Log InRegister
Home PageAbout MindatThe Mindat ManualHistory of MindatCopyright StatusWho We AreContact UsAdvertise on Mindat
Donate to MindatCorporate SponsorshipSponsor a PageSponsored PagesMindat AdvertisersAdvertise on Mindat
Learning CenterWhat is a mineral?The most common minerals on earthInformation for EducatorsMindat Articles
Minerals by PropertiesMinerals by ChemistryAdvanced Locality SearchRandom MineralRandom LocalitySearch by minIDLocalities Near MeSearch ArticlesSearch GlossaryMore Search Options
Search For:
Mineral Name:
Locality Name:
The Mindat ManualAdd a New PhotoRate PhotosLocality Edit ReportCoordinate Completion ReportAdd Glossary Item
Mining CompaniesStatisticsThe ElementsUsersBooks & MagazinesMineral MuseumsMineral Shows & EventsThe Mindat DirectoryDevice Settings
Photo SearchPhoto GalleriesNew Photos TodayNew Photos YesterdayMembers' Photo GalleriesPast Photo of the Day Gallery

Spinel Subgroup

This page is currently not sponsored. Click here to sponsor this page.
Hide all sections | Show all sections

About Spinel SubgroupHide

A= Fe2+, Mn2+, Mg2+, Co2+, Zn2+, Ni2+
D= Fe3+, Cr3+, Al3+, V3+
X = O2-
Note: the D site is named as B in the IMA Proposal 17-H, to avoid confusion with Boron.
The Spinel Subgroup is a subgroup of the Oxyspinel Group in the Spinel Supergroup.

Classification of Spinel SubgroupHide

IMA Approved Group Name
Approval History:
A classification of spinel supergroup was approved by IMA in march 2018 (Proposal 17-H).

Chemical Properties of Spinel SubgroupHide


A= Fe2+, Mn2+, Mg2+, Co2+, Zn2+, Ni2+
D= Fe3+, Cr3+, Al3+, V3+
X = O2-
Note: the D site is named as B in the IMA Proposal 17-H, to avoid confusion with Boron.

Synonyms of Spinel SubgroupHide

Relationship of Spinel Subgroup to other SpeciesHide

Other Members of this group:
Group Members:
Chromite Fe2+Cr3+2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
Cochromite (Co,Ni,Fe)(Cr,Al)2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
Coulsonite Fe2+V3+2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
Cuprospinel Cu2+Fe3+2O4Iso.
Dellagiustaite V2+Al2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
Deltalumite (Al0.670.33)Al2O4Tet. 4 2m : P4m2
Franklinite Zn2+Fe3+2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
Gahnite ZnAl2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
Galaxite Mn2+Al2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
Guite Co2+Co3+2O4Iso.
Hausmannite Mn2+Mn3+2O4Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/amd
Hercynite Fe2+Al2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
Hetaerolite ZnMn2O4Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/amd
Jacobsite Mn2+Fe3+2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
Maghemite (Fe3+0.670.33)Fe3+2O4Iso. 4 3 2 : P41 3 2
Magnesiochromite MgCr2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
Magnesiocoulsonite MgV2O4Iso.
Magnesioferrite MgFe3+2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
Magnetite Fe2+Fe3+2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
Manganochromite Mn2+Cr2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
Nichromite (Ni,Co,Fe)(Cr,Fe,Al)2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
Spinel MgAl2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
Thermaerogenite CuAl2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
Titanomaghemite (Ti4+0.50.5)Fe2O4Iso. 4 3 2 : P43 3 2
Trevorite Ni2+Fe3+2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
Vuorelainenite Mn2+V3+2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
Zincochromite ZnCr2O4Iso.

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

Spinel Subgroup in petrologyHide

An essential component of rock names highlighted in red, an accessory component in rock names highlighted in green.

References for Spinel SubgroupHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Biagioni, C. & Pasero, M. (2014): The systematics of the spinel-type minerals: an overview. American Mineralogist, 99: 1254-1264.
CNMNC Newsletter No. 42, April 2018, page xxx; Mineralogical Magazine: 82: xxx-xxx (Proposal IMA 17-H).

Internet Links for Spinel SubgroupHide

Significant localities for Spinel SubgroupHide

Showing 62 significant localities out of 25,226 recorded on mindat.org.

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
  • San Luis Province
    • Sierra de Comechingones
[Dellagiustaite] Cámara, F., Bindi, L., Pagano, A., Pagano, R., Gain, S.E.M., Griffin, W.L. (2019): Dellagiustaite: A Novel Natural Spinel Containing V2+. Minerals, 9, 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/min9010004
  • South Australia
    • Mt Lofty Ranges
      • South Mt Lofty Ranges (Adelaide Hills)
        • Mount Barker
          • Nairne
[Manganochromite] Grieco, G., & Merlini, A. (2012). Chromite alteration processes within Vourinos ophiolite. International journal of earth sciences, 101(6), 1523-1533. Graham, J. (1978) Manganochromite, palladium antimonide, and some unusual mineral associations at the Nairne pyrite deposit, South Australia. American Mineralogist, Vol. 63, pp. 1166-1174.
  • Tasmania
    • Burnie City
      • Hampshire district
        • Kara Mines
[Magnetite] Whitehead, 1990; Ralph Bottrill 6/10/2005.; MINERALOGICAL MAGAZINE, SEPTEMBER 1984, VOL. 48, PP. 397-400; Singoyi, B. (1995). Mineral paragenesis, geochemistry and fluid characteristics of the Kara scheelite-magnetite skarn deposit, Northwestern Tasmania (Masters dissertation, University of Tasmania).
  • Newfoundland and Labrador
    • Newfoundland
      • Baie Verte Peninsula
        • Baie Verte
[Cuprospinel] NICKEL, E.H. (1973): The new mineral cuprospinel (CuFe2O4 ) and other spinels from an oxidized ore dump at Baie Verte, Newfoundland. Canadian Mineralogist 11, 1003-1007.
  • Ontario
    • Hastings Co.
      • Faraday Township
[Magnetite] Robinson & Chamberlain (1982) - Mineralogical Record v14 n2; Joyce, D. K. (2006) Calcite Vein-Dikes of the Grenville Geological Province, Ontario, Canada. Rocks and Minerals 81:34-42; Ontario Ministry of Northern Development and Mines,MDI Number: MDI31F04SW00297
    • Lanark Co.
      • Ramsay Township
[Spinel] GSC misc report 41
  • Québec
    • Abitibi-Témiscamingue
      • La Vallée-de-l'Or RCM
        • Réservoir-Dozois
[Magnetite] Olivier Langelier Collection; Hudon, P., Friedman, R.M., Gauthier, G. & Martignole, J. (2006) Age of the Cabonga nepheline syenite, Grenville Province, western Quebec. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, vol. 43(9), 1237-1249.
Czech Republic
  • Plzeň Region
    • Domažlice District
[Hercynite] [AM 69 (1984), 937; Clark, 1993, "Hey's Mineral Index"]
DR Congo
  • Lualaba
    • Kolwezi mining district
[Guite] Lei, Z., Chen, X., Wang, J., Zhang, J., Huang, Y., Lu, Z. and Du, F. (2017) Guite, IMA 2017-080. CNMNC Newsletter No. 40, December 2017, page 1581; Mineralogical Magazine: 81: 1577–1581.
  • Benishangul-Gumuz Region
    • Asosa region (Assosa region)
[Magnesiochromite] Pavel M. Kartashov analytical data (2004)
  • Brittany
    • Côtes-d'Armor
      • Plestin-les-Grèves
[Magnetite] Pierrot R., Chauris L., Laforêt C. (1975), Inventaire minéralogique de la France, Ed. BRGM, n°5, Côtes du Nord, pp: 110-113
  • Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur
    • Var
      • Cavalaire-sur-Mer
[Chromite] "Mémoire sur le gisement de fer chromaté" in "Journal des Mines", Brumaire, An X, n°LXII - Citoyen Pontier (1799) (in French)
  • Saxony
    • Erzgebirge District
[Magnesiochromite] Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 29 (1976), 7
  • Thuringia
    • Ilmenau District
      • Langewiesen
[Hausmannite] HAUSMANN, J.F.L. (1813): Blättricher Schwarz-Braunstein.- Handbuch der Mineralogie, Vol. 1, p. 293. Göttingen
  • Campania
    • Naples
      • Somma-Vesuvius Complex
[Magnesioferrite] Rammelsberg, C. (1858): Über die Zusammensetzung des Titaneisens sowie der rhomboedrisch und oktaedrisch krystallisierten Eisenoxyde überhaupt, VII Octaedrisches Eisenerz vom Vesuv, Annalen der Physik und Chemie, Vol. 180/F2-104, 497-552.
  • Khomas Region
    • Windhoek Rural Constituency
[Spinel] A. Wohlschläger, U. Kolitsch and E. Libowitzky (2001): Large "gahnites" from near Okahua, Namibia: only Fe- and Zn-bearing spinels. Mitt. Österr. Mineral. Ges. 146, 323.
  • Kaduna
[Gahnite] MINERALOGICAL MAGAZINE, SEPTEMBER 1984, VOL. 48, PP. 425 9; D'Ippolito, V.; Andreozzi, G. B.; Bosi, F.; Halenius, U.; Mantovani, L.; Bersani, D.; Fregola, R. A. (2013): Crystallographic and spectroscopic characterization of a natural Zn-rich spinel approaching the endmember gahnite (ZnAl2O4) composition. Mineralogical Magazine 77, 2941-2953.
  • Finnmark
    • Kautokeino
[Magnetite var: Vanodiochrome spinel] Mathiesen, C.O. (1969): An occurence of unusual minerals at Bidjovagge, Northern Norway.Norges Geologiske Undersøkelse 266, 86-104
  • Nordland
    • Hemnes
      • Bleikvassli
[Gahnite] Vokes, F.M. (1962): Contributions to the mineralogy of Norway. No. 15. Gahnite in the Bleikvassli ore. Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift 42,317-329 + Neumann (1985, p. 55).
  • Leiria
    • Nazaré
      • Nazaré
[Magnetite] Collected by Rui Nunes in several visits to the locality
  • Viana do Castelo
  • Irkutsk Oblast
    • Lake Baikal area
      • Slyudyanka (Sludyanka)
[Magnesiocoulsonite] ZVMO,(1995) 124, n4, 91-98
  • Kamchatka Krai
    • Tolbachik volcano
      • Great Fissure eruption (Main Fracture)
        • Northern Breakthrough (North Breach)
          • Second scoria cone
[Thermaerogenite] Pekov, I.V., Sandalov, F.D., Koshlyakova, N.N., Polekhovsky, Y.S., Vigasina, M.F., Britvin, S.N. and Sidorov, E.G. (2018) Thermaerogenite, IMA 2018-021. CNMNC Newsletter No. 44, August 2018, page xxx; Mineralogical Magazine. 82: xxx–xxx.; Pekov, I.V., Sandalov, F.D., Koshlyakova, N.N., Vigasina, M.F., Polekhovsky, Y.S., Britvin, S.N., Sidorov, E.G., Turchkova, A.G. (2018): Copper in Natural Oxide Spinels: The New Mineral Thermaerogenite CuAl2O4, Cuprospinel and Cu-Enriched Varieties of Other Spinel-Group Members from Fumaroles of the Tolbachik Volcano, Kamchatka, Russia. Minerals, 8: 498; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8110498.
      • Plosky Tolbachik volcano
[Deltalumite] Pekov, I.V., Anikin, L.P., Chukanov, N.V., Belakovskiy, D.I., Yapaskurt, V.O., Sidorov, E.G., Britvin, S.N., Zubkova, N.V. (2016): Deltalumite, IMA 2016-027. CNMNC Newsletter No. 32, August 2016, page 919; Mineralogical Magazine: 80: 915–922
  • Republic of Karelia
    • Lake Onega
      • Zaonezhie peninsula
        • Velikaya Guba uran-vanadium deposit
[Zincochromite] Zapiski Vses. Mineralog. Obshch., 116(3),367-371; The Canadian Mineralogist Vol. 40, pp. 1001-1020 (2002)
South Africa
[Maghemite] Wagner P A (1927) Changes in the oxidation of iron in magnetite, Economic Geology 22, 845-846
  • Gauteng
    • Pretoria District (Tshwane District)
[Titanomaghemite] American Mineralogist (1988): 73: 153-160; Mineralogical Magazine 53 (1989), 299
  • Mpumalanga
    • Ehlanzeni District
      • Barberton
        • Bon Accord
[Cochromite] Am Min 65 (1980), 811; O'Driscoll, B., Clay, P. L., Cawthorn, R. G., Lenaz, D., Adetunji, J., & Kronz, A. (2014). Trevorite: Ni-rich spinel formed by metasomatism and desulfurization processes at Bon Accord, South Africa?. Mineralogical Magazine, 78(1), 145-163.
  • Dalarna County
    • Falun
[Gahnite] [ZK 120 (1964), 476; Clark, 1993 - "Hey's Mineral Index"]; Lucchesi, S., Della Giusta, A., & Russo, U. (1998). Cation distribution in natural Zn-aluminate spinels. Mineralogical Magazine, 62(1), 41-54.; Lasskogen, J. (2010). Volcanological and volcano-sedimentary facies stratigraphical interpretation of the Falun Cu-Zn-Pb-(Ag-Au) sulphide deposit, Bergslagen district, Sweden. MS Thesis; Kampmann, T. C., Stephens, M. B., & Weihed, P. (2016). 3D modelling and sheath folding at the Falun pyritic Zn-Pb-Cu-(Au-Ag) sulphide deposit and implications for exploration in a 1.9 Ga ore district, Fennoscandian Shield, Sweden. Mineralium Deposita, 51(5), 665-680.
  • Östergötland County
    • Finspång
      • Doverstorp ore field
[Vuorelainenite] Zakrzewski, M.A., Burke, E.A.J., and Lustenhouwer, W.J. (1982): Vuorelainenite, a new spinel, and associated minerals from the Satra (Doverstorp) pyrite deposit, central Sweden. Canadian Mineralogist. 20, 281-290.
  • Värmland County
    • Filipstad
      • Nordmark district
        • Jakobsberg ore field
[Jacobsite] Dunn,P.J., Peacor, D.R., Valley, J.W. and Randall, C.W. (1985): Ganomalite from Franklin, New Jersey, and Jakobsberg, Sweden: New Chemical and Crystallographic Data. Mineralogical Magazine. 49: 579-582
  • Scotland
    • Shetland
      • Mainland
        • Point of Fethaland
[Magnetite] [Specimen in the Natural History Museum, London]
  • Alaska
    • Prince of Wales-Hyder Census Area
      • Ketchikan District
        • Prince of Wales Island
[Magnetite] Min Rec 35:5 pp383-404, 419-420
  • Colorado
    • Clear Creek Co.
[Gahnite] "Minerals of Colorado, updated & revised", by Eckel, Edwin B., 1997; Meeves, H., et al (1966), Reconnaissance of beryllium-bearing pegmatite deposits in six western states, US Bur. Mines Info. Circ. 8298: 24 (Table A-1).
    • Lake Co.
      • Leadville District
        • Leadville
          • Carbonate Hill
[Hetaerolite var: Hydrohetaerolite] "Minerals of Colorado, updated & revised", p. 272, by Eckel, Edwin B., 1997; Rocks & Minerals 81:5 402-409
    • Park Co.
      • Guffey District
[Gahnite] Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.; The Canadian Mineralogist Vol. 43, pp. 601-622 (2005)
  • Connecticut
    • Middlesex Co.
      • Haddam
        • Higganum
[Magnetite] Foye (1922); Rice and Foye (1927); Williams (circa 1945)
[Magnetite] Schooner, Richard. (circa 1985), Untitled manuscript on central Connecticut mineralogy.
  • Maine
    • Androscoggin Co.
      • Auburn
        • West Mount Apatite District
[Gahnite] King, V., and Foord, E., 1994, Mineralogy of Maine, v. 1.
  • Massachusetts
    • Franklin Co.
      • Charlemont
[Gahnite] Flint, George M. (1908): Gahnite from Charlemont, Mass. American Journal of Science: 25: 584.
    • Middlesex Co.
[Magnetite] Dale, T. Nelson (1910). Supplementary Notes on the Commercial Granites of New England. (USGS Bulletin 470).
  • Nevada
    • Churchill Co.
      • Mineral Basin District
[Coulsonite] Am Min 47:1284-1291
  • New Jersey
    • Sussex Co.
      • Franklin Mining District
        • Franklin
[Franklinite] Palache(1935):47-48; Dunn(1995):Pt4:566-578.
[Franklinite] Palache(1935):47; Dunn(1995):Pt5:668.
[Franklinite] Palache(1935):47.
        • Ogdensburg
          • Sterling Hill
[Hetaerolite var: Hydrohetaerolite] Palache(1935):53; Baum, J.L.: The Sterling Hill mud zone: The Picking Table:3(2):8-10; Dunn(1995):Pt4:599.
[Franklinite] Palache(1935):47-48; Dunn(1995):Pt4:566-578.
      • Sparta Township
        • Franklin Marble
[Spinel] A Quest for New Jersey Minerals, Robert Speiser (1978):9.
  • New York
    • Orange Co.
      • Town of Warwick
        • Amity
[Spinel] George Robinson & Steven Chamberlain (2007) Gazetteer of major New York State mineral localities. Rocks & Minerals, 82, #6, 472-483.
        • Edenville
          • Edenite Hill
[Spinel] Van King
    • Putnam Co.
      • Town of Southeast
        • Brewster
[Magnetite] (Dana, 1874) (Januzzi, 1966, 1989) (Man¬chester, 1931) (Trainer, 1938, 1941) (Whitlock, 1903) (Nightingale 2001) Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 214..
  • North Carolina
    • Alleghany Co.
      • Sparta
        • Bald Knob
[Galaxite] Rocks & Min.: 60:130-135.
  • Pennsylvania
    • Lebanon Co.
      • Cornwall Borough (Cornwall)
[Magnetite] Rocks & Min.: 13:213.; Econ Geol (1985) 80:418-443
  • Rhode Island
    • Providence Co.
      • Providence
        • Manton
[Magnetite] Miller, C. E. (1971) Rhode Island Minerals and Their Locations, University of Rhode Island, Kingston
  • Wisconsin
    • Dodge Co.
      • Iron Ridge District (Neda Iron District)
        • Iron Ridge Mines
[Magnetite] Hawley, J. & A. Bevan (1934) Mineralogy and genesis of the Mayville iron ore of Wisconsin: american Mineralogist: 19 (11): 493- 514.
[Magnetite] Hawley, J. & A. Bevan (1934) Mineralogy and genesis of the Mayville iron ore of Wisconsin: american Mineralogist: 19 (11): 493- 514.
Mineral and/or Locality  
Mindat.org is an outreach project of the Hudson Institute of Mineralogy, a 501(c)(3) not-for-profit organization. Public Relations by Blytheweigh.
Copyright © mindat.org and the Hudson Institute of Mineralogy 1993-2019, except where stated. Most political location boundaries are © OpenStreetMap contributors. Mindat.org relies on the contributions of thousands of members and supporters.
Privacy Policy - Terms & Conditions - Contact Us Current server date and time: June 15, 2019 21:39:27 Page generated: June 6, 2019 05:37:58
Go to top of page