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Agate

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Colour:
colorless, gray, red, white, any color due to embedded minerals, multicolored specimen not uncommon
Lustre:
Waxy, Dull
Hardness:
6½ - 7
Specific Gravity:
2.6
Name:
The name is derived from its occurrence at the Achates River in southwestern Sicily.
A variety of Chalcedony

A distinctly banded fibrous chalcedony. Originally reported from Dirillo river (Achates river), Acate, Ragusa Province, Sicily, Italy.

The banding in agate is based on periodic changes in the translucency of the agate substance. Layers appear darker when they are more translucent (this may appear reversed in transmitted light). This effect may be accompanied and amplified by changes in the color of neighboring layers, due to other co-precipitated minerals. In old agates that have been subject to weathering and chemical alteration the differences in translucency may disappear, such specimens may turn almost opaque.

Chalcedony fibers and concentric wall-lining banding visible in a thin slice of agate

Agate is made of fibrous length-fast chalcedony, sometimes with layers of quartzine (length-slow chalcedony) fibers (Michel-Lévy and Munier-Chalmas 1892; Correns and Nagelschmidt, 1933; Bernauer 1927; Braitsch 1957; Frondel, 1978; Flörke et al. 1991; Graetsch 1994). In thin slices of agate the fibers are sometimes visible in transmitted light and may cause interesting optical effects (see Iris Agate). Because the individual crystallites in the fibers are not tightly interlocked, agate is slightly porous (e.g., Monroe, 1964), and can be dyed easily.


Two characteristic types of banding can be distinguished in agates (e.g. Graetsch 1994):

1. Wall-lining Banding. The individual bands run perpendicular to the orientation and growth direction of the chalcedony fibers. Since the chalcedony fibers grow from the walls to the interior of a cavity, a concentric, onion-like pattern develops. The changes in translucency reflect periodic changes of crystallite sizes and repetitive nucleation of new fibers at the growth front (Taijing and Sunagawa 1994; Cady et al 1998), as well as chemical composition (Frondel 1978; Heaney and Davis 1995). In addition to the visible bands, there are compositional bands of varying trace element and hydroxyl concentrations on the micrometer scale (Frondel 1978, 1985).
Note that this type of banding is not restricted to walls of geodes: similar looking patterns of banding will develop around other structures that grew into the cavity, like crystals or moss-like inclusions.

2. Horizontal Banding (also called Uruguay-type banding). This type of banding is less common, and usually accompanied by wall-lining banding. The banding consists of fine, irregularly spaced layers of small chalcedony spherulites and sometimes quartz crystals that precipitated in the cavity. Horizontal bands can serve as spirit levels to determine the original orientation of the specimen in the host rock. When the difference in translucency or color between the layers is pronounced, agates with horizontal banding can be used for cutting cameos and engravings.

Note: Agate is not simply "banded chalcedony." There are other types of chalcedony that are banded that do not match the description above, banded flint, for example.

Because the colors and patterns found in agates are so varied and so characteristic for the respective localities, there is a confusingly large number of ever-changing varietal and trade names. Roger Pabian's "Agate Lexicon" at UNL is a good source:
Agates Lexicon http://snr.unl.edu/data/geologysoils/agates/agateslexicon.aspx

There are a number of varieties of chalcedony that are called "agate" that do not match the definition given above. Good examples are "feather agates" and "fire agates". These are listed as varieties of chalcedony, not as varieties of agate.



Visit gemdat.org for gemological information about Agate.


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Physical Properties of AgateHide

Waxy, Dull
Transparency:
Translucent
Comment:
vitreous when polished
Colour:
colorless, gray, red, white, any color due to embedded minerals, multicolored specimen not uncommon
Streak:
white
Hardness:
6½ - 7 on Mohs scale
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
None Observed
Fracture:
Conchoidal, Sub-Conchoidal
Density:
2.6 g/cm3 (Measured)    
Comment:
varies with amount and type of impurities

Age informationHide

Age range:
Phanerozoic : 280 Ma to 64.5 Ma - based on data given below.
Sample ages:
Sample IDRecorded ageGeologic TimeDating method
164.5 MaPaleocenePb-Pb
2113 MaEarly CretaceousU-Pb
3116 ± 3 MaEarly CretaceousU-Pb
4120 MaEarly CretaceousU-Pb
5121 MaEarly CretaceousU-Pb
6122 MaEarly CretaceousU-Pb
7130 MaEarly Cretaceous206Pb/238U
8133 MaEarly CretaceousU-Pb
9135 MaEarly CretaceousU-Pb
10137 MaEarly CretaceousU-Pb
11153 MaJurassicU-Pb
12172 MaMiddle JurassicU-Pb
13180 MaEarly JurassicU-Pb
14215 MaLate TriassicU-Pb
15280 MaCisuralianU-Pb
Sample references:
IDLocalityReference
1Silberbrünnle Mine, Haigerach valley, Gengenbach, Black Forest, Baden-Württemberg, GermanyPfaff, K., Romer, R.L., and Markl, G. (2009) U-Pb ages of ferberite, chalcedony, agate, ‘U-mica’ and pitchblende: constraints on the mineralization history of the Schwarzwald ore district. European Journal of Mineralogy, Vol. 21, pp. 817-836.
2  "  "  "  "
3  "  "Pfaff, K., Romer, R. L., & Markl, G. (2009) U-Pb ages of ferberite, chalcedony, agate,‘U-mica’and pitchblende: constraints on the mineralization history of the Schwarzwald ore district. European Journal of Mineralogy, 21(4), 817-836.
4  "  "Pfaff, K., Romer, R.L., and Markl, G. (2009) U-Pb ages of ferberite, chalcedony, agate, ‘U-mica’ and pitchblende: constraints on the mineralization history of the Schwarzwald ore district. European Journal of Mineralogy, Vol. 21, pp. 817-836.
5  "  "  "  "
6  "  "  "  "
7  "  "Pfaff, K., Romer, R. L., & Markl, G. (2009). U-Pb ages of ferberite, chalcedony, agate,‘U-mica’and pitchblende: constraints on the mineralization history of the Schwarzwald ore district. European Journal of Mineralogy, 21(4), 817-836.
8  "  "Pfaff, K., Romer, R.L., and Markl, G. (2009) U-Pb ages of ferberite, chalcedony, agate, ‘U-mica’ and pitchblende: constraints on the mineralization history of the Schwarzwald ore district. European Journal of Mineralogy, Vol. 21, pp. 817-836.
9  "  "  "  "
10  "  "  "  "
11  "  "  "  "
12  "  "  "  "
13  "  "  "  "
14  "  "  "  "
15Geisberg Quarry, Schweighausen, Lahr, Black Forest, Baden-Württemberg, GermanyPfaff, K., Romer, R. L., & Markl, G. (2009) U-Pb ages of ferberite, chalcedony, agate,‘U-mica’and pitchblende: constraints on the mineralization history of the Schwarzwald ore district. European Journal of Mineralogy, 21(4), 817-836.

Synonyms of AgateHide

Other Language Names for AgateHide

Varieties of AgateHide

Agate-JasperA variety of Agate consisting of Jasper veined with Chalcedony.
Agatized coralA variety of agate/chalcedony replacing coral.
Bird's Eye AgateA variety of eye agate where the eyes are supposed to resemble the eyes of a bird.
Blue Lace AgateA pale blue banded variety of Agate (Chalcedony).
Botswana AgateA variety of agate from Botswana, banded with fine, parallel lines, often coloured pink blending into white.
Brecciated AgateA naturally cemented matrix of broken agate fragments.
Cloud AgateGreyish agate with patches of blurry, foggy inclusions.
Crazy Lace AgateAn agate composed of multicoloured twisting and turning bands.
Enhydro AgateAn agate nodule partly filled with water.
Eye AgateAgate with concentric ring pattern, looking like an eye.
Fairburn AgateA unique and rare variety of Fortification Agate from Fairburn, Custer Co., South Dakota, USA.
Fortification AgateAgate with sharp-angled bands which resemble the outlines of fortifications of a castle.
Fossil AgateAgate as a replacement material in fossils.
Haema-ovoid-agatesName proposed for a reddish agate with ovoidal patches of cacholong, etc.
Iris AgateAn iridescent variety of agate - when sliced into a thin section it exhibits all the colours of the spectrum when viewed in transmitted light.
Laguna AgateA colourful agate variety.
Originally described from Ojo Laguna, Chihuahua, Mexico.
Lake Superior AgateBelieved to be the world's oldest agates, over 1 billion years old, these are found throughout the northern US having been spread from the original Lake Superior region by glaciation. It has generally pale colouring.
Mexican Lace AgateLacy or wavy agate from Mexico.
Mocha StoneA variety of agate (chalcedony) containing inclusions of pyrolusite.
OnyxIn correct usage, the name refers to a black and white banded variety of Agate, or sometimes a monochromatic agate with dark and light bands (brown and white for example) - but traditionally the name was reserved for black and white banded agate, and brow...
Pigeon Blood AgateA blood-red and white variety of agate from Utah.
Riband AgateAccording to Hey's 3rd Ed. this is 'a banded agate', which doesn't tell us much!
SardonyxA variety of Agate with reddish-brown and either black or white bands.
YoungiteLocal name for agate or jasper coated by druzy quartz crystals.
Found near Guernsey Wyoming in limestone rocks.

Common AssociatesHide

CalciteCaCO3
Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
HematiteFe2O3
QuartzSiO2
Zeolite GroupA group name for a large number of framework alumosilicates (and, rarely, beryllosilicates, zincosilicates, ...
Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Quartz282 photos of Agate associated with Quartz on mindat.org.
Amethyst81 photos of Agate associated with Amethyst on mindat.org.
Copper69 photos of Agate associated with Copper on mindat.org.
Calcite44 photos of Agate associated with Calcite on mindat.org.
Chalcedony36 photos of Agate associated with Chalcedony on mindat.org.
Carnelian26 photos of Agate associated with Carnelian on mindat.org.
Goethite15 photos of Agate associated with Goethite on mindat.org.
Hematite15 photos of Agate associated with Hematite on mindat.org.
Smoky Quartz13 photos of Agate associated with Smoky Quartz on mindat.org.
Thunder Egg13 photos of Agate associated with Thunder Egg on mindat.org.

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for AgateHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Michel-Lévy, A., Munier-Chalmas, C.P.E. (1892) Mémoire sur diverses formes affectées par le réseau élémentaire du quartz. Bulletin de la Société Française de Minéralogie: 15: 159-190.
Bernauer, F. (1927) Über Zickzackbänderung (Runzelbänderung) und verwandte Polarisationserscheinungen an Kristallen und Kristallaggregaten. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paläontologie, Beilageband: 55: 92-143.
Correns, C.W., Nagelschmidt, G. (1933) Über Faserbau und optische Eigenschaften von Chalzedon. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, 85, 199-213.
Jones, F.T. (1952) Iris Agate. American Mineralogist: 37: 578-587.
Braitsch, O. (1957) Über die natürlichen Faser- und Aggregationstypen beim SiO2, ihre Verwachsungsformen, Richtungsstatistik und Doppelbrechung. Heidelberger Beiträge zur Mineralogie und Petrographie: 5: 331-372.
Monroe, E.A. (1964) Electron optical observations of fine-grained silica minerals. American Mineralogist: 49: 339-347.
Frondel, C. (1978) Characters of quartz fibers. American Mineralogist: 63: 17-27.
Frondel, C. (1982) Structural hydroxyl in chalcedony (type B quartz). American Mineralogist: 67: 1248-1257.
Fallick, A.E., Jocelyn, J., Donelly, T., Guy, M., Behan, C. (1985) Origin of agates in volcanic rocks from Scotland. Nature: 313: 672-674.
C. Frondel (1985) Systematic compositional zoning in the quartz fibers of agate. American Mineralogist: 70: 975-979.
Flörke, O.W., Graetsch, H., Martin, B., Röller, K., Wirth, R. (1991) Nomenclature of micro- and non-crystalline silica minerals based on structure and microstructure. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie - Abhandlungen: 163: 19-42.
Heaney, P.J., Post, J.E. (1992) The widespread distribution of a novel silica polymorph in microcrystalline quartz varieties. Science: 255: 441-443.
Graetsch, H. (1994) Structural characteristics of opaline and microcrystalline silica minerals. Reviews in Mineralogy, Vol.29, Silica - Physical behavior, geochemistry and materials applications.
Heaney, P.J., Veblen, D.R., Post, J.E. (1994) Structural disparities between chalcedony and macrocrystalline quartz. American Mineralogist: 79: 452-460.
Taijing, L. Sunagawa, I. (1994) Texture formation of agate in geode. Mineralogical Journal: 17: 53-76.
Tanaka, T., Kamioka, H. (1994) Trace element abundance in agate. Geochemical Journal: 28: 359-362.
Taijing, L., Zhang, X. (1995) Nanometer scale textures in agate and Beltane opal. Mineralogical Magazine: 59: 103-109.
Heaney, P.J., Davis, A.M. (1995) Observation and origin of self-organized textures in agates. Science: 269: 1562-1565.
Merino, E., Wang, Y., Deloule, E. (1995) Genesis of agates in flood basalts: twisting of chalcedony fibers and trace-element geochemistry. American Journal of Science: 295: 1156-1176.
Wang, Y., Merino, E. (1995) Origin of fibrosity and banding in agates from flood basalts. American Journal of Science: 295: 49-77.
Cady, S.L., Wenk, H.R., Sintubin, M. (1998) Microfibrous quartz varieties: characterization by quantitative X-ray texture analysis and transmission electron microscopy. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology: 130: 320-335.
Götze, J., Plötze, M., Fuchs, H., and Habermann, D. (1999) Defect structure and luminescence behavior of agate - results of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and cathodoluminescence (CL) studies. Mineralogical Magazine: 63: 149-163.
Weise, C., publisher (2000) Achat - extraLapis Nr.19. Christian Weise Verlag, München.
Carlson, M.R. (2002) The Beauty of Banded Agates. Edina: Fortification Press.
Moxon, T., Rios, S. (2002) Agate: a study of ageing. European Journal of Mineralogy: 14: 1109-1118.
Moxon, T. (2004) Moganite and water content as a function of age in agate: an XRD and thermogravimetric study. European Journal of Mineralogy, 16, 269-278.
Zenz, J. (2005) Achate. Bode Verlag, 656 pp. (in German).
Moxon, T., Reed, S.J.B. (2006) Agate and chalcedony from igneous and sedimentary hosts aged from 13 to 3480 Ma: a cathodoluminescence study. Mineralogical Magazine: 70: 485-498.
Zenz, J. (2009) Achate II. Bode Verlag, 656 pp. (in German).
Moxon, T., Carpenter, M.A. (2009) Crystallite growth kinetics in nanocrystalline quartz (agate and chalcedony). Mineralogical Magazine: 73: 551-568.
Moxon, T. (2009): Studies on Agate: Microscopy, Spectroscopy, Growth, High Temperature and Possible Origin. Terra Publications, Doncaster, UK, 96 pp.
Weise, C., publisher (2010) Achate - geboren aus Vulkanen. extraLapis Nr.39. Christian Weise Verlag, München, 98pp.
Götze, J., Gaft, M., Möckel, R. (2015) Uranium and uranyl luminescence in agate/chalcedony. Mineralogical Magazine: 79: 985-995.
http://www.achat-almanach.de [in English and German]

Internet Links for AgateHide

Localities for AgateHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListShow

Mineral and/or Locality  
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