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About ClinkerHide

i. Fused or partly fused coal ash, a byproduct of combustion. According to Grapes (2006) it is now concerning fused and/or partially melted sedimentary rocks coming from coal seams or bituminous sediments. Glassy clinkers, that are sometimes incorrectly named scoria, are in fact buchites. Characteristic features of clinkers is its resemblance to pavement brick (klinkaerd) and a "metallic" sound when hit by a hammer. Clinkers are the most common rocks found in burning coal mining dumps and are usually red or pink, hard, having well preserved shaly texture. They are usually composed of quartz, partially/fully dehydrated clay minerals, and minor mullite. Some similar rock, yellow or white in colour, are also found. All these shaly pyrometamorphic rocks may be called metapelites. They may contain cristobalite. White clinker-like rocks may be called porcellanites.

Compare with: core

Ref: ACSG, 2

ii. Coal that has been altered by an igneous intrusion.

See Also: natural coke

iii. Partially fused intermediate product in the manufacture of portland cement.

Clinkers - usually the most volumetrically important transformation rocks in burning/burnt coal-mining waste heaps - are often found within partially coalesced (fused together) various lithological types of pyrometamorphic rocks to form a pyrometamorphic breccia. They may occur as xenoliths within parabasalts.

Classification of ClinkerHide

References for ClinkerHide

Reference List:
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Sokol, E.V., Maksimova, N.V., Nigmatulina, E.N., Sharygin, V.V., Kalugin, V.M., (2005): Combustion Metamorphism. Publishing House of the SB RAS, Novosibirsk: 284 pp. [in Russian, with fragments/summaries/abstracts in English]
Grapes (2006): Pyrometamorphism. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg
Ciesielczuk, J., Kruszewski Ł., and Majka, J. (2015): Comparative mineralogical study of thermally-altered coal-dump waste, natural rocks and the products of laboratory heating experiments. International Journal of Coal Geology: 9: 114-141
Kruszewski, Ł. - personal field observations and laboratory analyses

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