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Calamaite

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About CalamaiteHide

Formula:
Na2TiO(SO4)2·2H2O
Colour:
Colorless (isolated xtls) , white (aggregates)
Lustre:
Vitreous
Hardness:
3
Specific Gravity:
2.45 (Calculated)
Crystal System:
Orthorhombic
Name:
Named after the Calama commune and the Calama city, Chile.
New structure type. Third Ti-dominant sulfate mineral after alcaparrosaite and innelite; second purely sulfate Ti-rich mineral.


Classification of CalamaiteHide

Approved
Approval Year:
2016
First Published:
2018

Physical Properties of CalamaiteHide

Vitreous
Transparency:
Transparent
Colour:
Colorless (isolated xtls) , white (aggregates)
Hardness:
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Distinct/Good
On (001)
Density:
2.45 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of CalamaiteHide

Type:
Biaxial (+)
RI values:
nα = 1.557(2) nβ = 1.562(2) nγ = 1.671(3)
2V:
Measured: 30° (10)
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.114
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Low

Chemical Properties of CalamaiteHide

Formula:
Na2TiO(SO4)2·2H2O
IMA Formula:
Na2TiO(SO4)2 · 2H2O

Crystallography of CalamaiteHide

Crystal System:
Orthorhombic
Class (H-M):
mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) - Dipyramidal
Space Group:
Ibam
Setting:
Ibam
Cell Parameters:
a = 16.0989(11) Å, b = 16.2399(9) Å, c = 7.0135(4) Å
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.991 : 1 : 0.432
Unit Cell V:
1833.6 ų
Z:
8
Morphology:
Acicular to 0.01 × 2 mm; rarely prismatic to 1 × 1 × 3 mm
Twinning:
Cross-like interpenetration twins are common

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
8.10 (100)
5.04 (55)
3.787 (26)
3.619 (18)
3.417 (27)
3.185 (15)
2.943 (20)
2.895 (20)

Type Occurrence of CalamaiteHide

General Appearance of Type Material:
Acicular to hair-like crystals to 2 mm, in bunches or radial spherulitic clusters to 4 mm across. As prismatic crystals and cross-like twins.
Place of Conservation of Type Material:
The Fersman Mineralogical Museum, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia, registration number 4883/1
Empirical Formula of Type Material:
Na1.97(Ti0.92Fe3+0.070.99Σ2.02O9·2H2O
Chemical Analysis of Type Material:
Na2O18.21 %
K2O0.06 %
Fe2O31.58 %
TiO221.80 %
SO348.25 %
H2O (calc)10.74 %
Total:100.64 %
Geological Setting of Type Material:
oxidation zone of a pyrite orebody at a sulfate mine
Reference:
Pekov, I.V., Siidra, O.I., Chukanov, N.V., Yapaskurt, V.O., Belakovskiy, D.I., Turchkova, A.G., Möhn, G. (2018) Calamaite, a new natural titanium sulfate from the Alcaparrosa mine, Calama, Antofagasta region, Chile. European Journal of Mineralogy: 30: 801-809.

Synonyms of CalamaiteHide

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for CalamaiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Pekov,I.V., Siidra,O.I., Chukanov, N.V., Yapaskurt, V.O., Belakovskiy, D.I., Turchkova, A.G. and Möhn, G. (2016) Calamaite, IMA 2016-036. CNMNC Newsletter No. 33, October 2016, page 1136; Mineralogical Magazine: 80: 1135–1144.
Pekov, I.V., Siidra, O.I., Chukanov, N.V., Yapaskurt, V.O., Belakovskiy, D.I., Turchkova, A.G., Möhn, G. (2018) Calamaite, a new natural titanium sulfate from the Alcaparrosa mine, Calama, Antofagasta region, Chile. European Journal of Mineralogy: 30: 801-809.

Internet Links for CalamaiteHide

Localities for CalamaiteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Chile (TL)
 
  • Antofagasta
    • El Loa Province
      • Calama
        • Cerritos Bayos
Pekov,I.V., Siidra,O.I., Chukanov, N.V., Yapaskurt, V.O., Belakovskiy, D.I., Turchkova, A.G. and Möhn, G. (2016) Calamaite, IMA 2016-036. CNMNC Newsletter No. 33, October 2016, page 1136; Mineralogical Magazine: 80: 1135–1144; Pekov, I.V., Siidra, O.I., Chukanov, N.V., Yapaskurt, V.O., Belakovskiy, D.I., Turchkova, A.G., Möhn, G. (2018) Calamaite, a new natural titanium sulfate from the Alcaparrosa mine, Calama, Antofagasta region, Chile. European Journal of Mineralogy: 30: 801-809.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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