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Carbonatite

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About CarbonatiteHide

An igneous rock containing more than 50% modal primary carbonate.

A carbonate rock of apparent magmatic origin, generally associated with kimberlites and alkalic rocks. Carbonatites have been variously explained as derived from magmatic melt, solid flow, hydrothermal solution, and gaseous transfer.


Classification of CarbonatiteHide

Classification of carbonatites with SiO2 < 20%

Sub-divisions of CarbonatiteHide

Mineralogy of CarbonatiteHide

Non-essential minerals - these minerals are common, sometimes major components, but are not always present:
AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
CalciteCaCO3
DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Gregoryite(Na2,K2,Ca)CO3
NyerereiteNa2Ca(CO3)2
SideriteFeCO3

Internet Links for CarbonatiteHide

mindat.org URL:
https://www.mindat.org/min-48019.html
Please feel free to link to this page.

Localities for CarbonatiteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Angola
 
  • Huíla Province
ZHENG, L., GU, X., & ZHANG, Y. (2014). Pyrochlore Chemistry from the Bonga Carbonatite-type Nb Deposit, Huila Province, Angola: Implications for Magmatic-Hydrothermal Processes of Carbonatite. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 40, 205-226.
Australia
 
  • Western Australia
    • Halls Creek Shire
      • Lamboo Station
        • Mount Dockrell pegmatites (Mount Dockerell)
[Dolomite-carbonatite] Downes, P. J., Dunkley, D. J., Fletcher, I. R., McNaughton, N. J., Rasmussen, B., Jaques, A. L., ... & Sweetapple, M. T. (2016). Zirconolite, zircon and monazite-(Ce) U-Th-Pb age constraints on the emplacement, deformation and alteration history of the Cummins Range Carbonatite Complex, Halls Creek Orogen, Kimberley region, Western Australia. Mineralogy and Petrology, 110(2-3), 199-222.
    • Laverton Shire
      • Mount Weld Station
Fetherston, J.M. (2004), Tantalum in Western Australia, Mineral Resources Bulletin 22, GSWA, 02 April 2004
Bolivia
 
  • Cochabamba
    • Ayopaya Province
[Ferrocarbonatite] Federico Ahlfeld
      • Independencia
[Ferrocarbonatite] Field observations by Dr Jaroslav Hyrsl and Alfredo Petrov.
Brazil
 
  • Bahia
    • Campo Alegre de Lourdes
Automatically generated from locality name
  • Goiás
Automatically generated from locality name
Automatically generated from locality name; Bilal, E., De Mello, F. M., Soubiès, F., & Bounakhla, M. (2012). REE minerals in Catalão II, Goias, Brazil. Romanian Journal of Mineral Deposits, 85(1), 14-18.
  • Minas Gerais
    • Poços de Caldas alkaline complex
      • Caldas
        • Campo do Cercado
Waber, N., Schorscher, H. D., & Peters, T. (1992). Hydrothermal and supergene uranium mineralization at the Osamu Utsumi mine, Poços de Caldas, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 45(1-3), 53-112.
    • Serra do Salitre
Automatically generated from locality name
  • Paraná
    • Cerro Azul
Automatically generated from locality name
  • Rio Grande do Sul
    • Lavras do Sul
https://mining-atlas.com/project/Tres-Estradas-Phosphate-Mine-Project.php
  • São Paulo
    • Cajati
Melcher, G. C. (1965). O carbonatito de Jacupiranga. Boletim da Faculdade de Filosofia Ciências e Letras, Universidade de São Paulo. Geologia, (21), 5-70.
    • Itapirapuã Paulista
Automatically generated from locality name
    • Registro
Automatically generated from locality name
Burundi
 
  • Kayanza Province
    • Matongo
http://www.portergeo.com.au/database/mineinfo.asp?mineid=mn1523
Canada
 
  • British Columbia
    • Kamloops Mining Division
      • Blue River carbonatites
Automatically generated from locality name
Automatically generated from locality name
Automatically generated from locality name
    • Omenica Mining Division
      • Wicheeda Lake
Automatically generated from locality name
  • Northwest Territories
    • Mazenod Lake District
Orris, G. J., & Grauch, R. I. (2002). Rare earth element mines, deposits and occurrences (Open file report 2-189). US Department of the Interior, US Geological Survey.
    • Yellowknife Pegmatite field
Northern Mineral Showings Database, NWT Geoscience Office.
  • Ontario
    • Algoma District
      • McMurray Township
Automatically generated from locality name
    • Cochrane District
      • Moosonee Town
Automatically generated from locality name
      • South of Ridge Lake Area
Automatically generated from locality name
    • Kenora District
      • Carb Lake Area
Automatically generated from locality name
    • Nipissing District
      • Strathcona Township
Automatically generated from locality name
    • Sudbury District
      • Lackner Township
Automatically generated from locality name
    • Thunder Bay District
      • Killala Lake Area
Automatically generated from locality name
      • O'Meara Township
Automatically generated from locality name
  • Québec
    • Laurentides
      • Argenteuil RCM
Automatically generated from locality name
      • Deux-Montagnes RCM
        • Oka
Chen, W., Kamenetsky, V. S., & Simonetti, A. (2013). Evidence for the alkaline nature of parental carbonatite melts at Oka complex in Canada. Nature communications, 4, ncomms3687.
    • Nord-du-Québec
Automatically generated from locality name
      • Nunavik
Automatically generated from locality name
    • Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean
      • Le Fjord-du-Saguenay RCM
        • Saint-Honoré
Automatically generated from locality name
China
 
  • Hubei
    • Shennongjia Forest District
Automatically generated from locality name
    • Shiyan
      • Zhushan Co.
Automatically generated from locality name
  • Shandong
    • Laiwu
      • Gangcheng District
Automatically generated from locality name
  • Sichuan
    • Liangshan
      • Dechang Co.
Liu, Y., Zhu, Z., Chen, C., Zhang, S., Sun, X., Yang, Z., & Liang, W. (2015). Geochemical and mineralogical characteristics of weathered ore in the Dalucao REE deposit, Mianning–Dechang REE Belt, western Sichuan Province, southwestern China. Ore Geology Reviews, 71, 437-456.
  • Xinjiang
    • Akesu Prefecture (Aksu Prefecture; Aqsu Prefecture)
      • Baicheng Co. (Bay Co.)
Automatically generated from locality name
Democratic Republic of the Congo
 
  • Nord-Kivu
Automatically generated from locality name
Denmark
 
  • Greenland
    • Qeqqata
      • Isortoq Fjord (Søndre Isortoq)
        • Sarfartoq region
Automatically generated from locality name
      • Maniitsoq (Sukkertoppen)
        • Qaqqaarsuk (Qaqarssuk)
Automatically generated from locality name
Finland
 
  • Lapland
    • Savukoski
      • Tulppio
Automatically generated from locality name
Germany
 
  • Saxony
    • Nordsachsen
      • Storkwitz
Automatically generated from locality name
India
 
  • Gujarat
Viladkar, S. G. (2015). Mineralogy and geochemistry of fenitized nephelinites of the Amba Dongar complex, Gujarat. Journal of the Geological Society of India, 85(1), 87-97.
  • Tamil Nadu
    • Teni District
Automatically generated from locality name
  • Telangana
    • Khammam District
Rao, Y. J., & Murthy, I. S. N. (1973). On the occurrence of carbonatites in the Vinayakapuram-Kunavaram Nepheline syenite band, Khammam district, Andhra Pradesh. Geological Society of India, 14(4), 431-433.
  • West Bengal
    • Purulia District
      • Beldih village
Automatically generated from locality name
Italy
 
  • Umbria
    • Perugia Province
      • Spoleto
Wheeler, S., Spigarelli, S., Stoppa, F., & Rinaldi, R. (1996). Secondary minerals from the igneous complex of Colle Fabbri, Spoleto (PG). Plinius, 16(2), 1.
Kazakhstan
 
  • North Kazakhstan Region
    • Aiyrtau
Kogaro et al (1995) Alkaline Rocks and Carbonatites of the World Part 2: USSR
Kenya
 
  • Homa Bay County
Onuonga, I.O., Bowden, P. (2000) Hot-spring and supergene lanthanide mineralization at the Buru carbonatite centre, Western Kenya. Mineralogical magazine, 64:4, 663-673. ; Woolley, A. R. (1987). Alkaline rocks and carbonatites of the world: Africa. Geological Society of London.
Automatically generated from locality name
Rosatelli, G., Wall, F., Le Bas, M.J. (2003) Potassic glass and calcite carbonatite in lapilli from extrusive carbonatites at Rangwa Caldera Complex, Kenya. Mineralogical Magazine, 67:5, 931-955.
  • Kwale County
Coetzee, G.L., Edwards, C.B. (1959) The Mrima Hill Carbonatite, Coast Province, Kenya. South African Journal of Geology, 62:1, 373-397.
Kyrgyzstan
 
  • Osh Region
    • Zeravshan range
Vrublevskii, V. V., Morova, A. A., Bukharova, O. V., & Konovalenko, S. I. (2017). Mineralogy and Geochemistry of Triassic Carbonatites in the Matcha Alkaline Intrusive Complex (Turkestan-Alai Ridge, Kyrgyz Southern Tien Shan), SW Central Asian Orogenic Belt. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences.
Malawi
 
  • Southern Region
    • Phalombe
Sam Broom-Fendley, Aoife E. Brady, Frances Wall, Gus Gunn, William Dawes (2017): REE minerals at the Songwe Hill carbonatite, Malawi: HREE-enrichment in late-stage apatite. Ore Geology Reviews, 81, 23-41.
Mongolia
 
  • Ömnögovi Aimag
    • Shara Hulasa Hiid
Automatically generated from locality name
Mozambique
 
  • Nampula Province
[Calcite-carbonatite] Hurai, V., Paquette, J. L., Huraiová, M., Slobodník, M., Hvožďara, P., Siegfried, P., ... & Milovská, S. (2017). New insights into the origin of the Evate apatite-iron oxide-carbonate deposit, Northeastern Mozambique, constrained by mineralogy, textures, thermochronometry, and fluid inclusions. Ore Geology Reviews, 80, 1072-1091.
Namibia
 
  • Kunene Region
    • Epupa
      • Swartbooisdrif
Automatically generated from locality name
Norway
 
  • Buskerud
    • Nore og Uvdal
[Rødberg] Automatically generated from locality name
  • Finnmark
    • Hasvik
      • Sørøya
Roberts, R.J., Corfu,F., Torsvik, T.H., Hetherington, T. J. and L.D. Ashwal (2010) Age of alkaline rocks in the Seiland Igneous Province, Northern Norway. Journal of the Geological Society: 167: 71-81
  • Svalbard
    • Bear Island
[Dolomite-carbonatite] Flood, B. (1967) Sulphide mineralization within the Hecla Hoek Complex in Westspitsbergen and Bjørnøya. Norsk Polarinstitutt. Årbok 1967: 109-129.
  • Telemark
    • Nome
      • Fen Complex
[Ferrocarbonatite] Andersen, T. (1986): Compositional variation of some rare earth minerals from the Fen complex (Telemark, SE Norway): implications for the mobility of rare earths in a carbonatite system. Mineralogical Magazine. 50: 503-509
[Søvite] Mitchell, R.H. (1980): Pyroxenes of the Fen alkaline complex, Norway. American Mineralogist. 65: 45-54
        • Søve Mines
[Søvite] Adamson, O. J. (1950) Report on the Columbium occurrence of the Fen region near Ulefoss i Southern Norway. Norges geologiske undersøkelse. Bergarkivet. BA 1343. 34p [p. 8-9]
[Søvite] Adamson, O. J. (1950) Report on the Columbium occurrence of the Fen region near Ulefoss i Southern Norway. Norges geologiske undersøkelse. Bergarkivet. BA 1343. 34p [p. 9-11]
Pakistan
 
  • Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA)
    • Khyber Agency
Automatically generated from locality name
Russia
 
  • Buryatia
    • Mama River Basin
      • Maigunda River
Vladykin, N. V., & Sotnikova, I. A. (2017). Petrology, geochemistry and source characteristics of the Burpala alkaline massif, North Baikal. Geoscience Frontiers, 8(4), 711-719.
  • Chelyabinsk Oblast
    • Ilmen Mts
      • Ilmen Natural Reserve
Jambor, J.L. and Roberts, A.C. (2002) New mineral names. American Mineralogist: 87: 765-768.
  • Irkutsk Oblast
L. Kogarko (1995) Alkaline Rocks and Carbonatites of the World: Part Two: Former USSR
Rasskazov, S. V., Il’yasova, A. M., Konev, A. A., Yasnygina, T. A., Maslovskaya, M. N., Fefelov, N. N., ... & Saranina, E. V. (2007). Geochemical evolution of the Zadoi Alkaline-Ultramafic Massif, Cis-Sayan area, southern Siberia. Geochemistry International, 45(1), 1-14.
  • Krasnoyarsk Krai
    • Maimecha and Kotui Rivers Basin
Badanina, I. Y., & Malitch, K. N. (2011). Origin of platinum-group mineral (PGM) nuggets from the Bor-Uryakh massif (Maimecha-Kotui Province, Russia): evidence from mineral composition. Geophysical Research Abstracts Vol. 13, EGU2011-7934
      • Gulinskii massif (Guli)
Automatically generated from locality name
Automatically generated from locality name
  • Murmansk Oblast
[Siderite carbonatite] Kogarko et al. (1995) Alkaline Rocks and Carbonatites of the World, Part 2 Former USSR
Automatically generated from locality name
    • Kovdor Massif
Jambor, J.L. and Roberts, A.C. (2001) New mineral names. American Mineralogist: 86: 197-200.; Yakovenchuk, V.N., Ivanyuk, G.Yu., Pakhomovsky, Ya.A., Panikorovskii, T.L., Britvin, S.N., Krivovichev, S.V., Shilovskikh, V.V., Bocharov, V.N. (2018): Kampelite, Ba3Mg1.5Sc4(PO4)6(OH)3·4H2O, a new very complex Ba-Sc phosphate mineral from the Kovdor phoscorite-carbonatite complex (Kola Peninsula, Russia. Mineralogy and Petrology: 112: 111–121
Mikhailova, J. A., Kalashnikov, A. O., Sokharev, V. A., Pakhomovsky, Y. A., Konopleva, N. G., Yakovenchuk, V. N., ... & Ivanyuk, G. Y. (2016). 3D mineralogical mapping of the Kovdor phoscorite–carbonatite complex (Russia). Mineralium Deposita, 51(1), 131-149.
    • Northern Karelia
Sokolov, S. V. (2014). Portlandite in rocks of carbonatite massifs. Geochemistry International, 52(8), 698-701.
[Calcite-carbonatite] Kalashnikov, A. O., Konopleva, N. G., Pakhomovsky, Y. A., & Ivanyuk, G. Y. (2016). Rare Earth Deposits of the Murmansk Region, Russia—A Review. Economic Geology, 111(7), 1529-1559.
[Calcite-carbonatite] Kukharenko et aI., 1965; Kononova and Shanin, 1971; Orlova, 1959.
Kogarko, L.N. et al (1995) Alkaline Rocks and Carbonatites of the World Vol 2.
  • Republic of Karelia
https://www.researchgate.net/figure/Alkaline-complexes-and-carbonatites-in-Kola-peninsula-northern-Russian-Karelia-and_fig1_225412232
  • Sakha Republic (Yakutia)
    • Aldan Shield
      • Eastern Aldan
[Calcite-carbonatite] Shadenkov, Y. M. (1989). Metasomatic assemblages in wall rocks of the Ingili pluton, eastern Aldan. International Geology Review, 31(7), 697-706.
Automatically generated from locality name; Nokleberg, W.J., Bundtzen, T.K., Dawson, K.M., Eremin R.A., Goryachev, N.A., Koch R.D., Ratkin, V.V., Rozenblum, I.S., Shpikerman, V.I., Frolov, Y.F., Gorodinsky, M.E., Melnikov, V.D., Diggles, M.F., Ognyanov, N.V., Petrachenko, E.D., Petrachenko, R.I., Pozdeev, A.I., Ross, K.V., Wood, D.H., Grybeck, Donald, Khanchuk, A.I., Kovbas, L.I., Nekrasov, I.Ya., and Sidorov, A.A., 1997, Significant metalliferous and selected non-metalliferous lode deposits and placer districts for the Russian Far East, Alaska, and the Canadian Cordillera: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 96-513-B
  • Tuva
    • Kurtushibinsky Range
Automatically generated from locality name
South Africa
 
  • Eastern Cape Province
    • Alfred Nzo District
Automatically generated from locality name
  • Free State Province
    • Thabo Mofutsanyane District
      • Clocolan
Kamenetsky, V. S., Belousova, E. A., Giuliani, A., Kamenetsky, M. B., Goemann, K., & Griffin, W. L. (2014). Chemical abrasion of zircon and ilmenite megacrysts in the Monastery kimberlite: Implications for the composition of kimberlite melts. Chemical Geology, 383, 76-85.
  • Limpopo Province
    • Bushveld Complex
      • Waterberg District
        • Thabazimbi
Automatically generated from locality name
    • Eastern Bushveld Complex
Automatically generated from locality name
  • North West Province
    • Bojanala Platinum District
      • Western Bushveld Complex
        • Pilanesberg Alkaline Complex
[Søvite] Clarke, L. B. (1989). The Geology of the Kruidfontein Volcanic Complex Transvaal. S. Africa (Doctoral dissertation, University of Leicester).
    • Ngaka Modiri Molema District
Automatically generated from locality name
  • Northern Cape Province
    • Pixley ka Seme District
      • Prieska
Automatically generated from locality name
Spain
 
  • Canary Islands
    • Las Palmas Province
      • Fuerteventura
        • Fuerteventura basal complex
Automatically generated from locality name
Tajikistan
 
  • Viloyati Mukhtori Gorno-Badakhshan (Viloyati Badakhshoni Kuni)
    • Pamir Mts
Solovova, I. P., Girnis, A. V., Ryabchikov, I. D., & Simakin, S. G. (2006, October). High-temperature carbonatite melt and its interrelations with alkaline magmas of the Dunkel’dyk complex, southeastern Pamirs. In Doklady earth sciences (Vol. 410, No. 1, pp. 1148-1151). MAIK Nauka/Interperiodica.
Tanzania
 
  • Arusha Region
[Natrocarbonatite] Jago, B. C., & Gittins, J. (1999). Mn-and F-bearing rasvumite in natrocarbonatite at Oldoinyo Lengai volcano, Tanzania. Mineralogical Magazine, 63(1), 53-55.
  • Mbeya Region
    • Mbeya
[Calcite-carbonatite] Mgonde, F. (1994). Mobilization and Redistribution of Phosphate and Rare Earth Elements in the Weathering Zone above Panda Hill Carbonatite, SW Tanzania (Doctoral dissertation, Carleton University Ottawa).
Ukraine
 
  • Donetsk Oblast
    • Azov Sea Region
      • Oktyabr'skii Massif (Mariupol'skii)
Automatically generated from locality name
United Arab Emirates
 
  • Fujayrah Emirate (Fujairah)
Automatically generated from locality name
USA
 
  • Arkansas
    • Hot Spring Co.
      • Magnet Cove
U.S. Geological Survey, (2005) Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
  • California
    • San Bernardino Co.
      • Clark Mts (Clark Mountain Range)
        • Mountain Pass District
          • Mountain Pass
Jones, A.P. and Wyllie, P.J. (1983) Low temperature glass quenched from a synthetic rare earth carbonatite: implications for the origin of the Mountain Pass deposit, California. Economic Geology: 78: 1721-1723.
  • Colorado
    • Fremont Co.
U.S. Geological Survey, (2005) Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
      • Iron Mountain complex
        • McClure Mountain
U.S. Geological Survey, (2005) Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
U.S. Geological Survey, (2005) Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
      • McClure Mountain Complex
U.S. Geological Survey, (2005) Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
U.S. Geological Survey, (2005) Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
U.S. Geological Survey, (2005) Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
      • Road Gulch
U.S. Geological Survey, (2005) Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    • Gunnison Co.
      • White Earth District (Powderhorn District)
U.S. Geological Survey, (2005) Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
  • Nebraska
    • Johnson Co.
      • Elk Creek
U.S. Geological Survey, (2005) Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Vietnam
 
  • Lai Chau Province
    • Phong Tho District
Automatically generated from locality name
      • Mt Fansipan
        • Nâm Nâm Xe REE deposit
Automatically generated from locality name
Automatically generated from locality name
Automatically generated from locality name
Zambia
 
  • Northern Province
    • Muchinga Mts.
      • Isoka District
        • Isoka
Automatically generated from locality name
Zimbabwe
 
  • Manicaland
    • Buhera District
      • Shawa complex
        • Dorowa
Meck, M. L., Atlhopheng, J., Masamba, W. R. L., Ringrose, S., & Diskin, S. (2011). Minerals that host metals at Dorowa rock phosphate mine, Zimbabwe. Open Mineralogy Journal, 5, 1-9.
  • Matabeleland North
    • Hwange District
      • Deka
Automatically generated from locality name
Automatically generated from locality name
Mineral and/or Locality  
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