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About Braunite-IIHide

Crystal System:
Member of:
For the close relation to braunite.
Has a doubled cell parameter c by comparison to braunite.

Classification of Braunite-IIHide

Unnamed (probably valid)
Approval History:
Unnamed, but probably valid.

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
A : Nesosilicates
G : Nesosilicates with additional anions; cations in > [6] +- [6] coordination

5 : (AB)2X3

Physical Properties of Braunite-IIHide

yellow-brown in reflected light
Hardness Data:

Chemical Properties of Braunite-IIHide


Crystallography of Braunite-IIHide

Crystal System:
Class (H-M):
4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) - Ditetragonal Dipyramidal
Space Group:
Cell Parameters:
a = 9.431 Å, c = 37.774 Å
a:c = 1 : 4.005
Unit Cell V:
3359.76 ų

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Powder Diffraction Data:
3.68 (40)
2.72 (100)
2.35 (60)
1.996 (20)
1.666 (90)
1.423 (70)
1.081 (30)
1.052 (20)

First Recorded Occurrence of Braunite-IIHide

Relationship of Braunite-II to other SpeciesHide

Member of:
Other Members of this group:
AbswurmbachiteCuMn3+6(SiO4)O8Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/acd
BrauniteMn2+Mn3+6(SiO4)O8Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/acd
GatedaliteZrMn2+2Mn3+4SiO12Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/acd
NeltneriteCaMn3+6(SiO4)O8Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/acd

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Hausmannite4 photos of Braunite-II associated with Hausmannite on
Andradite4 photos of Braunite-II associated with Andradite on

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

9.AG.EdgrewiteCa9(SiO4)4F2 Mon. 2/m : P21/b
9.AG.05AbswurmbachiteCuMn3+6(SiO4)O8Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/acd
9.AG.05BrauniteMn2+Mn3+6(SiO4)O8Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/acd
9.AG.05NeltneriteCaMn3+6(SiO4)O8Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/acd
9.AG.10LångbaniteMn2+4Mn3+9Sb5+O16(SiO4)2Trig. 3m : P3m1
9.AG.15TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)OMon. 2/m : P21/b
9.AG.15Natrotitanite(Na0.5Y0.5)Ti(SiO4)OMon. 2/m : B2/b
9.AG.15ŻabińskiiteCa[Al0.5(Ta,Nb)0.5)](SiO4)OTric. 1
9.AG.20Cerite-(Ce)(Ce,Ca)9(Mg,Fe)(SiO4)3(HSiO4)4(OH)3Trig. 3m : R3c
9.AG.20Cerite-(La)(La,Ce,Ca)9(Fe,Ca,Mg)(SiO4)3(HSiO4)4(OH)3Trig. 3m : R3c
9.AG.20Aluminocerite-(Ce)(Ce,La,Ca)9(Al,Fe3+)(SiO4)3(HSiO4)4(OH)3Trig. 3m : R3c
9.AG.25Mieite-(Y)Y4Ti(SiO4)2O[F,(OH)]6Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Cmcm
9.AG.30SitinakiteKNa2Ti4(SiO4)2O5(OH) · 4H2OTet.
9.AG.35KittatinnyiteCa2Mn2Mn(SiO4)2(OH)4 · 9H2OHex.
9.AG.55ChantaliteCaAl2(SiO4)(OH)4Tet. 4/m : I41/a
9.AG.60MozartiteCaMn3+(SiO4)(OH)Orth. 2 2 2 : P21 21 21
9.AG.70JasmunditeCa11(SiO4)4O2STet. 4 2m : I4m2
9.AG.75AfwilliteCa3(HSiO4)2 · 2H2OMon. m : Bb
9.AG.80BultfonteiniteCa2(HSiO4)F · H2OTric.
9.AG.85ZoltaiiteBaV4+2V3+12(SiO4)2O19Trig. 3 : P3

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/acd 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/acd 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/acd

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Braunite-IIHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
de Villiers, P.R. & Herbstein, F.H. (1967): Distinction between two members of the braunite group, American Mineralogist 52, 20-30.
Moore, P.B., Araki, T. (1976): Braunite: its structure and relationship to bixbyite, and some insights on the genealogy of fluorite derivative structures. American Mineralogist 61, 1226-1240.
de Villiers, J.P.R. (1980): The crystal structure of braunite II and its relation to bixbyite and braunite. American Mineralogist 65, 756-765.
Baudracco-Gritti, C. (1985): Substitution du manganese bivalent par du calcium dans les minéraux du groupe: braunite, neltnerite, braunite II. Bulletin de Minéralogie 108, 437-xx. [Amer. Mineral. 71 (1986) 1543: abstract and discussion]
de Villiers, J.P. & Buseck, P.R. (1989): Stacking variations and nonstoichiometry in the bixbyite-braunite polysomatic mineral group. American Mineralogist 74, 1325-1336.
Bevan, D.J.M. & Martin, R.L. (2008): The role of the coordination defect: A new structural description of four fluorite-related sesquioxide minerals, bixbyite, braunite, braunite II, parwelite, and their structural relationships. Journal of Solid State Chemistry 181, 2250-2259.

Internet Links for Braunite-IIHide

Localities for Braunite-IIHide

ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
  • Drâa-Tafilalet Region
    • Ouarzazate Province
FAVREAU G. & DIETRICH J.E. (2006) Tachgagalt (Maroc), Le Cahier des Micromonteurs, 93, 37-71.
South Africa (FRL)
  • Northern Cape Province
    • Kalahari manganese field
      • Black Rock
American Mineralogist (1967): 52, 20-30; Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) The Kalahari manganese field: An Update, Mineralogical Record 22(4) pp 282; Cairncross, B. and Dixon, R., (1995) Minerals of South Africa. The Geological Society of South Africa: pp 190; Cairncross, B., and Beukes, N. J., (2013) The Kalahari Manganese Field, the adventure continues. Struik Nature Publishers, Cape Town, South Africa, pp 156.
      • Hotazel
Cairncross, B., Beukes, N. and Gutzmer, J. (1997): The manganese adventure – the South African manganese fields. Associated Ore & Metal Corporation Limited, Johannesburg, Republic of South Africa, 128 pp.; Beukes, N. J., Burger, A. M., & Gutzmer, J. (1995). Fault-controlled hydrothermal alteration of Palaeoproterozoic manganese ore in Wessels Mine, Kalahari manganese field. South African Journal of Geology, 98(4), 430-451.
      • Kuruman
        • N'Chwaning Mines
De Villiers, J.E. (1945b). Some minerals occurring in South African manganese deposits. Transactions of the Geological Society of South Africa, 48, 17–25. De Villiers, P.R. and Herbstein, F.H. (1967). Distinction between two members of the braunite group. American Mineralogist, 52, 20–30. De Villiers, P.R. (1970). The geology and mineralogy of the Kalahari manganese-field north of Sishen, Cape Province. Memoir of the Geological Survey of South Africa, No. 59, 84 pages. De Villiers, J.P.R. (1980). The crystal structure of braunite II and its relation to bixbyite and braunite. American Mineralogist, 65, 756–765. De Villiers, J.P.R. (1989). Stacking variations and nonstoichiometry in the bixbyite-braunite polysomatic mineral group. American Mineralogist, 74, 1325–1336. Cairncross, B., Beukes, N. and Gutzmer, J. (1997): The manganese adventure – the South African manganese fields. Associated Ore & Metal Corporation Limited, Johannesburg, Republic of South Africa, 236 pp. Cairncross, B. and Beukes, N.J. (2013). The Kalahari Manganese Field: the adventure continues. Struik Nature, Cape Town, South Africa, 384 pages.
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