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Lead Grey
Specific Gravity:
5.60 (Calculated)
Crystal System:
Named in 1982 by Élisabeth Oudin, Paul Picot, François Pillard, Yves Moëlo, Ernest A. J. Burke, and Marek A. Zakrzewski in honor of Alberto Benavides de la Quintana [October 21, 1920 Lima, Peru - February 12, 2014 Lima, Peru], mining engineer, for his contributions to mining development in Peru. He received his training from the colegio La Inmaculada and later the School of Engineers [now the National University of Engineering (UNI)] in 1941 and was awarded a scholarship by Cerro de Pasco Corporation to continue his studies towards a master’s degree in geology at Harvard University. Returning to Perú in 1944 he continued as a geologist at Cerro de Pasco and Goyarisquisga, where, due to his hard work and dedication, he was promoted in 1950, at age 30 to be the first head of exploration of the corporation. Under his leadership, Minas Buenaventura acquired the Julcani mine in 1953. Between 1956 and 1975 the company added the El Brocal, Orcopampa and Uchucchacua mines to its direct operations. In recognition of his business acumen, he was invested as President of Cerro de Pasco, where he led the Peruvian branch of the corporation from 1964 through to 1971. In 2013, the company produced 15% of Peru’s 3.6 million kg of silver and 12% of Peru’s 151,000 kg of gold. Benavides was always promoting and marketing of Peru as a mining destination made the country attractive to mining companies all around the world, but for the benefit of his fellow countrymen as well as for his mining interests. Newmont, BRGM, Noranda, BHP, Southern Peru, Rio Tinto, Barrick, Cyprus Minerals, Phelps Dodge, Freeport, etc. were all convinced to do business in Peru in the office of Alberto Benavides.
He founded the mining faculty of the Universidad Católica del Peru in 1971. Also in the 1970s, he was leading mining at the Uchucchacua mine and fostered innovative research in treating the unusual ores present there. Alberto also founded Buenaventura Ingenieros SA (BISA) in 1977 to retain talented engineers in Perú and develop new mining projects. During this period he was ably supported by his brother, Jorge Benavides de la Quintana, in running Buenaventura. Alberto Benavides was always up to date with all the geological and exploration techniques and he kept a close relationship with Harvard and academia. He headed the privatization committee of Centromin Peru, and he died during his term as president of the Patronato UNI, an institution created to raise funds for research grants and scholarships for the best UNI students. Because of his many accomplishments, Benavides, received many awards and recognitions. In 1980 he was honored by the French Government as Oficial in the Orden Nacional al Merito for his contribution to the Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minieres (BRGM) in its exploration and research work in Peru. He received the Society of Mining and Metallurgy of America's (SME) Gold Medal Award in 2000 and the Society of Economic Geologists (SEG) honoured him with the prestigious Penrose Medal in 2001. Harvard University honored him as Chair alumni for his Life Time Achievement in 2011, the highest honour Harvard University gives to its alumni. The Sociedad Geologica, where he was twice its president, also honoured him with its highest award; Universidad de San Marcos named him Profesor Honoris Causa in 2001; the UNI, his Alma Mater, did it first in 1995, and he has been recognized by all the professional mining institutions in Perú. He was named Amauta, the highest recognition in education by the Peruvian government. Benevides was also a public servant. He was elected mayor of the city of Cerro de Pasco in 1945, deputy mayor of Lima from 1975 to 1977, Director of the board of the Central Bank of Peru in 1977 and again from 1992 to 2000, president of INCITEMI (Institute for scientific research and mining technology). He headed the privatisation committee of Centromin Peru, and he died during his term as president of the Patronato UNI, an institution created to raise funds for research grants and scholarships for the best UNI students. He is warmly remembered because of his famous quote: “Don’t worry about environmental care costs. Be sure to take good care of the environment, just for its own sake, because God will return the favor with a bountiful reward. ”
Isostructural with:
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Classification of BenavidesiteHide


2 : SULFIDES and SULFOSALTS (sulfides, selenides, tellurides; arsenides, antimonides, bismuthides; sulfarsenites, sulfantimonites, sulfbismuthites, etc.)
H : Sulfosalts of SnS archetype
B : With Cu, Ag, Fe, Sn and Pb
Dana 7th ed.:

6 : 2 < ø < 2.49

5 : Sulphosalts - Sulpharsenites and Sulphobismuthites (those containing Sn, Ge,or V are in Section 6)
8 : Sulpharsenites etc. of Mn, Fe, Co and Ni

Physical Properties of BenavidesiteHide

Lead Grey
2½ on Mohs scale
VHN15=77 - 116 kg/mm2 - Vickers
5.60 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of BenavidesiteHide

Strong with tints of brown and blue
400nmR1=40.7%R2= 42.0%
420nmR1=39.6%R2= 42.0%
440nmR1=39.3%R2= 42.0%
460nmR1=39.5%R2= 42.4%
480nmR1=39.9%R2= 43.0%
500nmR1=39.7%R2= 42.9%
520nmR1=39.5%R2= 42.7%
540nmR1=39.0%R2= 42.4%
560nmR1=38.9%R2= 42.2%
580nmR1=38.7%R2= 41.8%
600nmR1=38.3%R2= 41.3%
620nmR1=37.9%R2= 40.8%
640nmR1=37.5%R2= 40.9%
660nmR1=36.8%R2= 39.5%
680nmR1=36.1%R2= 38.7%
700nmR1=35.6%R2= 37.8%

Reflectance graph
Graph shows reflectance levels at different wavelengths (in nm). Top of box is 100%. Peak reflectance is 43.0%.
R1 shown in black, R2 shown in red
Colour in reflected light:
White with a greenish tint
Internal Reflections:
Dull red - rare

Chemical Properties of BenavidesiteHide

Common Impurities:

Crystallography of BenavidesiteHide

Crystal System:
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:
Cell Parameters:
a = 15.74 Å, b = 19.14 Å, c = 4.06 Å
β = 91.5°
a:b:c = 0.822 : 1 : 0.212
Unit Cell V:
1,222.71 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Acicular crystals, rounded grains
Polysynthetic parallel to elongation - common

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Powder Diffraction Data:
4.10 (30)
3.85 (20)
3.45 (100)
3.169 (20)
3.098 (20)
2.829 (40)
2.737 (30)
Uchuc-Chacua deposit, Peru.

Type Occurrence of BenavidesiteHide

Place of Conservation of Type Material:
National School of Mines, Paris, France
Geological Setting of Type Material:
Telescoped polymetallic deposit
Associated Minerals at Type Locality:

Synonyms of BenavidesiteHide

Other Language Names for BenavidesiteHide

Relationship of Benavidesite to other SpeciesHide

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Chalcopyrite1 photo of Benavidesite associated with Chalcopyrite on

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

2.HB.05aAikinitePbCuBiS3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
2.HB.05aFriedrichitePb5Cu5Bi7S18Orth. mm2
2.HB.05aGladitePbCuBi5S9Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
2.HB.05cJaskólskiiteCuxPb2+x(Sb,Bi)2-xS5 (x ~ 0.15)Orth.
2.HB.05aLindströmitePb3Cu3Bi7S15Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
2.HB.05bMeneghinitePb13CuSb7S24Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
2.HB.05aEmilitePb2.7Cu2.7Bi5.3S12Orth. mm2
2.HB.05aSalzburgitePb1.6Cu1.6Bi6.4S12Orth. mm2
2.HB.05aPaaritePb1.7Cu1.7Bi6.3S12Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
2.HB.10cEclarite(Cu,Fe)Pb9Bi12S28Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
2.HB.10bGiessenitePb27Cu2(Bi,Sb)19S57Mon. 2/m
2.HB.10aKobellitePb22Cu4(Bi,Sb)30S69Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnnm
2.HB.10aTintinaitePb22Cu4(Sb,Bi)30S69Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnnm
2.HB.15JamesonitePb4FeSb6S14Mon. 2/m : P21/b
2.HB.20dBerryiteCu3Ag2Pb3Bi7S16Mon. 2/m : P21/m
2.HB.20aNagyágite[Pb3(Pb,Sb)3S6](Au,Te)3Mon. 2/m : P21/m
2.HB.20cMuseumite[Pb2(Pb,Sb)2S8][(Te,Au)2]Mon. 2
2.HB.20eLitochlebiteAg2PbBi4Se8Mon. 2/m : P21/m

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide 2/m : P21/b

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

5.8.1SamsoniteAg4MnSb2S6Mon. 2/m : P21/m
5.8.2UchucchacuaiteAgMnPb3Sb5S12Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pmmm
5.8.4BerthieriteFeSb2S4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
5.8.5JamesonitePb4FeSb6S14Mon. 2/m : P21/b
5.8.13BismutohauchecorniteNi9Bi2S8Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P4/mmm
5.8.15HauchecorniteNi9BiSbS8Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P4/mmm
5.8.18MückeiteNiCu(Bi,Sb)S3Orth. 2 2 2 : P21 21 21

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for BenavidesiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Oudin, É., Paul Picot, F. Pillard, Y. Moëlo, E.A.J. Burke, and M.A. Zakrzewski
(1982): La bénavidésite, Pb4(Mn, Fe)Sb6S14, un noveau minéral de la série de la jamesonite. Bull. Minéral., 105, 166–169 (in French with English abs.).
American Mineralogist: 68: 280.
L.L.Y. Chang, X. Li, and C. Zhang (1987): The jamesonite – benavidesite series. Can. Mineral., 25, 667–672.

Internet Links for BenavidesiteHide

Localities for BenavidesiteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
  • Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region
    • Hechi Prefecture
      • Nandan Co.
Xilin Li (1986): Acta Geologica Sinica 60(4)
  • Hokkaido
    • Abuta-gun
      • Takarada
The Mineral Species of Japan (5th ed) Matsubara
  • Honshu Island
    • Chugoku region
      • Shimane Prefecture
The Mineral Species of Japan (5th ed) Matsubara
Peru (TL)
  • Lima Department
    • Oyon Province
Bull.Min.(1982) 105, 166-169; Oudin E, Picot P, Pillard F, Moëlo Y, Burke E A J, Zakrzewski M A (1982) La bénavidésite, Pb4(Mn,Fe)Sb6S14, un nouveau minéral de la série de la jamesonite, Bulletin de Minéralogie 105, 166-169
  • Maramureș Co.
    • Baia Mare (Nagybánya)
      • Chiuzbaia (Kisbánya)
  • Närke
    • Askersund
      • Hammar
No reference listed
  • Östergötland
    • Finspång
      • Doverstorp ore field
Bull.Min.(1982) 105, 166-169; Zakrzewski et al (1982): Canadian Mineralogist 20, 281-290
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