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Baumhauerite

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Heinrich A. Baumhauer
Formula:
Pb12As16S36
System:
Triclinic
Colour:
Lead-grey, steel-grey; ...
Lustre:
Metallic
Hardness:
3
Member of:
Name:
Named in 1902 by Richard Harrison Solly in honor of Heinrich Adolf Baumhauer [October 26, 1848 Bonn, Germany - August 1, 1926 Fribourg, Switzerland], Professor of Mineralogy, University of Fribourg, Switzerland.
Compare argentobaumhauerite (formerly 'baumhauerite-2a') and bernarlottiite; also 'UM1966-04-S:AsPb'.

The structure contains isolated and interconnected AsS3 pyramids, as, e.g., in case of dufrénoysite, gratonite, sartorite, and seligmannite.


Classification of Baumhauerite

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
2.HC.05b

2 : SULFIDES and SULFOSALTS (sulfides, selenides, tellurides; arsenides, antimonides, bismuthides; sulfarsenites, sulfantimonites, sulfbismuthites, etc.)
H : Sulfosalts of SnS archetype
C : With only Pb
3.6.13.1

3 : SULFOSALTS
6 : 2 < ø < 2.49
5.6.4

5 : Sulphosalts - Sulpharsenites and Sulphobismuthites (those containing Sn, Ge,or V are in Section 6)
6 : Sulpharsenites etc. of Pb alone

Physical Properties of Baumhauerite

Metallic
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Opaque
Colour:
Lead-grey, steel-grey; iridescent at times
Streak:
Chocolate-brown
Hardness (Mohs):
3
Hardness (Vickers):
VHN100=179
Cleavage:
Perfect
On {100} perfect.
Fracture:
Conchoidal
Density:
5.33 - 5.44 g/cm3 (Measured)    5.42 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of Baumhauerite

Type:
Anisotropic
Anisotropism:
Strong, in dark brown, pale brown, pale brownish grey, green, violet, blue-green or yellow
Reflectivity:
400nmR1=38.0%R2= 42.1%
420nmR1=37.6%R2= 41.9%
440nmR1=37.2%R2= 41.6%
460nmR1=36.8%R2= 41.2%
480nmR1=36.4%R2= 40.7%
500nmR1=36.0%R2= 40.4%
520nmR1=35.5%R2= 39.8%
540nmR1=35.1%R2= 39.2%
560nmR1=34.6%R2= 38.6%
580nmR1=34.2%R2= 37.9%
600nmR1=33.7%R2= 37.2%
620nmR1=33.2%R2= 36.5%
640nmR1=32.5%R2= 35.7%
660nmR1=31.8%R2= 34.9%
680nmR1=31.1%R2= 34.2%
700nmR1=30.5%R2= 33.5%

Reflectance graph
Graph shows reflectance levels at different wavelengths (in nm). Top of box is 100%. Peak reflectance is 42.1%.
R1 shown in black, R2 shown in red
Colour in reflected light:
White
Internal Reflections:
Deep red

Chemical Properties of Baumhauerite

Formula:
Pb12As16S36

Simplified Pb3As4S9.
Elements listed in formula:
Analytical Data:
Binntal, Switzerland; by electron microprobe, average of two analyses.
Pb (47.9)
Tl (0.4)
As (27.2)
Sb (0.6)
S (23.9)
Total (100.0)
Common Impurities:
Sb

Crystallography of Baumhauerite

Crystal System:
Triclinic
Class (H-M):
1 - Pinacoidal
Space Group:
P1
Cell Parameters:
a = 22.74 Å, b = 8.33 Å, c = 7.89 Å
α = 90.35°, β = 97°, γ = 90.42°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 2.73 : 1 : 0.947
Unit Cell Volume:
V 1,483.34 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
4
Morphology:
Short prismatic [010]; tabular {100}; striated on {100} parallel to [010] and on {010} parallel to [001]. Some crystals considerably rounded, as by etching.
Twinning:
On {100}, polysynthetic, with visible twin lamellae.
Comment:
Pseudomonoclinic
X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
4.11 (80)
3.56 (80)
3.43 (80)
3.25 (80)
3.00 (100)
2.94 (100)
2.76 (100)
Comments:
Binntal, Switzerland (close to baumhauerite-2a).

Type Occurrence of Baumhauerite

Place of Conservation of Type Material:
British Museum of Natural History
Geological Setting of Type Material:
Dolomite
Empirical Formula:
Pb2.79As4.38S9.00
Associated Minerals at Type Locality:

Relationship of Baumhauerite to other Species

Member of:
Other Members of Group:
ArgentobaumhaueriteAg1.5Pb22As33.5S72
ArgentodufrénoysiteAg3Pb26As35S80
ArgentoliveingiteAgxPb40-2xAs48+xS112
BarikaiteAg3Pb10(Sb8As11)S40
BernarlottiitePb6(As5Sb3)S18
BoscardiniteTlPb4(Sb7As2)S18
Carducciite(Ag2Sb2)Pb12(As,Sb)16S40
DufrénoysitePb2As2S5
ÉcrinsiteAgTl3Pb4As11Sb9S36
EnneasartoriteTl6Pb32As70S140
GuettarditePbAsSbS4
HendekasartoriteTl2Pb48As82S172
HeptasartoriteTl7Pb22As55S108
HyršlitePb8As10Sb6S32
IncomsartoriteTl6Pb144As246S516
LiveingitePb9As13S28
ParapierrotiteTlSb5S8
PhilrothiteTlAs3S5
PierrotiteTl2(Sb,As)10S16
PolloneiteAgPb46As26Sb23S120
RathiteAg2Pb12-xTlx/2As18+x/2S40
SartoritePbAs2S4
Twinnite Pb0.8Tl0.1Sb1.3As0.8S4
VeenitePb2(Sb,As)2S5
2.HC.05bArgentobaumhaueriteAg1.5Pb22As33.5S72
2.HC.05eChabournéiteTl4Pb2(Sb,As)20S34
2.HC.05dDufrénoysitePb2As2S5
2.HC.05aGuettarditePbSbAsS4
2.HC.05cLiveingitePb18.5As25S56
2.HC.05fParapierrotiteTlSb5S8
2.HC.05fPierrotiteTlSb3As2S8
2.HC.05dRathiteAg2Pb12-xTlx/2As18+x/2S40
2.HC.05aSartoritePbAs2S4
2.HC.05aTwinnitePbSb2S4
2.HC.05dVeenitePb2(Sb,As)2S5
2.HC.05gMarumoitePb8As10S23
2.HC.05eDalnegroiteTl4Pb2(As,Sb)20S34
2.HC.10aFülöppitePb3Sb8S15
2.HC.10cHeteromorphitePb7Sb8S19
2.HC.10bPlagionitePb5Sb8S17
2.HC.10dRayite(Ag,Tl)2Pb8Sb8S21
2.HC.10dSemseyitePb9Sb8S21
2.HC.15BoulangeritePb5Sb4S11
2.HC.15FalkmanitePb3Sb2S6
2.HC.20RobinsonitePb4Sb6S13
2.HC.25MoëloitePb6Sb6S17
2.HC.30DadsonitePb23Sb25S60Cl
2.HC.35OwyheeiteAg3Pb10Sb11S28
2.HC.35ZoubekiteAgPb4Sb4S10
2.HC.40ParasterryiteAg4Pb20Sb14As10S58
5.6.1SartoritePbAs2S4
5.6.2DufrénoysitePb2As2S5
5.6.3LiveingitePb18.5As25S56
5.6.5GratonitePb9As4S15
5.6.6JordanitePb14(As,Sb)6S23
5.6.7FülöppitePb3Sb8S15
5.6.8ZinkenitePb9Sb22S42
5.6.9PlagionitePb5Sb8S17
5.6.10HeteromorphitePb7Sb8S19
5.6.11LaunayiteCuPb10(Sb,As)13S30
5.6.12PlayfairitePb16(Sb,As)19S44Cl
5.6.13SemseyitePb9Sb8S21
5.6.14MadocitePb18(Sb,As)15S41
5.6.15BoulangeritePb5Sb4S11
5.6.17RobinsonitePb4Sb6S13
5.6.18GuettarditePbSbAsS4
5.6.19TwinnitePbSb2S4
5.6.20VeenitePb2(Sb,As)2S5
5.6.21SorbyitePb9Cu(Sb,As)11S26
5.6.22GeocronitePb14(Sb,As)6S23
5.6.23GalenobismutitePbBi2S4
5.6.24CosalitePb2Bi2S5
5.6.25CannizzaritePb8Bi10S23
5.6.26LillianitePb3-2xAgxBi2+xS6
5.6.27Giessenite(Cu,Fe)2Pb26.4(Bi,Sb)19.6S57
5.6.28Platynite
5.6.29XilingolitePb3Bi2S6
5.6.30WeibulliteAg0.3Pb5.3Bi8.3(S,Se)18
5.6.31WittitePb8Bi10(S,Se)23
5.6.32KirkiitePb10Bi3As3S19
5.6.33UstarasitePbBi6S10(?)

Other Names for Baumhauerite

Name in Other Languages:
Simplified Chinese:褐硫砷铅矿
Spanish:Baumhauerita
Traditional Chinese:褐硫砷鉛礦

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Baumhauerite

Reference List:
Solly, R.H. (1902) Sulpharsenites of lead from the Binnenthal. Part III. Baumhauerite, a new mineral; and dufrenoysite. Mineralogical Magazine: 13: 151-171.

Solly R.H. (1903), Zs. Kr.: 37: 321.

Palache, C. (1938) Crystallographic studies of the sulphosalts: baumhauerite, meneghinite, jordanite, diaphorite, freieslebenite with x-ray studies by W. E. Richmond and Horace Winchell. American Mineralogist: 23: 821-836.

Palache, C., Berman, H., Frondel, C. (1944) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 460-462.

Rösch, H., Hellner, E. (1959) Hydrothermale untersuchungen am system PbS - As2S3. Naturwissenschaften: 46: 72-72.

Le Bihan, M.T. (1961) Contribution à l'étude structurale des sulfures d'arsenic et de plomb. Structure de la baumhauerite. Acta Crystallographica: 14: 1210-1211.

Engel, P., Nowacki, W. (1969) Die Kristallstruktur von Baumhauerit. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie: 129: 178–202.

Pring, A., Birch, W. D., Sewell, D., Graeser, S., Edenharter, A., Criddle, A. (1990) Baumhauerite-2a: A silver-bearing mineral with baumhauerite-like supercell from Lengenbach, Switzerland. American Mineralogist: 75: 915-922.

Pring, A., Graeser, S. (1994) Polytypism in baumhauerite. American Mineralogist: 79: 302-307.

Pring, A. (2001) The crystal chemistry of the sartorite group minerals from Lengenbach, Binntal, Switzerland – a HRTEM study. Schweizerische Mineralogische und Petrogaphische Mitteilungen: 81: 69–87.

Roth, P. (2007) Baumhauerite. in Minerals first discovered in Switzerland and minerals named after Swiss individuals, Kristallografik Verlag (Achberg Germany): 38-39.

Kharbish, S. (2016) Micro‐Raman spectroscopic investigations of extremely scarce Pb–As sulfosalt minerals: baumhauerite, dufrénoysite, gratonite, sartorite, and seligmannite. Journal of Raman Spectroscopy: 47: 1360-1366.

Topa, D., Makovicky, E. (2016) Argentobaumhauerite: name, chemistry, crystal structure, comparison with baumhauerite, and position in the Lengenbach mineralization sequence. Mineralogical Magazine: 80: 819-840.

Internet Links for Baumhauerite

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Localities for Baumhauerite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
(TL) indicates type locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) indicates first recorded locality for everything else. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
Australia
 
  • South Australia
    • Flinders Ranges
      • North Flinders Ranges
        • Leigh Creek
          • Puttapa
Elliott, P. (1991): Minerals from the Beltana mine, Puttapa, South Australia. Mineralogical Record 22, 449-456.
Austria
 
  • Salzburg
    • Golling
      • Grubach
        • Moosegg
Graeser, S., Paar, W.H., Chen, T.T. (1986): Baumhauerit, ein zweites Vorkommen (Salzburg / A). Schweizerische Mineralogische und Petrographische Mitteilungen 66, 259-266; A. Strasser: Die Minerale Salzburgs (1989); Topa, D. & Makovicky, E. (2016): Argentobaumhauerite: name, chemistry, crystal structure, comparison with baumhauerite, and position in the Lengenbach mineralization sequence. Mineralogical Magazine, 80, 819-840.
  • Styria
    • Bruck an der Mur
      • Laming valley
        • Oberort-Tragöß
Kolitsch, U. (2009): 1607) Turmalin und ein Baumhauerit-Mineral aus dem Gipsabbau Oberort-Tragöß, Bruck an der Mur, Steiermark. P. 226 in: Niedermayr, G. et al. (2009): Neue Mineralfunde aus Österreich LVIII. Carinthia II, 199/119, 189-236.
Canada
 
  • Ontario
    • Hastings Co.
      • Madoc area
        • Huntingdon Township
JAMBOR, J.L. (1967): New lead sulfantimonides from Madoc, Ontario. 2. Mineral descriptions. Canadian Mineralogist 9, 191-213. JAMBOR, J.L., LAFLAMME, J.H.G. & WALKER, D.A. (1982): A re-examination of the Madoc sulfosalts. Mineralogical Record 13, 93-100.
    • Thunder Bay District
      • Bomby Township
ontariominerals.com; Mineralogical Magazine 1988 52 : 691-697
Ann P.Sabina (1991), Rocks and Minerals for the Collector, Sudbury to Winnipeg. GSC Misc. Report 49. p.86
Iran
 
  • West Azarbaijan Province (West Azerbaijan Province)
    • Takab (Takan Tepe)
Asadi, H.H., Voncken, J.H.L, Kühnel, R.A., and Hale, M. (2000): Mineralium Deposita 35, 656-671.
Italy
 
  • Tuscany
    • Lucca Province
      • Apuan Alps
        • Seravezza
Orlandi et al., 1996. Minerals of the Seravezza Marble, Tuscany, Italy. Mineralogical Record, 27: 47-58. ; Orlandi, P. & Criscuolo, A. (2009). Minerali del marmo delle Alpi Apuane. Pacini editore, Pisa, 180 pp.
Japan
 
  • Honshu Island
    • Tohoku Region
      • Aomori Prefecture
        • Shimokita peninsula
K Jouhou, # 131 (15-4-2002)
Kyrgyzstan
 
  • Osh Oblast
    • Alai Range (Alay Range)
      • Fergana Valley
[Lapis 11:11-24]
        • Khaidarkan Sb-Hg deposit (Chaidarkan)
Handbook of Mineralogy
Switzerland (TL)
 
  • Wallis (Valais)
    • Binn Valley
      • Fäld (Imfeld; Im Feld; Feld)
Mineralogical Magazine(1902) 13, 151-160(-171)
USA
 
  • Alaska
    • Yukon-Koyukuk Borough
      • Kaiyuh District
Van King specimen
  • Colorado
    • San Juan Co.
      • Red Mountain District
        • Anvil Mountain
Cobban, R., Collins, D., Foord, E., Kile, D., Modreski, P. and Murphy, J. (1997): Minerals of Colorado, updated & revised, 665 pp.
  • New Jersey
    • Sussex Co.
      • Franklin Mining District
        • Ogdensburg
          • Sterling Hill
J. Cianciulli, Curator, Franklin Mineral Museum
Dunn(1995):Pt4:553.
  • Pennsylvania
    • Blair Co.
      • Birmingham
Robert C. Smith, II Ph.D., P.G.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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