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Spinel Supergroup

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About Spinel SupergroupHide

A = Fe, Mn, Mg, Mn, Si, Ge, Co, Cu, Sb, Zn,Ti, Ni;
D = Fe, Cr, V, Mn, Al, Co, In, Ir, Rh, Pt, Ni;
X = O2-, S2- or Se2-.
A supergroup that includes minerals with a spinel-type structure, with the general formula AD2X4. It includes oxides and sulfides, and more rarely selenides, silicates and germanates. Minerals of the spinel supergroups are used as geothermometers or geobarometers. Some are ore minerals (f.ex. magnetite, violarite) and some are used as gem stones (f.ex. red colored spinel).

The structural spinel supergroup was established and approved by IMA in 2018.
It is divided in three groups on the basis of dominant X anion:
O2-: Oxyspinel group.
S2-: Thiospinel group.
Se2-: Seleniospinel group.
Each group is divided into subgroups according to the dominant valence and then the dominant constituent (or heterovalent-pair of constituents) represented by the letter D in the formula AD2X4.
The oxyspinel group can be divided into these subgroups: spinel subgroup and ulvöspinel subgroup.
The thiospinel group into these subgroups: carrollite subgroup and linnaeite subgroup.
The seleniospinel group into these subgroups: bornhardtite subgroup and tyrrellite (potential subgroup since only one member known at present).

Note: the D site is named as B in the IMA Proposal 17-H, to avoid confusion with Boron.

Classification of Spinel SupergroupHide

IMA Approved Group Name
Approval History:
A classification of spinel supergroup was approved by IMA in march 2018 (Proposal 17-H).

Chemical Properties of Spinel SupergroupHide


A = Fe, Mn, Mg, Mn, Si, Ge, Co, Cu, Sb, Zn,Ti, Ni;
D = Fe, Cr, V, Mn, Al, Co, In, Ir, Rh, Pt, Ni;
X = O2-, S2- or Se2-.

Relationship of Spinel Supergroup to other SpeciesHide

Group Members:
Oxyspinel Group  AD2O4
  Spinel Subgroup A2+D3+2O4
    Chromite Fe2+Cr3+2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
    Cochromite (Co,Ni,Fe)(Cr,Al)2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
    Coulsonite Fe2+V3+2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
    Cuprospinel Cu2+Fe3+2O4Iso.
    Dellagiustaite V2+Al2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
    Deltalumite (Al0.670.33)Al2O4Tet. 4 2m : P4m2
    Franklinite Zn2+Fe3+2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
    Gahnite ZnAl2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
    Galaxite Mn2+Al2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
    Guite Co2+Co3+2O4Iso.
    Hausmannite Mn2+Mn3+2O4Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/amd
    Hercynite Fe2+Al2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
    Hetaerolite ZnMn2O4Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/amd
    Jacobsite Mn2+Fe3+2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
    Maghemite (Fe3+0.670.33)Fe3+2O4Iso. 4 3 2 : P41 3 2
    Magnesiochromite MgCr2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
    Magnesiocoulsonite MgV2O4Iso.
    Magnesioferrite MgFe3+2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
    Magnetite Fe2+Fe3+2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
    Manganochromite Mn2+Cr2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
    Nichromite (Ni,Co,Fe)(Cr,Fe,Al)2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
    Spinel MgAl2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
    Thermaerogenite CuAl2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
    Titanomaghemite (Ti4+0.50.5)Fe2O4Iso. 4 3 2 : P43 3 2
    Trevorite Ni2+Fe3+2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
    Vuorelainenite Mn2+V3+2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
    Zincochromite ZnCr2O4Iso.
  Ulvöspinel Subgroup A4+D2+2O4
    Ahrensite SiFe2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m)
    Brunogeierite Ge4+Fe2+2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
    Filipstadite (Fe3+0.5Sb5+0.5)Mn2O4Iso.
    Qandilite (Mg,Fe3+)2(Ti,Fe3+,Al)O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
    Ringwoodite (Mg,Fe2+)2SiO4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
    Tegengrenite (Mn3+0.5Sb5+0.5)Mg2O4Trig.
    Ulvöspinel TiFe2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
  UM1994-06-O:AlCo CoAl2O4
Seleniospinel Group AD2X4
  Bornhardtite Subgroup A2+D3+2Se4
    Bornhardtite Co2+Co3+2Se4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
    Trüstedtite Ni3Se4Iso.
  Nickeltyrrellite CuNi2Se4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
  Tyrrellite Cu(Co3+,Ni3+)2Se4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
Thiospinel Group AD2X4
  Carrollite Subgroup A1+D3.5+2S4
    Carrollite Cu(Co,Ni)2S4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
    Cuproiridsite (Cu,Fe)Ir2S4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
    Cuprokalininite CuCr2S4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
    Fletcherite Cu(Ni,Co)2S4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
    Florensovite (Cu,Zn)Cr1.5Sb0.5S4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m)
    Malanite Cu1+(Ir3+Pt4+)S4Iso.
    Rhodostannite Cu1+(Fe2+0.5Sn4+1.5)S4Tet. 4/m : I41/a
    Toyohaite Ag1+(Fe2+0.5Sn4+1.5)S4Tet.
  Linnaeite Subgroup 
    Cadmoindite CdIn2S4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
    Cuprorhodsite (Cu1+0.5Fe3+0.5)Rh3+2S4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
    Daubréelite Fe2+Cr3+2S4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
    Ferrorhodsite (Fe,Cu)(Rh,Ir,Pt)2S4Iso.
    Greigite Fe2+Fe3+2S4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
    Indite FeIn2S4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
    Joegoldsteinite MnCr2S4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
    Kalininite ZnCr2S4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
    Linnaeite Co2+Co3+2S4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
    Polydymite Ni2+Ni3+2S4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
    Siegenite CoNi2S4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
    Tarkianite (Cu,Fe)(Re,Mo)4S8Iso. 4 3m
    Violarite Fe2+Ni3+2S4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
    Xingzhongite Pb2+Ir3+2S4Iso.

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

Spinel Supergroup in petrologyHide

An essential component of rock names highlighted in red, an accessory component in rock names highlighted in green.

References for Spinel SupergroupHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Brik, M.G., Suchocki, A., Kamińska, A. (2014): Lattice parameters and stability of the spinel compounds in relation to the ionic radii and electronegativities of constituting chemical elements. Inorg. Chem., 53: 5088-5099.
Biagioni, C. & Pasero, M. (2014): The systematics of the spinel-type minerals: an overview. American Mineralogist, 99: 1254-1264.
CNMNC Newsletter No. 42, April 2018, page 451; Mineralogical Magazine: 82: 445-451 (Proposal IMA 17-H).
Bosi, F., Biagioni, C. & Pasero, M.(2019) Nomenclature and classification of the spinel supergroup. European Journal of Mineralogy. 31:183-192

Internet Links for Spinel SupergroupHide

Significant localities for Spinel SupergroupHide

Showing 105 significant localities out of 28,540 recorded on mindat.org.

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
  • San Luis Province
    • Sierra de Comechingones
[Dellagiustaite] Cámara, F., Bindi, L., Pagano, A., Pagano, R., Gain, S.E.M., Griffin, W.L. (2019): Dellagiustaite: A Novel Natural Spinel Containing V2+. Minerals, 9, 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/min9010004
  • Queensland
    • Barcoo Shire
      • Windorah
        • Tenham Station
[Ringwoodite] Binns, R.A., Davis, R.J., and Reed, S.J.B. (1969) Ringwoodite, natural (Mg,Fe)2SiO4 spinel in the Tenham meteorite. Nature: 221: 943-944.; Canadian Mineralogist (1977) 15: 97.; HB2/2 (1995); Tomioka, N. and Fujino, K. (1997) Natural (Mg,Fe)SiO3-ilmenite and -perovskite in the Tenham meteorite. Science: 277: 1084–1086.; Jambor, J.L. and Roberts, A.C. (1998) New mineral names. American Mineralogist: 83: 400-403.; Ferroir, T., Miyahara, M., Ohtani, E., Beck, P., Simionovici, A., Gillet, P., and El Goresy, A. (xxxx) 72nd Meeting of the Meteoritical Society: Abstracts Page A69 No. 5143.; ; O. Tschauner et al. (2018) Structure analysis and conditions of formation of akimotoite in the Tenham chondrite: Meteoritics & Planetary Science 53 (1): 62-74. (Jan 2018).
  • South Australia
    • Mt Lofty Ranges
      • South Mt Lofty Ranges (Adelaide Hills)
        • Mount Barker
          • Nairne
[Manganochromite] Grieco, G., & Merlini, A. (2012). Chromite alteration processes within Vourinos ophiolite. International journal of earth sciences, 101(6), 1523-1533. Graham, J. (1978) Manganochromite, palladium antimonide, and some unusual mineral associations at the Nairne pyrite deposit, South Australia. American Mineralogist, Vol. 63, pp. 1166-1174.
  • Tasmania
    • Burnie City
      • Hampshire district
        • Kara Mines
[Magnetite] Whitehead, 1990; Ralph Bottrill 6/10/2005.; MINERALOGICAL MAGAZINE, SEPTEMBER 1984, VOL. 48, PP. 397-400; Singoyi, B. (1995). Mineral paragenesis, geochemistry and fluid characteristics of the Kara scheelite-magnetite skarn deposit, Northwestern Tasmania (Masters dissertation, University of Tasmania).
  • Oruro
    • Cercado Province
      • Oruro City
[Rhodostannite] Keutsch, F., & Brodtkorb, M. D. (2008). Metalliferous paragenesis of the San José mine, Oruro, Bolivia. Journal of South American Earth Sciences, 25(4), 485-491.
  • Potosí
    • Antonio Quijarro Province
[Nickeltyrrellite] Förster, H.-J., Ma, C., Grundmann, G., Bindi, L., and Stanley, C.J. (2019) Nickeltyrrellite, IMA 2018-110. CNMNC Newsletter No. 47, February 2019, page 200; European Journal of Mineralogy, 31: 199–204.; Förster, H.-J., Ma, C. Grundmann, G., Bindi, L. & Stanley . c. J. (2019) Nickeltyrrellite, CuNi2Se4, a New Member of the Spinel Supergroup from El Dragón, Bolivia. The Canadian Mineralogist (2019) canmin.1900025. https://doi.org/10.3749/canmin.1900025
    • Rafael Bustillo
[Rhodostannite] Mineralogical Magazine 1968 36 : 1045-1051.
  • Newfoundland and Labrador
    • Newfoundland
      • Baie Verte Peninsula
        • Baie Verte
[Cuprospinel] NICKEL, E.H. (1973): The new mineral cuprospinel (CuFe2O4 ) and other spinels from an oxidized ore dump at Baie Verte, Newfoundland. Canadian Mineralogist 11, 1003-1007.
  • Ontario
    • Hastings County
      • Faraday Township
[Magnetite] Robinson & Chamberlain (1982) - Mineralogical Record v14 n2; Joyce, D. K. (2006) Calcite Vein-Dikes of the Grenville Geological Province, Ontario, Canada. Rocks and Minerals 81:34-42; Ontario Ministry of Northern Development and Mines,MDI Number: MDI31F04SW00297
    • Lanark County
      • Ramsay Township
[Spinel] GSC misc report 41
    • Sudbury District
      • Denison Township
[Violarite] CLARK, F.W. & CATLETT, C. (1889): A platinoferrous nickel ore from Canada, Laspeyres’s (sic) polydymite. American Journal of Science 37, 372-374. SHORT, M.N. & SHANNON, E.V. (1930): Violarite and other nickel sulphides. American Mineralogist 15, 1-22.
  • Québec
    • Abitibi-Témiscamingue
      • La Vallée-de-l'Or RCM
        • Réservoir-Dozois
[Magnetite] Olivier Langelier Collection; Hudon, P., Friedman, R.M., Gauthier, G. & Martignole, J. (2006) Age of the Cabonga nepheline syenite, Grenville Province, western Quebec. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, vol. 43(9), 1237-1249.
  • Saskatchewan
    • Beaverlodge Lake area
[Tyrrellite] ROBINSON, S.C. & BROOKER, E.J. (1952): A cobalt - nickel - copper selenide from the Goldfields district, Saskatchewan, Canada. American Mineralogist 37, 542-544. HARRIS, D.C. (1970): New data on tyrrellite. Canadian Mineralogist 10, 731-736. ; ROBINSON, S.C. & BROOKER, E.J. (1952): A cobalt - nickel - copper selenide from the Goldfields district, Saskatchewan, Canada. American Mineralogist 37, 542-544. HARRIS, D.C. (1970): New data on tyrrellite. Canadian Mineralogist 10, 731-736.
      • Goldfields District
        • Beaverlodge Lake
[Tyrrellite] ROBINSON, S.C. & BROOKER, E.J. (1952): A cobalt - nickel - copper selenide from the Goldfields district, Saskatchewan, Canada. American Mineralogist 37, 542-544. HARRIS, D.C. (1970): New data on tyrrellite. Canadian Mineralogist 10, 731-736.
[Xingzhongite] AM 74 (1989), 1220
  • Hebei
    • Chengde
      • Xinglong County
[Malanite] Yu Zuxiang (1996): Acta Geologica Sinica 70(4), 309-314.
    • Tangshan
      • Zunhua Co.
        • Malan river valley
[Malanite] Yu Zuxiang (1981): Geological Review 27, 55-71.
Czech Republic
  • Plzeň Region
    • Domažlice District
[Hercynite] [AM 69 (1984), 937; Clark, 1993, "Hey's Mineral Index"]
DR Congo
  • Haut-Katanga
    • Kambove District
      • Kamoya
[Carrollite] King, V. & R.L. Morgan (2005), Crystallograpy of Carrollite from the Kamoya South II mine, Democratic Republic of Congo, Rochester Mineralogical Symposium.
  • Lualaba
    • Kolwezi mining district
[Guite] Lei, Z., Chen, X., Wang, J., Zhang, J., Huang, Y., Lu, Z. and Du, F. (2017) Guite, IMA 2017-080. CNMNC Newsletter No. 40, December 2017, page 1581; Mineralogical Magazine: 81: 1577–1581.
  • Benishangul-Gumuz Region
    • Asosa region (Assosa region)
[Magnesiochromite] Pavel M. Kartashov analytical data (2004)
  • North Ostrobothnia
    • Kuusamo
[Trüstedtite] Compt.Rend.Soc.Geol.Finland,(1964) 36, 113-125
    • Nivala
[Tarkianite] K.K. Kojonen et al.: Can. Mineral. 42:539-544 (2004)
  • Brittany
    • Côtes-d'Armor
      • Plestin-les-Grèves
[Magnetite] Pierrot R., Chauris L., Laforêt C. (1975), Inventaire minéralogique de la France, Ed. BRGM, n°5, Côtes du Nord, pp: 110-113
  • Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur
    • Var
      • Cavalaire-sur-Mer
[Chromite] "Mémoire sur le gisement de fer chromaté" in "Journal des Mines", Brumaire, An X, n°LXII - Citoyen Pontier (1799) (in French)
  • Lower Saxony
    • Goslar District
      • Langelsheim
        • Lautenthal
[Bornhardtite] Am. Mineral. (1956) 41, 164-165; Neues Jahrb. Mineral., Monatsh. (1955) 133–142; Weiss, S. (1990) Mineralfundstellen Atlas, Deutschland West. Weise Verlag, München, 320 pages.; Cabral, A. R., Koglin, N., & Bratz, H. (2012). Gold-bearing ferroselite (FeSe2) from Trogtal, Harz, Germany, and significance of its Co/Ni ratio. Journal of Geosciences, 57(4), 265-272.
  • North Rhine-Westphalia
    • Arnsberg
      • Siegen-Wittgenstein
        • Hilchenbach
          • Müsen
[Siegenite] A. Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", Schweizerbart (Stuttgart), 2001
  • Rhineland-Palatinate
    • Altenkirchen
      • Betzdorf-Gebhardshain
        • Schutzbach
[Polydymite] Min Mag 43 (1980), 733; Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
  • Saxony
    • Erzgebirgskreis
[Magnesiochromite] Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 29 (1976), 7
  • Thuringia
    • Ilm District
      • Ilmenau
        • Langewiesen
[Hausmannite] HAUSMANN, J.F.L. (1813): Blättricher Schwarz-Braunstein.- Handbuch der Mineralogie, Vol. 1, p. 293. Göttingen
  • Sulaymaniyah Governorate
    • Qala-Diz (Qala-Dizeh; Qala-Diza)
      • Hero
[Qandilite] Mineralogical Magazine(1985) 49, 739-744
  • Campania
    • Naples
      • Somma-Vesuvius Complex
[Magnesioferrite] Rammelsberg, C. (1858): Über die Zusammensetzung des Titaneisens sowie der rhomboedrisch und oktaedrisch krystallisierten Eisenoxyde überhaupt, VII Octaedrisches Eisenerz vom Vesuv, Annalen der Physik und Chemie, Vol. 180/F2-104, 497-552.
  • Hokkaidō Prefecture
    • Ishikari Subprefecture
      • Sapporo City
        • Minami-ku
[Toyohaite] Min. Jour. (Japan): 15:222-232.; Eijun Ohta (1991) Polymetallic Mineralization at the Toyoha Mine, Hokkaido, Japan. Mining Geology 41:279-295
  • Coahuila
    • Bolsom de Mapimí
[Daubréelite] Arkiv Kemi Mineral. Geol. 17 (1943), 31; Smith J L (1876) Aragonite on the surface of a meteoric iron, and a new mineral (Daubréelite) in the concretions of the interior of the same, The American Journal of Science and Arts 112, 107-110 ; Smith J L (1878) On the composition of the new meteoric mineral daubréelite and its frequent, if not universal, occurrence in meteoric irons, The American Journal of Science and Arts 116, 270-272 ; Ramdohr, P. (1973). The Opaque Minerals in Stony Meteorites. Elsevier Publishing Company: Amsterdam, London: New York. 245 pages.; Buchwald, V. F. (1975) Handbook of Iron Meteorites. University of California Press. 1418 pages. ; Grady, M. M., Pratesi, G. & Moggi-Cecchi, V. (2015) Atlas of Meteorites. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, United Kingdom. 373 pages.; Clarke, Roy S., Jr., and Joseph I. Goldstein. (1978) Schreibersite Growth and Its Influence on the Metallography of Coarse-Structured Iron Meteorites. Smithsonian Contributions to the Earth Sciences, number 21, 80 pp
  • Souss-Massa Region
    • Tata Province
[Ahrensite] Ma, C., Tschauner, O., Liu, Y. and Sinogeikin, S. (2013) Ahrensite, IMA 2013-028. CNMNC Newsletter No. 16, August 2013, page 2707; Mineralogical Magazine, 77, 2695-2709.
  • Khomas Region
    • Windhoek Rural
[Spinel] A. Wohlschläger, U. Kolitsch and E. Libowitzky (2001): Large "gahnites" from near Okahua, Namibia: only Fe- and Zn-bearing spinels. Mitt. Österr. Mineral. Ges. 146, 323.
  • Oshikoto Region
    • Tsumeb
[Brunogeierite] NJMM (1972), 263
  • Kaduna
[Gahnite] MINERALOGICAL MAGAZINE, SEPTEMBER 1984, VOL. 48, PP. 425 9; D'Ippolito, V.; Andreozzi, G. B.; Bosi, F.; Halenius, U.; Mantovani, L.; Bersani, D.; Fregola, R. A. (2013): Crystallographic and spectroscopic characterization of a natural Zn-rich spinel approaching the endmember gahnite (ZnAl2O4) composition. Mineralogical Magazine 77, 2941-2953.
  • Nordland
    • Hemnes
      • Bleikvasslia
[Gahnite] Vokes, F.M. (1962): Contributions to the mineralogy of Norway. No. 15. Gahnite in the Bleikvassli ore. Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift 42,317-329 + Neumann (1985, p. 55).
  • Troms og Finnmark
    • Kautokeino
[Magnetite var: Vanodiochrome spinel] Mathiesen, C.O. (1969): An occurence of unusual minerals at Bidjovagge, Northern Norway.Norges Geologiske Undersøkelse 266, 86-104
  • Leiria
    • Nazaré
      • Nazaré
[Magnetite] Collected by Rui Nunes in several visits to the locality
  • Viana do Castelo
  • Irkutsk Oblast
    • Lake Baikal area
      • Slyudyanka (Sludyanka)
[Florensovite] ZVMO,(1989) 118, n1, 57-64; Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
  • Kamchatka Krai
[Cuprorhodsite] Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow; Sidorov, E. G., Tolstykh, N. D., Podlipsky, M. Y., & Pakhomov, I. O. (2004). Placer PGE minerals from the Filippa clinopyroxenite-dunite massif (Kamchatka). Geologiya i Geofizika (Russian Geology and Geophysics), 45(9), 1128-1144.
    • Tolbachik volcano
      • Great Fissure eruption (Main Fracture)
        • Northern Breakthrough (North Breach)
          • Second scoria cone
[Thermaerogenite] Pekov, I.V., Sandalov, F.D., Koshlyakova, N.N., Polekhovsky, Y.S., Vigasina, M.F., Britvin, S.N. and Sidorov, E.G. (2018) Thermaerogenite, IMA 2018-021. CNMNC Newsletter No. 44, August 2018, page xxx; Mineralogical Magazine. 82: xxx–xxx.; Pekov, I.V., Sandalov, F.D., Koshlyakova, N.N., Vigasina, M.F., Polekhovsky, Y.S., Britvin, S.N., Sidorov, E.G., Turchkova, A.G. (2018): Copper in Natural Oxide Spinels: The New Mineral Thermaerogenite CuAl2O4, Cuprospinel and Cu-Enriched Varieties of Other Spinel-Group Members from Fumaroles of the Tolbachik Volcano, Kamchatka, Russia. Minerals, 8: 498; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8110498.
      • Plosky Tolbachik volcano
[Deltalumite] Pekov, I.V., Anikin, L.P., Chukanov, N.V., Belakovskiy, D.I., Yapaskurt, V.O., Sidorov, E.G., Britvin, S.N., Zubkova, N.V. (2016): Deltalumite, IMA 2016-027. CNMNC Newsletter No. 32, August 2016, page 919; Mineralogical Magazine: 80: 915–922
  • Khabarovsk Krai
    • Ayan-Maya district
[Cuproiridsite] Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
[Cuproiridsite] Rudashevsky, N.S., Men'shikov, Yu.P., Mochalov, A.G., Trubkin, N.V., Shumskaya, N.I., and Zhdanov, V.V. (1985) Cuprorhodsite CuRh2S4 and cuproiridsite CuIr2S4 - new natural thiospinels of platinum-group elements. Zapiski Vserossiyskogo Mineralogicheskogo Obshchestva: 114: 187-195 (in Russian).; Lennikov, A. M., Zalishak, B. L., & Oktyabrsky, R. A. (2004). The Konder massif of ultramafic and alkaline rocks and related PGM mineralization. In Interim IAGOD Conf. Excursion Guidebook. Vladivostok: Dalnauka (p. 29).
    • Malyi Khingan Range
[Indite] Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
  • Republic of Karelia
    • Zaonezhie peninsula
      • Velikaya Guba uran-vanadium deposit
[Zincochromite] Zapiski Vses. Mineralog. Obshch., 116(3),367-371; The Canadian Mineralogist Vol. 40, pp. 1001-1020 (2002)
  • Sakhalin Oblast
    • Kuril Islands (Kurile Islands)
      • Iturup Island
[Cadmoindite] http://maurice.strahlen.org/kurilles/kurilles.htm; Chaplygin, I. V., Mozgova, N. N., Bryzgalov, I. A., & Mokhov, A. V. (2004). Cadmoindite, CdIn2S4, a new mineral from Kudriavy volcano, Iturup Isle, Kurily Islands. In Proceedings of the Russian Mineralogical Society (Vol. 133, No. 4, pp. 21-27).; Yudovskaya, M. A., Distler, V. V., Chaplygin, I. V., Mokhov, A. V., Trubkin, N. V., & Gorbacheva, S. A. (2006). Gaseous transport and deposition of gold in magmatic fluid: evidence from the active Kudryavy volcano, Kurile Islands. Mineralium Deposita, 40(8), 828.
South Africa
[Maghemite] Wagner P A (1927) Changes in the oxidation of iron in magnetite, Economic Geology 22, 845-846
  • Gauteng
    • Pretoria District (Tshwane District)
[Titanomaghemite] American Mineralogist (1988): 73: 153-160; Mineralogical Magazine 53 (1989), 299
  • Mpumalanga
    • Ehlanzeni District
      • Barberton
[Trevorite] Am Min 57 (1972), 1524; O'Driscoll, B., Clay, P. L., Cawthorn, R. G., Lenaz, D., Adetunji, J., & Kronz, A. (2014). Trevorite: Ni-rich spinel formed by metasomatism and desulfurization processes at Bon Accord, South Africa?. Mineralogical Magazine, 78(1), 145-163.; Zaccarini, F., Tredoux, M., Miller, D. E., Garuti, G., Aiglsperger, T., & Proenza, J. A. (2014). The occurrence of platinum-group element and gold minerals in the Bon Accord Ni-oxide body, South Africa. American Mineralogist, 99(8-9), 1774-1782.; Cairncross, B. and Dixon, R., (1995) Minerals of South Africa. The Geological Society of South Africa: 20; Am. Min. 61, 502 (1976); Am Min 54 (1969), 1204-1208
  • Dalarna County
    • Falun
[Gahnite] [ZK 120 (1964), 476; Clark, 1993 - "Hey's Mineral Index"]; Lucchesi, S., Della Giusta, A., & Russo, U. (1998). Cation distribution in natural Zn-aluminate spinels. Mineralogical Magazine, 62(1), 41-54.; Lasskogen, J. (2010). Volcanological and volcano-sedimentary facies stratigraphical interpretation of the Falun Cu-Zn-Pb-(Ag-Au) sulphide deposit, Bergslagen district, Sweden. MS Thesis; Kampmann, T. C., Stephens, M. B., & Weihed, P. (2016). 3D modelling and sheath folding at the Falun pyritic Zn-Pb-Cu-(Au-Ag) sulphide deposit and implications for exploration in a 1.9 Ga ore district, Fennoscandian Shield, Sweden. Mineralium Deposita, 51(5), 665-680.
  • Östergötland County
    • Finspång
      • Doverstorp ore field
[Vuorelainenite] Zakrzewski, M.A., Burke, E.A.J., and Lustenhouwer, W.J. (1982): Vuorelainenite, a new spinel, and associated minerals from the Satra (Doverstorp) pyrite deposit, central Sweden. Canadian Mineralogist. 20, 281-290.
  • Värmland County
    • Filipstad
[Filipstadite] Amer.Min.(1988) 73, 413-419; Nysten, P., Holtstam, D. and Jonsson, E. (1999) The Långban minerals. In Långban - The mines,their minerals, geology and explorers (D. Holtstam and J. Langhof, eds.), Swedish Museum of Natural History and Raster Förlag, Stockholm & Chr. Weise Verlag, Munich, pp. 89-183.
      • Nordmark District
        • Jakobsberg ore field
[Jacobsite] Dunn,P.J., Peacor, D.R., Valley, J.W. and Randall, C.W. (1985): Ganomalite from Franklin, New Jersey, and Jakobsberg, Sweden: New Chemical and Crystallographic Data. Mineralogical Magazine. 49: 579-582
  • Västernorrland County
    • Örnsköldsvik
      • Södra Ulvön (Ulvö)
[Ulvöspinel] Mogensen, F. (1946): A ferro-ortho-titanate ore from Södra Ulvön. Geologiska Föreningens i Stockholm Förhandlingar. 68: 578-588; Can. Mineral. (1980) 18, 339–341
  • Västmanland County
    • Skinnskatteberg
      • Riddarhyttan
[Linnaeite] Brandt, G. (1746): Rön och anmärkningar angående en synnerlig färg-kobolt. Kongl. Vetenskaps-Akademiens Handlingar 1746, 119-130; Öhman, L. , Nysten, P. and Langhof, J. (2004): Famous mineral localities: the Bastnäs mines - Riddarhyttan ore field, Bergslagen district, Västmanland, Sweden. The Mineralogical Record, 35 (3):187-200
  • Scotland
    • Shetland
      • Mainland
        • Point of Fethaland
[Magnetite] [Specimen in the Natural History Museum, London]
  • Alaska
    • Prince of Wales-Hyder Census Area
      • Ketchikan Mining District
        • Prince of Wales Island
[Magnetite] Min Rec 35:5 pp383-404, 419-420
  • California
    • San Bernardino Co.
      • East Kramer Mining District
        • East Kramer Borate area (East Kramer Colemanite area)
          • Kramer Junction (Beecher's Corners; Beechers Corners; Four Corners)
[Greigite] American Mineralogist (1974): 49: 543-555.
  • Colorado
    • Boulder Co.
      • Gold Hill Mining District
        • Gold Hill
[Polydymite] "Minerals of Colorado, updated & revised", by Eckel, Edwin B., 1997; Rocks & Min.: 16:413; 22:205.; American Mineralogist 28:257-271
    • Clear Creek Co.
[Gahnite] "Minerals of Colorado, updated & revised", by Eckel, Edwin B., 1997; Meeves, H., et al (1966), Reconnaissance of beryllium-bearing pegmatite deposits in six western states, US Bur. Mines Info. Circ. 8298: 24 (Table A-1).
    • Lake Co.
      • Leadville
        • Carbonate Hill
[Hetaerolite var: Hydrohetaerolite] "Minerals of Colorado, updated & revised", p. 272, by Eckel, Edwin B., 1997; Rocks & Minerals 81:5 402-409
    • Park Co.
      • Guffey Mining District
[Gahnite] Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.; The Canadian Mineralogist Vol. 43, pp. 601-622 (2005)
  • Connecticut
    • Middlesex Co.
      • Haddam
        • Higganum
[Magnetite] Foye (1922); Rice and Foye (1927); Williams (circa 1945)
[Magnetite] Schooner, Richard. (circa 1985), Untitled manuscript on central Connecticut mineralogy.
  • Georgia
    • Walton Co.
[Joegoldsteinite] Isa J.,Ma, C.,Rubin, A. and Wasson, J. (2015) Joegoldsteinite, IMA 2015-049. CNMNC Newsletter No. 27, October 2015, page 1225; Mineralogical Magazine, 79, 1229 –1236.
  • Maine
    • Androscoggin Co.
      • Auburn
        • West Mount Apatite Mining District
[Gahnite] King, V., and Foord, E., 1994, Mineralogy of Maine, v. 1.
  • Maryland
    • Carroll Co.
      • Sykesville
        • Finksburg
          • Patapsco Mines
[Carrollite] Faber (1852); Dana 7:I:264; Mineralogical Magazine:43:733 (1980).
  • Massachusetts
    • Franklin Co.
      • Charlemont
[Gahnite] Flint, George M. (1908): Gahnite from Charlemont, Mass. American Journal of Science: 25: 584.
    • Middlesex Co.
[Magnetite] Dale, T. Nelson (1910). Supplementary Notes on the Commercial Granites of New England. (USGS Bulletin 470).
  • Missouri
    • Reynolds Co.
      • Ellington
[Siegenite] U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
      • West Fork
[Fletcherite] Economic Geology, 72, 480-486.
  • Nevada
    • Churchill Co.
      • Mineral Basin Mining District
[Coulsonite] Am Min 47:1284-1291
  • New Jersey
    • Sussex County
      • Franklin Mining District
        • Franklin
[Franklinite] Palache(1935):47-48; Dunn(1995):Pt4:566-578.
[Franklinite] Palache(1935):47; Dunn(1995):Pt5:668.
[Franklinite] Palache(1935):47.
        • Ogdensburg
          • Sterling Hill
[Hetaerolite var: Hydrohetaerolite] Palache(1935):53; Baum, J.L.: The Sterling Hill mud zone: The Picking Table:3(2):8-10; Dunn(1995):Pt4:599.
[Franklinite] Palache(1935):47-48; Dunn(1995):Pt4:566-578.
      • Sparta Township
        • Franklin Marble
[Spinel] A Quest for New Jersey Minerals, Robert Speiser (1978):9.
  • New York
    • Orange Co.
      • Town of Warwick
        • Amity
[Spinel] George Robinson & Steven Chamberlain (2007) Gazetteer of major New York State mineral localities. Rocks & Minerals, 82, #6, 472-483.
        • Edenville
          • Edenite Hill
[Spinel] Van King
    • Putnam Co.
      • Town of Southeast
        • Brewster
[Magnetite] (Dana, 1874) (Januzzi, 1966, 1989) (Man¬chester, 1931) (Trainer, 1938, 1941) (Whitlock, 1903) (Nightingale 2001) Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 214..
  • North Carolina
    • Alleghany Co.
      • Sparta
        • Bald Knob
[Galaxite] Rocks & Min.: 60:130-135.
  • Pennsylvania
    • Lebanon Co.
      • Cornwall Borough (Cornwall)
[Magnetite] Rocks & Min.: 13:213.; Econ Geol (1985) 80:418-443
  • Rhode Island
    • Providence Co.
      • Providence
        • Manton
[Magnetite] Miller, C. E. (1971) Rhode Island Minerals and Their Locations, University of Rhode Island, Kingston
  • Wisconsin
    • Dodge Co.
      • Iron Ridge Mining District (Neda Iron Mining District)
        • Iron Ridge Mines
[Magnetite] Hawley, J. & A. Bevan (1934) Mineralogy and genesis of the Mayville iron ore of Wisconsin: american Mineralogist: 19 (11): 493- 514.
[Magnetite] Hawley, J. & A. Bevan (1934) Mineralogy and genesis of the Mayville iron ore of Wisconsin: american Mineralogist: 19 (11): 493- 514.
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