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Barstowite

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Formula:
Pb4Cl6(CO3) · H2O
Colour:
Transparent to white
Lustre:
Adamantine
Hardness:
3
Specific Gravity:
5.71
Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Name:
Named after Richard W. Barstow (1947-1982), Cornish mineral collector and dealer
Visually indistinguishable from Unnamed (Orthorhombic dimorph of Barstowite).


Classification of Barstowite

Approved
Approval Year:
1989
5/E.08-100
3.DC.95

3 : HALIDES
D : Oxyhalides, hydroxyhalides and related double halides
C : With Pb (As,Sb,Bi), without Cu
12.1.7.1

12 : COMPOUND HALIDES
1 : Miscellaneous
12.1.24

12 : Carbonates with other anions
1 : Carbonates with halides

Physical Properties of Barstowite

Adamantine
Transparency:
Transparent
Colour:
Transparent to white
Streak:
White
Hardness:
Hardness:
VHN100=111(4) kg/mm2 - Vickers
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Imperfect/Fair
Prismatic
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven
Density:
5.71 g/cm3 (Measured)    5.77 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of Barstowite

Type:
Anisotropic
Anisotropism:
weak to moderate
Bireflectance:
Moderate grey to dark grey
Internal Reflections:
Abundant

Chemical Properties of Barstowite

Formula:
Pb4Cl6(CO3) · H2O
IMA Formula:
Pb4CO3Cl6 · H2O

Crystallography of Barstowite

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:
P21/m
Cell Parameters:
a = 4.2043(8) Å, b = 9.199(2) Å, c = 16.663(3) Å
β = 91.82(1)°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.457 : 1 : 1.811
Unit Cell V:
644.12 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
2
Comment:
Two published structure refinements are in good agreement.

X-Ray Powder Diffraction

Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
4.16 (5)
4.02 (10)
3.79 (3)
3.045 (3)
2.377 (6)
2.296 (8)
2.108 (4)
Comments:
Data for type material.

Type Occurrence of Barstowite

Place of Conservation of Type Material:
The Natural History Museum, London [statutory name: British Museum(Natural History)] as specimen BM 1990, 25 and polished section E. 1353.

Synonyms of Barstowite

Other Language Names for Barstowite

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping

3.DC.05LaurionitePbCl(OH)
3.DC.05ParalaurionitePbCl(OH)
3.DC.10FiedleritePb3FCl4(OH) · H2O
3.DC.15PenfielditePb2Cl3(OH)
3.DC.20LaurelitePb7F12Cl2
3.DC.25Bismoclite(BiO)Cl
3.DC.25Daubréeite(BiO)(OH,Cl)
3.DC.25MatlockitePbFCl
3.DC.25RorisiteCaFCl
3.DC.25Zavaritskite(BiO)F
3.DC.25ZhangpeishaniteBaFCl
3.DC.30NadoritePbSbClO2
3.DC.30PeritePbBiClO2
3.DC.35AravaipaitePb3AlF9 · H2O
3.DC.37CalcioaravaipaitePbCa2AlF9
3.DC.40ThorikositePb3Cl2(OH)(SbO3,AsO3)
3.DC.45MereheaditePb47Cl25(OH)13O24(CO3)(BO3)2
3.DC.50BlixitePb2(O,OH)2Cl
3.DC.55PinalitePb3WO5Cl2
3.DC.60SymesitePb10(SO4)O7Cl4 · H2O
3.DC.65EcdemitePb6Cl4(As2O7)
3.DC.65HeliophyllitePb6Cl4(As2O7)
3.DC.70MendipitePb3Cl2O2
3.DC.75DamaraitePb3Cl(OH)O2
3.DC.80OnoratoiteSb8Cl2O11
3.DC.85CotunnitePbCl2
3.DC.90PseudocotunniteK2PbCl4

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals Grouping

12.1.1NorthupiteNa3Mg(CO3)2Cl
12.1.2BarentsiteNa7Al(HCO3)2(CO3)2F4
12.1.3RouvilleiteNa3(Ca,Mn,Fe)2(CO3)3F
12.1.4ChlormagaluminiteMg4Al2(OH)12Cl2 · 3H2O
12.1.5DeferniteCa6(CO3)2-x(SiO4)x(OH)7(Cl,OH)1-2x (x<0.5)
12.1.6BrenkiteCa2(CO3)F2
12.1.7Stenonite(Sr,Ba,Na)2Al(CO3)F5
12.1.8Bastnäsite-(Ce)Ce(CO3)F
12.1.9Bastnäsite-(La)La(CO3)F
12.1.10Bastnäsite-(Y)Y(CO3)F
12.1.11Parisite-(Ce)CaCe2(CO3)3F2
12.1.12Parisite-(Nd)Ca(Nd,Ce,La)2(CO3)3F2
12.1.13Synchysite-(Ce)CaCe(CO3)2F
12.1.14Synchysite-(Y)CaY(CO3)2F
12.1.15Synchysite-(Nd)CaNd(CO3)2F
12.1.16Röntgenite-(Ce)Ca2(Ce,La)3(CO3)5F3
12.1.17Cordylite-(Ce)NaBaCe2(CO3)4F
12.1.19Huanghoite-(Ce)BaCe(CO3)2F
12.1.20Zhonghuacerite-(Ce)Ba2Ce(CO3)3F
12.1.21Cebaite-(Ce)Ba3Ce2(CO3)5F2
12.1.22ThorbastnäsiteThCa(CO3)2F2 · 3H2O
12.1.23PhosgenitePb2CO3Cl2
12.1.25AlbrechtschraufiteCa4Mg(UO2)2(CO3)6F2 · 17-18H2O
12.1.26KettneriteCaBiCO3OF

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Barstowite

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Stanley, C.J., G.C. Jones, A.D. Hart, P. Keller, and D. Lloyd (1991): Barstowite, 3PbCl2 • PbCO3 • H2 O, a new mineral from Bounds Cliff, St Endellion, Cornwall. Mineral. Mag., 55, 121–125.
Am. Mineral., 77 (1992) 670 (abs.)
Kutzke, H., Barbier, B., Becker, P. & Eggert, G. (1997): Barstowite as a corrosion product on a lead object from the Mahdia shipwreck. Studies in Conservation 42, 176-180.
Kutzke, H., H. Klapper, S. Merlino, M. Pasero, N. Perchiazzi, and G. Eggert (2000): The crystal structure of barstowite, Pb4Cl6(CO3)•H2O, determined on crystals from Etruscan slag and from a Late-Hellenistic shipwreck. Zeits. Krist., 215, 110–113.

Internet Links for Barstowite

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Localities for Barstowite

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
(TL) indicates type locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) indicates first recorded locality for everything else. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
Austria
 
  • Tyrol
    • North Tyrol
      • Inn valley
        • Brixlegg - Schwaz area
          • Brixlegg - Rattenberg
            • St Gertraudi
Lapis 19 (7/8):69 (1994)
Czech Republic
 
  • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
    • Central Bohemia Region
      • Příbram
C.Auer (2017)
Greece
 
  • Attikí Prefecture (Attica; Attika)
    • Lavrion District (Laurion; Laurium)
      • Lavrion District slag localities
        • Passa Limani area
Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet, and Rewitzer, Christian (1996) Laurion: The Minerals of the Ancient Slags, Janssen Print, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
        • Sounion area
Laurion the minerals in the ancient slags,by Piet Geloaude etc.
        • Vrissaki area
Uwe Kolitsch (SXRD analysis)
Italy
 
  • Tuscany
    • Grosseto Province
      • Massa Marittima
Kutzke, H., H. Klapper, S. Merlino, M. Pasero, N. Perchiazzi, and G. Eggert (2000) The crystal structure of barstowite, Pb4Cl6(CO3)•H2O, determined on crystals from Etruscan slags and from a Late-Hellenistic shipwreck. Zeits. Kristallogr., 215, 110-113.
    • Livorno Province
      • Campigliese (Campiglia Mountains; Campiglia Ridge)
        • Campiglia Marittima
          • Madonna di Fucinaia (Madonna della Fucinaia) slag heaps
http://www.comune.pisa.it/apsn/Articoli/Scorie/Capattoli.htm
      • Piombino
Cerutti, G. and Preite, D. (1995): Mineralien der etruskischen Schlacken von Baratti, Toskana. Lapis, 20 (4), 13-18; 50 (in German).
Kazakhstan
 
  • Karagandy Province (Qaragandy Oblysy; Karaganda Oblast')
    • Kayrakty (Kairakty)
Kutzke, H., H. Klapper, S. Merlino, M. Pasero, N. Perchiazzi, and G. Eggert (2000) The crystal structure of barstowite, Pb4Cl6(CO3)•H2O, determined on crystals from Etruscan slags and from a Late-Hellenistic shipwreck. Zeits. Kristallogr., 215, 110-113.
Tunisia
 
  • Mahdia Governorate
    • Mahdia
Kutzke, H., Barbier, B., Becker, P. & Eggert, G. (1997): Barstowite as a corrosion product on a lead object from the Mahdia shipwreck. Studies in Conservation 42, 176-180.
UK (TL)
 
  • England
    • Cornwall
      • Wadebridge District
        • St Endellion
Mineralogical Magazine(1991) 55, 121-125; Keller, P., & Lloyd, D. (1991) Barstowite, 3PbCb.PbC03.H20, a new mineral from Bounds Cliff, St Endellion, Cornwall. Mineralogical Magazine 55:121-125
Mineral and/or Locality  
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