemark, Norway. Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift 34, 139-156.
    • Notodden
      • Heddal
Larsen, K.E. (2016): Noen funn av mineraler i Norge 2015-2016. Norsk Mineralsymposium 2016: 127-135
    • Tokke
Jan Andersen photo & specimen
South Africa (TL)
  • Northern Cape
    • Kalahari manganese field
      • Hotazel
Panikorovskii,T.L.,Shilovskikh,V.V., Avdontseva, E.Y., Zolotarev, A.A., Pekov, I.V., Britvin, S.N. and Krivovichev, S.V. (2015) Cyprine, IMA 2015-044. CNMNC Newsletter No. 27, October 2015, page 1228; Mineralogical Magazine, 79, 1229–1236.; Panikorovskii, T.L., Shilovskikh, V.V., Avdontseva, E.Yu., Zolotarev, A.A., Pekov, I.V., Britvin, S.N., Krivovichev, S.V. (2017): Cyprine, Ca19Cu2+(Al,Mg,Mn)12Si18O68(OH)10, a new vesuvianite-group mineral from the Wessels mine, South Africa. European Journal of Mineralogy, 29, 295-306.
  • Värmland County
    • Filipstad
      • Nordmark district
        • Jakobsberg ore field
Kjell Gatedal
  • New Jersey
    • Sussex Co.
      • Franklin Mining District
        • Franklin
Palache, C. (1935): The Minerals of Franklin and Sterling Hill, Sussex County, New Jersey, U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 180, 135pp., with map 94-95; Dunn(1995): Pt3: 423-424.; Fitzgerald et al. (1986), Amer. Mineral. 71, 1011-1014.
  • New Mexico
    • Taos Co.
      • Glenwoody District
Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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