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Bakerite

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Richard Charles Baker
Formula:
Ca4(H5B5Si3O20)
Colour:
Colourless, White
Lustre:
Vitreous, Dull
Hardness:
Specific Gravity:
2.88
Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Name:
Named in 1903 by William Brantingham Giles in honor of Richard Charles Baker (1858 Islington, London, England, UK - 1937 California, USA), who discovered the species, then president of the Borax Consolidated Company (formerly the Borax Company Limited) of San Bernardino County, California, USA, and for whom Baker, California, USA is also named. (Earlier, Richard C. Baker was also president of the Pacific Coast Borax Company, a company probably related to his later business interests.)
Gadolinite-Datolite Group. Discredited (IMA 2016-A proposal).

The structure of Bakerite is closely related to that of Datolite. Both minerals contain sheets of four- and eight-membered rings of corner-sharing (HBO4) and (SiO4) tetrahedra, classifying them as phyllo-borosilicates. In Datolite, (HBO4) and (SiO4) are alternating, whereas in Bakerite, one fourth of the (SiO4) tetrahedra is replaced by (HBO4), leading to a net formula of the anion of (H5Bi5Si3O20)n with (H5Bi5Si3O20) as the repeating unit. There is no evidence for even a partial subsitution of (SiO4) with (HBO4) in Datolite, thus making Bakerite a distinct species (Perchiazzi et al., 2004). Note that we are using a sum formula for the anion. It may also be written as (B5Si3O15(OH)5), indicating that the five protons are bonded to oxygen atoms.

Compare also the closely related Shimazakiite.


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Classification of BakeriteHide

Discredited
Approval History:
Discredited: IMA 16-A
9.AJ.20

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
A : Nesosilicates
J : Nesosilicates with BO3 triangles and/or B[4], Be[4] tetrahedra, cornersharing with SiO4
54.2.1b.1

54 : NESOSILICATES Borosilicates and Some Beryllosilicates
2 : Borosilicates and Some Beryllosilicates with B in [4] coordination
17.5.13

17 : Silicates Containing other Anions
5 : Borosilicates

Physical Properties of BakeriteHide

Vitreous, Dull
Transparency:
Translucent
Colour:
Colourless, White
Hardness:
4½ on Mohs scale
Density:
2.88 g/cm3 (Measured)    2.94 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of BakeriteHide

Type:
Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 1.624 nβ = 1.635 nγ = 1.654
2V:
Measured: 87° to 88°
Birefringence:
Moderate
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.030
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Moderate
Dispersion:
weak

Chemical Properties of BakeriteHide

Formula:
Ca4(H5B5Si3O20)

Crystallography of BakeriteHide

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:
P21/b
Cell Parameters:
a = 4.85 Å, b = 7.627 Å, c = 9.659 Å
β = 90.255°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.636 : 1 : 1.266
Unit Cell V:
357.29 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
1
Morphology:
Dense and microcrystalline, resembling unglazed porcelain. Nodules and veins. Stout rhombic prisms

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

First Recorded Occurrence of BakeriteHide

Other Language Names for BakeriteHide

German:Bakerit
Spanish:Bakerita

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Natrolite1 photo of Bakerite associated with Natrolite on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

9.AJ.05Grandidierite(Mg,Fe2+)(Al,Fe3+)3(SiO4)(BO3)O2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
9.AJ.05Ominelite(Fe2+,Mg)(Al,Fe3+)3(SiO4)(BO3)O2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
9.AJ.10Dumortierite(Al,Fe3+)7(SiO4)3(BO3)O3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
9.AJ.10Holtite(Ta0.60.4)Al6BSi3O18(O,OH)2.25Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
9.AJ.10Magnesiodumortierite(Mg,Ti,◻(Al,Mg)2Al4Si3O18-y(OH)yB y = 2-3Orth.
9.AJ.15GarrelsiteBa3NaSi2B7O16(OH)4Mon.
9.AJ.20DatoliteCa(HBSiO5)Mon. 2/m : P21/b
9.AJ.20Gadolinite-(Ce)(Ce,La,Nd,Y)2Fe2+Be2Si2O10Mon. 2/m
9.AJ.20Gadolinite-(Y)Y2Fe2+Be2Si2O10Mon. 2/m : P21/b
9.AJ.20Hingganite-(Ce)(Ce,REE)2(□,Fe2+)Be2[SiO4]2(OH)2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
9.AJ.20Hingganite-(Y)(Y,REE,Ca)2(□,Fe2+)Be2[SiO4]2(OH)2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
9.AJ.20Hingganite-(Yb)(Yb,Y,REE)2□Be2[SiO4]2(OH)2
9.AJ.20HomiliteCa2(Fe2+,Mg)B2Si2O10Mon.
9.AJ.20Melanocerite-(Ce)(Ce,Ca)5(SiO4,BO4)3(OH,0)Hex.
9.AJ.20Minasgeraisite-(Y)CaBe2Y2Si2O10Mon. 2/m : P21/b
9.AJ.20Calcybeborosilite-(Y)(Y,Ca)2(□,Fe2+)(B,Be)2[SiO4]2(OH,O)2Mon.
9.AJ.25Stillwellite-(Ce)(Ce,La,Ca)BSiO5
9.AJ.30Cappelenite-(Y)Ba(Y,Ce)6Si3B6O24F2Trig. 3 : P3
9.AJ.35Okanoganite-(Y)(Na,Ca)3(Y,Ce)12Si6B2O27F14
9.AJ.35Vicanite-(Ce)(Ca,Ce,La,Th)15As5+(As3+0.5,Na0.5)Fe3+Si6B4O40F7Trig.
9.AJ.35Hundholmenite-(Y)(Y,REE,Ca,Na)15(Al,Fe3+)(CaxAs3+1-x)(Si,As5+)Si6B3(O,F)48Trig. 3m : R3m
9.AJ.35Proshchenkoite-(Y)Ca(Y,REE,Ca,Na,Mn)15Fe2+(P,Si)Si6B3O34F14Trig. 3m : R3m
9.AJ.40JadariteLiNaSiB3O7(OH)Mon. 2/m

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

54.2.1b.2Gadolinite-(Ce)(Ce,La,Nd,Y)2Fe2+Be2Si2O10Mon. 2/m
54.2.1b.3Gadolinite-(Y)Y2Fe2+Be2Si2O10Mon. 2/m : P21/b
54.2.1b.4Calciogadolinite-(Y)(YCa)2Fe3+Be2[SiO4]2O2
54.2.1b.5HomiliteCa2(Fe2+,Mg)B2Si2O10Mon.
54.2.1b.6Minasgeraisite-(Y)CaBe2Y2Si2O10Mon. 2/m : P21/b

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

17.5.1ManandoniteLi2Al4(Si2AlB)O10(OH)8Orth.
17.5.2ReedmergneriteNaBSi3O8Tric.
17.5.3SearlesiteNa(H2BSi2O7)Mon. 2 : P21
17.5.4OleniteNa(Al3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3O3(OH)Trig.
17.5.5ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
17.5.6KalborsiteK6Al4BSi6O20(OH)4ClTet.
17.5.7BoromuscoviteKAl2(BSi3O10)(OH)2Mon.
17.5.8PoudretteiteKNa2B3Si12O30Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P6/mcc
17.5.9LiddicoatiteCa(Li2Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
17.5.10DatoliteCa(HBSiO5)Mon. 2/m : P21/b
17.5.11DanburiteCaB2Si2O8Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
17.5.12HowliteCa2B5SiO9(OH)5Mon. 2/m : P21/b
17.5.14OyeliteCa10Si8B2O29 · 12.5H2OOrth.
17.5.15KornerupineMg3Al6(Si,Al,B)5O21(OH)Orth.
17.5.16HarkeriteCa12Mg4Al(BO3)3(SiO4)4(CO3)5 · H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
17.5.17SerendibiteCa4[Mg6Al6]O4[Si6B3Al3O36]Tric. 1 : P1
17.5.18Stillwellite-(Ce)(Ce,La,Ca)BSiO5
17.5.19Tadzhikite-(Ce)Ca4Ce3+2Ti◻(B4Si4O22)(OH)2Mon.
17.5.20Melanocerite-(Ce)(Ce,Ca)5(SiO4,BO4)3(OH,0)Hex.
17.5.21Okanoganite-(Y)(Na,Ca)3(Y,Ce)12Si6B2O27F14
17.5.22Tritomite-(Ce)Ce5(SiO4,BO4)3(OH,O)
17.5.23Tritomite-(Y)Y5(SiO4,BO4)3(O,OH,F)
17.5.24Cappelenite-(Y)Ba(Y,Ce)6Si3B6O24F2Trig. 3 : P3
17.5.25Dumortierite(Al,Fe3+)7(SiO4)3(BO3)O3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
17.5.26Holtite(Ta0.60.4)Al6BSi3O18(O,OH)2.25Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
17.5.27DraviteNa(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
17.5.28 FerridraviteNaFe3+3(Mg2Fe3+4)(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3O
17.5.29Axinite-(Mg)Ca2MgAl2BSi4O15OHTric.
17.5.30Uvite SeriesCa(Mg3)MgAl5(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(F/OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
17.5.31GarrelsiteBa3NaSi2B7O16(OH)4Mon.
17.5.32TienshaniteKNa3Na6Ca2Ba6Mn6(Ti4+,Nb)6B12Si36O114(O,OH,F)11Hex. 6/m : P6/m
17.5.33LeucospheniteBaNa4Ti2B2Si10O30Mon.
17.5.34TaramelliteBa4(Fe3+,Ti,Fe2+,Mg)4(B2Si8O27)O2ClxOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pmmn
17.5.35TitantaramelliteBa4(Ti,Fe3+,Fe2+,Mg)4(B2Si8O27)O2ClxOrth.
17.5.36NagashimaliteBa4(V,Ti)4B2Si8O27(O,OH)2ClOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pmmn
17.5.37Chromium-draviteNa(Mg3)Cr3+6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig.
17.5.38WawayandaiteCa6Mn2BBe9Si6O23(OH,Cl)15Mon.
17.5.39Werdingite(Mg,Fe)2Al14Si4B4O37Tric.
17.5.40Axinite-(Mn)Ca2Mn2+Al2BSi4O15(OH)Tric. 1 : P1
17.5.41AxiniteTric.
17.5.42TinzeniteCa2Mn2+4Al4[B2Si8O30](OH)2Tric.
17.5.44SchorlNa(Fe2+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
17.5.45Fluor-buergeriteNa(Fe3+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3O3FTrig. 3m : R3m
17.5.46FeruviteCa(Fe2+)3MgAl5(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
17.5.47Axinite-(Fe)Ca2Fe2+Al2BSi4O15OHTric. 1 : P1
17.5.48HomiliteCa2(Fe2+,Mg)B2Si2O10Mon.
17.5.49Grandidierite(Mg,Fe2+)(Al,Fe3+)3(SiO4)(BO3)O2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
17.5.50Hyalotekite(Pb,Ba,K)4(Ca,Y)2(B,Be)2(Si,B)2Si8O28(F,Cl)Tric. 1 : P1
17.5.51Hellandite-(Y)(Ca,REE)4Y2Al◻2(B4Si4O22) (OH)2Mon.

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for BakeriteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Giles, W.B. (1903), Bakerite (a new borosilicate of calcium) and howlite from California, Mineralogical Magazine: 13: 353-355.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 363.
Kramer, H.C. & R.D. Allen (1956), A restudy of bakerite, priceite, and veatchite, American Mineralogist: 41: 689-700.
Murdoch, Joseph (1962), Bakerite crystals: American Mineralogist: 47: 919-923.
Pemberton, H. Earl (1971a) Type locality for bakerite. American Mineralogist: 56: 1109-1110.
Perchiazzi, N., Gualtieri, A.F., Merlino, S., Kampf, A.R. (2004): The atomic structure of bakerite and its relationship to datolite. The American Mineralogist, 89, 767-776.

Internet Links for BakeriteHide

Localities for BakeriteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Canada
 
  • Ontario
    • Haliburton Co.
Am Min 89:5-6 pp 767-776
Italy
 
  • Liguria
    • Genova Province
      • Casarza Ligure
      • Ne
        • Graveglia Valley
          • Reppia
MinRec 32:360
Japan
 
  • Honshu Island
    • Chugoku Region
      • Okayama Prefecture
        • Takahashi City
          • Bicchu-cho (Bitchu-cho)
            • Fuka
Mineralogical Record: 27: 303.; Mineralogical Journal Vol. 17 (1994) , No. 3 pp 111-117
Mexico
 
  • San Luis Potosí
    • Mun. de Charcas
Handbook of Mineralogy (Bakerite)
Panczner (1987).
Panczner (1987): 108.
Panczner (1987): 108.
New Zealand
 
  • North Island
    • Wairarapa
Railton, G.L. & Watters, W.A., Minerals of New Zealand, New Zealand Geological Survey Bull. #104 (1990).
Turkey
 
  • Central Anatolia Region
    • Sivas Province
Am Min 89:5-6 pp 767-776
  • Marmara Region
    • Balikesir Province
      • Bigadiç
        • Faraşköy (Faraş)
CAHIT HELVACI & RICARDO N. ALONSO (2000) Borate Deposits of Turkey and Argentina; A Summary and Geological Comparison. Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 9, 2000, pp. 1-27
      • Susurluk
        • Sultançayırı (Sultan Tschair)
CAHIT HELVACI & RICARDO N. ALONSO (2000) Borate Deposits of Turkey and Argentina; A Summary and Geological Comparison. Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences, 9:1-27.; Helvaci, C., Mordogan, H., Çolak, M., & Gündogan, I. (2004). Presence and distribution of lithium in borate deposits and some recent lake waters of west-central Turkey. International Geology Review, 46(2), 177-190.
USA
 
  • California
    • Inyo Co.
      • Amargosa Range
        • Black Mts
          • Corkscrew Canyon
Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 95.
      • Furnace Creek District (Furnace Creek Borate District; Death Valley Area Borate Deposits; Ryan area)
        • Ryan
www.mineralsocal.org; Mineralogical Magazine 1903 13 : 353-355.
          • Mouth of Corkscrew Canyon area
Larsen, Esper Signius (1921), The microscopic determination of nonopaque minerals: USGS Bulletin 679, 294 pp.: 43; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 95.
American Mineralogist (2004): 89(5-6): 767-776.
    • Los Angeles Co.
      • Lang
        • Tick Canyon
          • Tick Canyon Borate deposit
Murdoch, Joseph (1962), Bakerite crystals: American Mineralogist: 47: 919-923; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 71, 95, 122; Pemberton, H. Earl (1968) The minerals of the Sterling borax mine, Los Angeles County, California. Mineral Explorer 3, No. 1, 10 pp.: 8, 9; Masimer, G.E. (1966) Tick Canyon revisited. Gems and Minerals: 347: 20-23; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 509; www.mineralsocal.org.
Harvard Museum of Natural History specimen no. 127118.
      • Calico Mts (Calico Hills)
        • Calico District (Daggett District; Calico-Daggett area)
          • Calico
            • Pacific Mine (Pacific Coast Borax Company properties; Borate; Borate Colemanite Mines; Calico; Old Borate; Pacific Coast Borax Co. workings)
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 363.
Giles, W.B. (1903), Bakerite (a new borosilicate of calcium) and howlite from California: Mineralogical Magazine: 13: 353-355; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 95.
  • New Jersey
    • Sussex Co.
      • Franklin Mining District
        • Franklin
Dunn(1995):Pt3:363.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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