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About BannisteriteHide

(Ca,K,Na)(Mn2+,Fe2+)10(Si,Al)16O38(OH)8 · nH2O
n ~ 5.5
Dark brown
Sub-Vitreous, Resinous, Greasy
Specific Gravity:
2.83 - 2.84
Crystal System:
Named by Marie Louise Lindberg Smith and Clifford Frondel in 1968 in honor of Dr. Frederick Allen Bannister (1901-1970), mineralogist and x-ray crystallographer, formerly Keeper of Minerals, British Museum (Natural History), London, England, UK. (Originally identified as ganophyllite in 1936 by William Frederick Foshag.)
Dark brown flat platy aggregates.

A Ba analogue is known: UM1989-30-SiO:AlBaCaFeHKMgMn.

Chemically similar to tamaite (Ca-dominant member of the ganophyllite group).
Structurally related to the Stilpnomelane Group.

Classification of BannisteriteHide

Approval Year:

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
E : Phyllosilicates
G : Double nets with 6-membered and larger rings

74 : PHYLLOSILICATES Modulated Layers
1 : Modulated Layers with joined islands

16 : Silicates Containing Aluminum and other Metals
16 : Aluminosilicates of Mn

Physical Properties of BannisteriteHide

Sub-Vitreous, Resinous, Greasy
Dark brown
Creamy white
Cleavages are smooth without ruling, A-structure, or imperfections typical of True Micas.
2.83 - 2.84 g/cm3 (Measured)    2.84 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of BannisteriteHide

RI values:
nα = 1.544 - 1.574 nβ = 1.586 - 1.611 nγ = 1.589 - 1.612
Calculated: 18° to 28°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.045
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
r < v weak to moderate
X colorless to pale yellow

Chemical Properties of BannisteriteHide

(Ca,K,Na)(Mn2+,Fe2+)10(Si,Al)16O38(OH)8 · nH2O

n ~ 5.5
Common Impurities:

Crystallography of BannisteriteHide

Crystal System:
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:
Cell Parameters:
a = 22.26 Å, b = 16.36 Å, c = 24.66 Å
β = 94.28°
a:b:c = 1.361 : 1 : 1.507
Unit Cell V:
8,955.48 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Platy aggregates

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Powder Diffraction Data:
12.33 Å(100)
11.5 Å(2)
8.78 Å(2)
8.43 Å(2)
7.95 Å(2)
7.11 Å(4)
6.82 Å(4)
6.61 Å(2)
6.38 Å(2)
6.16 Å(2)
5.93 Å(2)
5.56 Å(6)
5.20 Å(6)
4.91 Å(2)
4.71 Å(2)
4.593 Å(10)
4.28 Å(6)
4.21 Å(2)
4.09 Å(16b)
3.79 Å(8)
3.69 Å(2)
3.57 Å(6)
3.44 Å(20)
3.40 Å(2)
3.36 Å(10)
3.31 Å(2)
3.24 Å(2)
3.21 Å(2)
3.13 Å(2)
3.08 Å(12)
3.02 Å(2)
2.97 Å(4)
2.91 Å(2)
2.84 Å(2)
2.79 Å(8)
2.75 Å(8)
2.71 Å(2)
2.64 Å(16)
2.61 Å(12)
2.48 Å(2)
2.46 Å(2)
2.41 Å(10)
2.38 Å(10)
2.33 Å(2)
2.30 Å(2)
2.25 Å(4)
2.22 Å(4)
2.20 Å(2)
2.16 Å(6)
2.11 Å(2)
1.998 Å(2b)
1.930 Å(4)
1.916 Å(2)
1.885 Å(2)
1.860 Å(2)
1.831 Å(2)
1.796 Å(2)
1.754 Å(2)
1.720 Å(2)
1.708 Å(4)
1.668 Å(2)
1.657 Å(2)
1.633 Å(4)
1.614 Å(8)
1.599 Å(8)
1.573 Å(2)
1.561 Å(4)
1.546 Å(2)
1.537 Å(2)
1.516 Å(2)
1.505 Å(2)
1.451 Å(2)
1.442 Å(2)
1.430 Å(2)
1.407 Å(2)
1.386 Å(2)
1.367 Å(2)
1.349 Å(2)
1.343 Å(2)
1.332 Å(2)
1.320 Å(2)
1.311 Å(2)
1.300 Å(2)
1.287 Å(2)
1.278 Å(2)
1.269 Å(2)
ICDD 21-57; Structurally similar to ganophyllite and the stilpnomelane group

Type Occurrence of BannisteriteHide

Synonyms of BannisteriteHide

Other Language Names for BannisteriteHide

Relationship of Bannisterite to other SpeciesHide

Structurally related to group(s):

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
12 photos of Bannisterite associated with RhodoniteMn2+SiO3
5 photos of Bannisterite associated with CalciteCaCO3
4 photos of Bannisterite associated with RhodochrositeMnCO3
1 photo of Bannisterite associated with GalenaPbS
1 photo of Bannisterite associated with PyroxmangiteMnSiO3

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

9.EG.05CymriteBaAl2Si2(O,OH)8 · H2OMon.
9.EG.10Naujakasite(Na,K)6(Fe2+,Mn2+,Ca)(Al,Fe)4Si8O26Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EG.15DmisteinbergiteCa(Al2Si2O8)Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P6/mmm
9.EG.20KampfiteBa12(Si11Al5)O31(CO3)8Cl5Mon. m
9.EG.25SträtlingiteCa2Al2SiO7 · 8H2OTrig.
9.EG.25VertumniteCa4Al4Si4O6(OH)24 · 3H2OMon. 2/m : P21/m
9.EG.30Eggletonite(Na,K,Ca)2(Mn,Fe)8(Si,Al)12O29(OH)7 · 11H2OMon.
9.EG.30Ganophyllite(K,Na,Ca)2Mn8(Si,Al)12(O,OH)32 · 8H2OMon.
9.EG.30Tamaite(Ca,K,Ba,Na)3-4Mn24(Si,Al)40(O,OH)112 · 21H2OMon.
9.EG.35ZussmaniteK(Fe,Mg,Mn)13(Si,Al)18O42(OH)14Trig. 3 : R3
9.EG.40Franklinphilite(K,Na)4(Mn2+,Mg,Zn)48(Si,Al)72(O,OH)216 · 6H2OTric.
9.EG.40LennilenapeiteK6-7(Mg,Mn,Fe,Zn)48(Si,Al)72(O,OH)216 · 16H2OTric.
9.EG.40Parsettensite(K,Na,Ca)7.5(Mn,Mg)49Si72O168(OH)50 · nH2OMon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EG.40Stilpnomelane(K,Ca,Na)(Fe2+,Mg,Al)8(Si,Al)12(O,OH)36 · nH2OTric. 1 : P1
9.EG.45Tuscanite(K(Ca,Na)6(Si,Al)10O22[SO4,CO3,(OH)2] · H2OMon.
9.EG.55WickenburgiteCaPb3Al2Si10O24(OH)6Trig. 3m : P3 1c
9.EG.60HyttsjöitePb18Ba2Ca5Mn2+2Fe3+2Si30O90Cl · 6H2OTrig.
9.EG.65ArmbrusteriteK5Na7Mn15[(Si9O22)4](OH)10 · 4H2OMon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EG.70Britvinite[Pb7(OH)3F(BO3)2(CO3)][Mg4.5(OH)3(Si5O14)]Tric. 1 : P1

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide,Ca,Na)(Fe2+,Mg,Al)8(Si,Al)12(O,OH)36 · nH2OTric. 1 : P1,Mn,Fe,Zn)48(Si,Al)72(O,OH)216 · 16H2OTric.,Na)4(Mn2+,Mg,Zn)48(Si,Al)72(O,OH)216 · 6H2OTric.

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

16.16.1KanonaiteMn3+Al(SiO4)OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnnm
16.16.2SpessartineMn2+3Al2(SiO4)3Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Ia3d
16.16.4SursassiteMn2+2Al3(SiO4)(Si2O7)(OH)3Mon. 2/m : P21/m
16.16.6KellyiteMn2+2Al(AlSiO5)(OH)4Hex. 6 : P63
16.16.9Ganophyllite(K,Na,Ca)2Mn8(Si,Al)12(O,OH)32 · 8H2OMon.
16.16.14Eggletonite(Na,K,Ca)2(Mn,Fe)8(Si,Al)12O29(OH)7 · 11H2OMon.
16.16.17ZussmaniteK(Fe,Mg,Mn)13(Si,Al)18O42(OH)14Trig. 3 : R3
16.16.19HenritermieriteCa3(Mn3+,Al)2(SiO4)2(OH)4Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/acd
16.16.22Piemontite{Ca2}{Al2Mn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)Mon. 2/m : P21/m
16.16.23OkhotskiteCa2Mn3+Mn3+2(Si2O7)(SiO4)(OH)2 · H2OMon.
16.16.24Pumpellyite-(Mn2+)Ca2Mn2+Al2(Si2O7)(SiO4)(OH)2 · H2OMon.

Fluorescence of BannisteriteHide

Not fluorescent in UV

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for BannisteriteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Pavlides, Louis and Milton, Charles, 1962, Geology and Manganese Deposits of the Maple and Hovey Mountains Area, Aroostook County, Maine, U. S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 362, pp. 116 + plates.
Smith, M.L. and Frondel, C. (1968) The related layered minerals ganophyllite, bannisterite and stilpnomelane. Mineralogical Magazine: 36: 893-913.
American Mineralogist (1969): 54: 577.
Dunn, P.J., Leavens, P.B., Norberg, J.A., Ramik, R.A. (1981): Bannisterite: new chemical data and empirical formulas. American Mineralogist 66, 1063-1067.
Ferrow, Embaie A.; Morad, Sadoon; Koark, Hans J.; Ounchanum, Prayote. (1992): Bannisterite from the Nyberget manganese-iron ore deposits, central Sweden: chemistry and mode of occurrence. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Abhandlungen 164, 169-182.
Heaney, P. J., Post, J. E. and Evans, H. T., Jr. (1992): The crystal structure of bannisterite. Clays Clay Minerals 40, 129-144.
American Mineralogist (1993): 78: 236 (Abs.).
Ferrow, E.A., Hovmöller, S. (1993): Crystallographic image processing (CIP) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) studies of bannisterite: a 2:1 type modulated layer silicate. European Journal of Mineralogy 5, 181-188.
Sustavov, S. G., Brusnitsyn, A. I., Chukanov, N. V., Ll'ina, A. N. and Mironov, A. B. (1997): New data on bannisterite. Zap. Vseross. Mineral. O-va. 126, 64-74. (in Russian)
Ferrow, E. A. (2006): 57Fe Moessbauer effect study of bannisterite: a modulated 2:1-type phyllosilicate. Mineralogical Magazine 70, 187-199.

Internet Links for BannisteriteHide

Localities for BannisteriteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
  • New South Wales
    • Yancowinna Co.
      • Broken Hill district
Birch, W. D., ed. (1999): The minerals of Broken Hill. Broken Hill City Council and Museum of Victoria, Broken Hill, Australia, 289 pp.
Birch et al - 1999, Minerals of Broken Hill - Second Edition.
          • Southern operations mine (Pasminco mine; Perilya mine; Consolidated Zinc Mine; CRA mine; New Broken Hill Consolidated Mine; NBHC Mine)
Keith Compton collection
  • Liguria
    • La Spezia Province
      • Maissana
Analyses of Anthony Kampf of Natural History museum of Los Angeles - U.S.A.
  • Iwate
    • Shimohei District
      • Yamada-machi
Dr. Matsuo Nambu ore collection (curated at Geological Survey of Japan)
  • Kochi
    • Nankoku city
Masutomi Museum specimen, Kyoto; Smith, M.L. and Frondel, C. (1968) The related layered minerals ganophyllite, bannisterite and stilpnomelane. Mineralogical Magazine: 36: 893-913.
  • Mie
    • Toba City
Yamada, S. (2004) Nihonsan-koubutsu Gojuon-hairetsu Sanchi-ichiranhyou (111 pp.)
  • Saitama
    • Hanno
Satoshi Matsubara (1981) Taneyamalite, (Na, Ca)(Mn2+,Mg,Fe3+,Al)12Si12 (O,OH)44, a New Mineral from the Iwaizawa Mine, Saitama Prefecture, Japan. Mineralogical Magazine 44:51-53.
Yamada, S. (2004) Nihonsan-koubutsu Gojuon-hairetsu Sanchi-ichiranhyou (111 pp.)
  • Shizuoka
Sameshima, Teruhiko; Ono, Susumu (1994) Ferroaxinite and datolite from Mt. Nio, Shizuoka city, central Japan. Geosci.Repts.Shizuoka Univ.,20 (Mar.,1994),1−4
  • Telemark
    • Tokke
      • Botnedal
Wel, D.van der. (1999): The Minerals of the Brandsnuten Manganes Deposit, Tokke, Norway. Bergverksmuseets Skrift 15: 74-86
  • Suceava
    • Suceava district
      • Iacobeni (Jakobeny; Jacobeny; Jakabfalva)
  • Khakassia
    • Askizsky Rayon
      • Askiz ore district
Kassandrov, E. G., & Mazurov, M. P. (2009). Magmatogenic manganese ores of the South Minusa Intermontane Trough. Geology of Ore Deposits, 51(5), 356.
Kassandrov, E. G., & Mazurov, M. P. (2009). Magmatogenic manganese ores of the South Minusa Intermontane Trough. Geology of Ore Deposits, 51(5), 356.
  • Sverdlovsk Oblast
    • Yekaterinburg
      • Kurganovo
Brusnitsyn A.I. (2000) Rhodonite deposits of Middle Ural, - S.-Peterburg Univercity press, p. 200 (in Rus.).
  • Urals Region
    • Southern Urals
A. I. Brusnitsyn, I. G. Zhukov, V. N. Kuleshov (2009): The Bikkulovskoe manganese deposit (South Urals): Geological setting, composition of metalliferous rocks, and formation model. Lithology and Mineral Resources 44, 557-578.
  • Košice Region
    • Gelnica Co.
Koděra, M. et al., 1986 a 1990 : Topografická mineralógia Slovenska, diel 1- 3, Veda – Vydavateľstvo SAV, Bratislava, 1990, 1 – 1590k
        • Zimná Voda Valley
Faryad S. W., Peterec D. (1987): Manifestations of skarn mineralization in the eastern part of the Spišsko-gemerské rudohorie Mts. Geologický Zborník-Geologica Carpathica, 38, 1, 111-128. Ružička P., Mikuš T., Bačík P., Števko M. (2018): Stilpnomelán z lokality Trohanka pri Prakovciach (Volovské vrchy, Slovenská republika). Bull. Mineral. Petrolog. 26, 1, 28-36 (in Slovak with English abstract).
    • Košice Co.
Pauliš P., Ďuďa R., 2002: Nejzajimavejší mineralogická nalezište Slovenska. Kuttna, Kutná Hora, 134p.
  • Örebro County
    • Lindesberg
No reference listed
Kjell Gatedal
  • Wales
    • Gwynedd
      • Lleyn Peninsula
        • Llanfaelrhys
          • Rhiw
Smith, M.L. and Frondel, C. (1968) The related layered minerals ganophyllite, bannisterite and stilpnomelane. Mineralogical Magazine: 36: 893-913.; UK Journal of mines & Minerals, number 29 pp47-48.; Embrey, P.G. (1978) Fourth supplementary list of British minerals. Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 42, n° 322, 169-177.;
  • New Jersey
    • Sussex Co.
      • Franklin Mining District
        • Franklin
Dunn(1995):Pt4:487.; Smith, M.L. and Frondel, C. (1968) The related layered minerals ganophyllite, bannisterite and stilpnomelane. Mineralogical Magazine: 36: 893-913.
  • North Carolina
    • Alleghany Co.
      • Sparta
        • Bald Knob
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