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Balkanite

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Formula:
Cu9Ag5HgS8
alternatively (Cu9−xMe2+x)Ag5−xHgS8 (x = 0.3) (from Biagioni & Bindi 2016)
Colour:
Steel Grey
Lustre:
Metallic
Hardness:
Specific Gravity:
6.318
Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Name:
For the medieval and popular name of the Stara Planina (Balkan Mountains), the type locality.
Compare danielsite.

Balkanite's structure is not layered, but may be desribed by (1) alternation (along a) of Cu-rich and Ag-rich layers or (2) as the one based on two alternating atomic (010) layers: [Cu4Ag3HgS4]+ and [Cu5Ag2S4], or (3) alternation of two polyhedral layers: [Cu7Ag3S4]2+ and [Cu2Ag2HgS4]2−. Coordination of Hg is linear, Ag - tetrahedral or a distorted octahedral, and that of Cu - linear or planar triangular.


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Classification of BalkaniteHide

Approved
2.BD.15

2 : SULFIDES and SULFOSALTS (sulfides, selenides, tellurides; arsenides, antimonides, bismuthides; sulfarsenites, sulfantimonites, sulfbismuthites, etc.)
B : Metal Sulfides, M: S > 1: 1 (mainly 2: 1)
D : With Hg, Tl
2.16.7.1

2 : SULFIDES
16 : Miscellaneous
3.5.6

3 : Sulphides, Selenides, Tellurides, Arsenides and Bismuthides (except the arsenides, antimonides and bismuthides of Cu, Ag and Au, which are included in Section 1)
5 : Sulphides etc. of Hg and Tl

Physical Properties of BalkaniteHide

Metallic
Transparency:
Opaque
Colour:
Steel Grey
Hardness:
3½ on Mohs scale
Hardness:
VHN100=79.4 - 91.6 kg/mm2 - Vickers
Density:
6.318 g/cm3 (Measured)    6.421 g/cm3 (Calculated)
Comment:
Measured on synthetic material

Optical Data of BalkaniteHide

Type:
Anisotropic
Anisotropism:
Strong
Reflectivity:
440nmR1=35.4%R2= 30.6%
460nmR1=35.6%R2= 31.0%
480nmR1=35.4%R2= 31.0%
500nmR1=35.0%R2= 30.2%
520nmR1=34.0%R2= 28.9%
540nmR1=34.0%R2= 28.0%
560nmR1=33.4%R2= 27.2%
580nmR1=32.8%R2= 26.5%
600nmR1=32.4%R2= 26.0%
620nmR1=32.1%R2= 25.6%
640nmR1=31.8%R2= 25.1%
660nmR1=31.5%R2= 24.9%

Reflectance graph
Graph shows reflectance levels at different wavelengths (in nm). Top of box is 100%. Peak reflectance is 35.6%.
R1 shown in black, R2 shown in red
Colour in reflected light:
White-grey

Chemical Properties of BalkaniteHide

Formula:
Cu9Ag5HgS8

alternatively (Cu9−xMe2+x)Ag5−xHgS8 (x = 0.3) (from Biagioni & Bindi 2016)
IMA Formula:
Ag5Cu9HgS8

Crystallography of BalkaniteHide

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:
P2/m
Setting:
P2/m
Cell Parameters:
a = 9.5539(11) Å, b = 3.9150(4) Å, c = 10.6424(12) Å
β = 90.047(9)°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 2.44 : 1 : 2.718
Unit Cell V:
398.06 ų
Morphology:
Rod like prismatic crystals.
Twinning:
Lamellar in several directions
Comment:
sp. gr. P222, Pmm2 or Pmmm

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
3.09 (7)
2.98 (10)
2.61 (8)
2.55 (10)
2.45 (8)
1.985 (8)
1.955 (9)
Comments:
Sedmochislenitsi deposit, Bulgaria.

Type Occurrence of BalkaniteHide

Place of Conservation of Type Material:
Mineralogical Museum of the Higher Institute of Mining and Geology, 619; Museum of the University of Sofia “Kliment Ohridsky”, Sofia, 1351; National Museum of Natural History, Sofia, Bulgaria, 2339.
Geological Setting of Type Material:
High grade copper ores in stratiform deposit.

Synonyms of BalkaniteHide

Other Language Names for BalkaniteHide

German:Balkanit
Simplified Chinese:硫汞铜银矿
Spanish:Balkanita

Common AssociatesHide

AragoniteCaCO3
BaryteBaSO4
BismuthBi
BorniteCu5FeS4
CalciteCaCO3
ChalcociteCu2S
ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
CinnabarHgS
DigeniteCu9S5
DjurleiteCu31S16
MckinstryiteAg5-xCu3+xS4
PyriteFeS2
RammelsbergiteNiAs2
SilverAg
StromeyeriteAgCuS
TennantiteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]As4S13
WitticheniteCu3BiS3

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

2.BD.UM2004-33-S:AgCuHgSe(Ag,Cu)8Hg3(S,Se)7
2.BD.05ImiteriteAg2HgS2Mon.
2.BD.10GortdrumiteCu18FeHg6S16Orth.
2.BD.15Danielsite(Cu,Ag)14HgS8Orth.
2.BD.20DonharrisiteNi3HgS3Mon. 2/m : B2/m
2.BD.25CarliniteTl2STrig. 3 : R3
2.BD.30BukoviteTl2(Cu,Fe)4Se4Tet.
2.BD.30MurunskiteK2(Cu,Fe)4S4Tet.
2.BD.30ThalcusiteTl2Cu3FeS4Tet.
2.BD.35Rohaite(Tl,Pb,K)2Cu8.7Sb2S4Orth.
2.BD.40ChalcothalliteTl2(Cu,Fe)6SbS4Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I4/mmm
2.BD.45SabatieriteCu6TlSe4Orth.
2.BD.50CrookesiteCu7(Tl, Ag)Se4Tet.
2.BD.55BrodtkorbiteCu2HgSe2Mon. 2/m : P21/m

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

2.16.7.2Danielsite(Cu,Ag)14HgS8Orth.

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

3.5.1CinnabarHgSTrig. 3 2 : P31 2 1
3.5.2HypercinnabarHgSHex.
3.5.3MetacinnabarHgSIso. 4 3m : F4 3m
3.5.4ImiteriteAg2HgS2Mon.
3.5.5TiemanniteHgSe
3.5.7Danielsite(Cu,Ag)14HgS8Orth.
3.5.8ColoradoiteHgTeIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m)
3.5.9GortdrumiteCu18FeHg6S16Orth.
3.5.10Polhemusite(Zn,Hg)STet.
3.5.11CarliniteTl2STrig. 3 : R3
3.5.12CrookesiteCu7(Tl, Ag)Se4Tet.
3.5.13SabatieriteCu6TlSe4Orth.
3.5.14PicotpauliteTlFe2S3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Cmcm
3.5.15RaguiniteTlFeS2Orth.
3.5.16ThalcusiteTl2Cu3FeS4Tet.
3.5.17BukoviteTl2(Cu,Fe)4Se4Tet.
3.5.18GalliteCuGaS2Tet. 4 2m : I4 2d
3.5.19RoquesiteCuInS2Tet. 4 2m : I4 2d
3.5.20InditeFeIn2S4

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for BalkaniteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Atanassov, V.A., Kirov, G.N. (1973): Balkanite, Cu9Ag5HgS8, a new mineral from the Sedmochislenitsi mine, Bulgaria. American Mineralogist: 58: 11-15.
Biagioni C., Bindi, L. (2016): Ordered distribution of Cu and Ag in the crystal structure of balkanite, Cu9Ag5HgS8. European Journal of Mineralogy: 28 (in press).

Internet Links for BalkaniteHide

Localities for BalkaniteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

(TL) indicates type locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) indicates first recorded locality for everything else. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
Austria
 
  • Salzburg
    • Saalfelden
      • Leogang
        • Hütten
          • Schwarzleograben
            • Schwarzleo District
Paar, W. H. & Chen, T. T. (1985): Zur Mineralogie von Cu-Ni(Co)-Pb-Ag-Hg-Erzen im Revier Schwarzleo bei Leogang, Salzburg, Österreich. Mitt. österr. geol. Ges. 78, 125-148.; A. Strasser: Die Minerale Salzburgs (1989)
  • Tyrol
    • North Tyrol
      • Kitzbühel Alps
        • Fieberbrunn
Steiner, M., Vavtar, F., Tropper, P. (2008): Rare Ag ores (danielsite, balkanite) from the fahlore deposit of the Röhrerbühel (N-Tyrol, Austria). Poster, Annual Meeting of the DMG, Berlin, Germany, September 14-17, 2008; CD with abstracts, Abs. no. 292; Steiner M., Vavtar F., Tropper P., Kaindl R. (2009): Silbererze (Balkanit und Danielsit) in den Fahlerzen von Röhrerbühel. In: Oeggl K., Prast M. (Hrsg.), Die Geschichte des Bergbaus in Tirol und seinen angrenzenden Gebieten. Proceedings zum 3. Milestone-Meeting des SFB-HiMAT vom 23.–26. 10. 2008 in Silbertal, Innsbruck, 193-195; Steiner, M., Tropper, P., Vavtar, F., Kaindl, R. & Krismer, M. (2010): Balkanite from the Cu ore deposit Röhrerbühel, Kitzbühel (N-Tyrol, Austria). N. Jb. Mineral. Abh. 187, 207-215.
Belgium
 
  • Luxembourg Province
    • Stavelot Massif
      • Vielsalm
http://perso.infonie.be/jose.dehove/photos/Salmchateau.htm
Bulgaria (TL)
 
  • Vratsa Oblast (Vratza)
    • Balkan Mts (Stara Planina)
Atanassov, V.A. and Kirov, G.N. (1973): Balkanite, Cu9Ag5HgS8, a new mineral from the Sedmochislenitsi mine, Bulgaria. American Mineralogist, 58, 11-15.; ATANASSOVA, S. THE PRESERVED MINERAL DIVERSITY OF SEDMOCHISLENITSI DEPOSIT, VRATSA ORE REGION.
China
 
  • Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region
    • Baise Prefecture
      • Leye Co.
Lin Niu (1994): Geology and Prospecting 30(3), 1-8
Italy
 
  • Sardinia
    • Carbonia-Iglesias Province
      • Iglesias
        • Punta della Torre
Orlandi, P. & Campostrini, I. (2005): Zibaldone. Aggiornamenti di mineralogia italiana 2004. Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 3/2005, 184-191.
Mexico
 
  • Sonora
Handbook of Mineralogy
    • Cerro Morita
Handbook of Mineralogy
USA
 
  • Nevada
    • Nye Co.
      • Toquima Range
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
Mineral and/or Locality  
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