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Aikinite

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Arthur Aikin
Formula:
PbCuBiS3
System:
Orthorhombic
Colour:
Blackish lead-grey
Lustre:
Metallic
Hardness:
2 - 2½
Name:
Named by E.J. Chapman in 1843 in honor of Dr. Arthur Aikin (19 May 1773, Warrington, Lancashire, England – 15 April 1854, Hoxton, London, England), chemist. Aikin was a founder, and for many years Secretary, of the Geological Society of London. He also authored a 'Manual of Mineralogy'.

Various other names were used for the mineral in early literature. Mohs (1804) used nadelerz, Hauy (1809) referred to it simply as bismuth sulfuré plumbo-cuprifère. The name patrinite was used by Haidinger (1845), belonite was used by Glocker (1847), and aciculite was used by Nicol (1849).

Classification of Aikinite

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
2.HB.05a

2 : SULFIDES and SULFOSALTS (sulfides, selenides, tellurides; arsenides, antimonides, bismuthides; sulfarsenites, sulfantimonites, sulfbismuthites, etc.)
H : Sulfosalts of SnS archetype
B : With Cu, Ag, Fe, Sn and Pb
Dana 7th ed.:
3.4.5.1
3.4.5.1

3 : SULFOSALTS
4 : ø = 3
5.7.9

5 : Sulphosalts - Sulpharsenites and Sulphobismuthites (those containing Sn, Ge,or V are in Section 6)
7 : Sulpharsenites etc. of Pb and other metals

Physical Properties of Aikinite

Metallic
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Opaque
Colour:
Blackish lead-grey
Comment:
Tarnishes brown or copper red; sometimes has yellowish green coating. Cream-white in polished section.
Streak:
grey-black
Hardness (Mohs):
2 - 2½
Cleavage:
Poor/Indistinct
on {010}
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven
Density:
7.06 - 7.08 g/cm3 (Measured)    7.255 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of Aikinite

Type:
Anisotropic
Anisotropism:
Distinct
Reflectivity:
400nmR1=39.1%R2= 43.5%
420nmR1=39.2%R2= 44.0%
440nmR1=39.3%R2= 44.5%
460nmR1=39.4%R2= 44.9%
480nmR1=39.4%R2= 45.3%
500nmR1=39.5%R2= 45.7%
520nmR1=39.4%R2= 46.0%
540nmR1=39.3%R2= 46.2%
560nmR1=39.2%R2= 46.4%
580nmR1=39.0%R2= 46.3%
600nmR1=38.9%R2= 46.1%
620nmR1=38.9%R2= 45.8%
640nmR1=38.6%R2= 45.4%
660nmR1=38.3%R2= 44.9%
680nmR1=38.1%R2= 44.4%
700nmR1=37.9%R2= 43.9%

Reflectance graph
Graph shows reflectance levels at different wavelengths (in nm). Top of box is 100%. Peak reflectance is 46.4%.
R1 shown in black, R2 shown in red
Colour in reflected light:
Cream-white
Pleochroism:
Visible
Comments:
Parallel [001] cream-white perpendicular [001] either pure white or light brown.

Chemical Properties of Aikinite

Formula:
PbCuBiS3
IMA Formula:
CuPbBiS3
Elements listed in formula:

Crystallography of Aikinite

Crystal System:
Orthorhombic
Class (H-M):
mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) - Dipyramidal
Space Group:
Pnma
Cell Parameters:
a = 11.638(3) Å, b = 4.039(1) Å, c = 11.319(2) Å
Ratio:
a:b:c = 2.881 : 1 : 2.802
Unit Cell Volume:
V 532.06 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
4
Morphology:
Prismatic to acicular and striated [001] to 1 m, striated parallel [001] , rarely radiating; also massive.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
3.671 (100)
3.615 (69)
3.592 (96)
3.183 (84)
3.166 (80)
2.863 (83)
2.589 (50)
Comments:
Beresovsk, Russia (ICDD 47-1736).

Occurrences of Aikinite

Type Occurrence of Aikinite

Relationship of Aikinite to other Species

Series:
Forms a series with Bismuthinite (see here)
2.HB.05aFriedrichitePb5Cu5Bi7S18
2.HB.05aGladitePbCuBi5S9
2.HB.05aHammaritePb2Cu2Bi4S9
2.HB.05cJaskólskiiteCuxPb2+x(Sb,Bi)2-xS5 (x ~ 0.15)
2.HB.05aKrupkaitePbCuBi3S6
2.HB.05aLindströmitePb3Cu3Bi7S15
2.HB.05bMeneghinitePb13CuSb7S24
2.HB.05aPekoitePbCuBi11(S,Se)18
2.HB.05aEmilitePb2.7Cu2.7Bi5.3S12
2.HB.05UM2000-46-S:BiCuPbCu0.33Pb0.33Bi7.67S12
2.HB.05aSalzburgitePb1.6Cu1.6Bi6.4S12
2.HB.05UM1990-54-Se:BiCuPbCuPb(Ni,Co)0.3Bi3Se6
2.HB.05aPaaritePb1.7Cu1.7Bi6.3S12
2.HB.10cEclarite(Cu,Fe)Pb9Bi12S28
2.HB.10bGiessenitePb27Cu2(Bi,Sb)19S57
2.HB.10bIzoklakeitePb27(Cu,Fe,Ag)2(Sb,Bi)19S57
2.HB.10aKobellitePb22Cu4(Bi,Sb)30S69
2.HB.10aTintinaitePb22Cu4(Sb,Bi)30S69
2.HB.15BenavidesitePb4MnSb6S14
2.HB.15JamesonitePb4FeSb6S14
2.HB.20dBerryiteCu3Ag2Pb3Bi7S16
2.HB.20bBuckhorniteAuPb2BiTe2S3
2.HB.20aNagyágite[Pb3(Pb,Sb)3S6](Au,Te)3
2.HB.20eWatkinsoniteCu2PbBi4(Se,S,Te)8
2.HB.20cMuseumite[Pb2(Pb,Sb)2S8][(Te,Au)2]
2.HB.20eLitochlebiteAg2PbBi4Se8
5.7.1SeligmannitePbCuAsS3
5.7.2BournonitePbCuSbS3
5.7.3MeneghinitePb13CuSb7S24
5.7.4GladitePbCuBi5S9
5.7.5LindströmitePb3Cu3Bi7S15
5.7.6KrupkaitePbCuBi3S6
5.7.7HammaritePb2Cu2Bi4S9
5.7.8FriedrichitePb5Cu5Bi7S18
5.7.10NuffielditeCu1.4Pb2.4Bi2.4Sb0.2S7
5.7.11JaskólskiiteCuxPb2+x(Sb,Bi)2-xS5 (x ~ 0.15)
5.7.12TintinaitePb22Cu4(Sb,Bi)30S69
5.7.13KobellitePb22Cu4(Bi,Sb)30S69
5.7.14ProuditeCuPb7.5Bi9.33(S,Se)22
5.7.15NordströmiteCuPb3Bi7(Se4S10)
5.7.16WatkinsoniteCu2PbBi4(Se,S,Te)8
5.7.17PekoitePbCuBi11(S,Se)18
5.7.18PetroviciteCu3HgPbBiSe5
5.7.19Eclarite(Cu,Fe)Pb9Bi12S28
5.7.20MarriteAgPbAsS3
5.7.21ArgentobaumhaueriteAg1.5Pb22As33.5S72
5.7.22AndoriteAgPbSb3S6
5.7.23RamdohritePb5.9Fe0.1Mn0.1In0.1Cd0.2Ag2.8Sb10.8S24
5.7.24RoshchiniteAg19Pb10Sb51S96
5.7.25OurayiteAg3Pb4Bi5S13
5.7.26EskimoiteAg7Pb10Bi15S36
5.7.27FizélyiteAg5Pb14Sb21S48
5.7.28OwyheeiteAg3+xPb10-2xSb11+xS28, -0.13 < x > +0.20
5.7.29FreieslebeniteAgPbSbS3
5.7.30DiaphoriteAg3Pb2Sb3S8
5.7.31SterryiteCu(Ag,Cu)3Pb19(Sb,As)22(As-As)S56
5.7.32VikingiteAg5Pb8Bi13S30
5.7.33ZoubekiteAgPb4Sb4S10
5.7.34SchirmeritePbAgBi3S6 - Pb3Ag1.5Bi3.5S9
5.7.36GustaviteAgPbBi3S6
5.7.37KitaibeliteAg10PbBi30S51
5.7.38TreasuriteAg7Pb6Bi15S32
5.7.39BenjaminiteAg3Bi7S12
5.7.40Lengenbachite Ag4Cu2Pb18As12S39
5.7.41BerryiteCu3Ag2Pb3Bi7S16
5.7.42NeyiteAg2Cu6Pb25Bi26S68
5.7.43Larosite(Cu,Ag)21(Pb,Bi)2S13
5.7.44CupropavoniteCu0.9Ag0.5Pb0.6Bi2.5S5
5.7.45PadĕraiteCu7[(Cu,Ag)0.33Pb1.33Bi11.33]S22
5.7.46RayitePb8(Ag,Tl)2Sb8S21
5.7.47RathiteAg2Pb12-xTlx/2As18+x/2S40
5.7.48HatchiteAgTlPbAs2S5

Other Names for Aikinite

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Aikinite

Reference List:
Mohs (1804): 3: 726. (as nadelerz)

Hauy (1809): 105. (as bismuth sulfuré plumbo-cuprifère)

Chapman, E.J. (1843) Aikenite. in Practical Mineralogy, Hippolyte Bailliere, Publisher (London), 127.

Haidinger (1845): 568. (as patrinite)

Glocker (1847): 27. (as belonite)

Nicol (1849) 487. (as aciculite)

Palache, C., Berman, H., Frondel, C. (1944) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 412-413.

Ohmasa, M., Nowacki, W. (1970) Note on the space group and on the structure of aikinite derivatives. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Monatshefte 1970: 158-162.

Ohmasa, M., Nowacki, W. (1970) A redetermination of the crystal structure of aikinite [BiS2|S|Cu IV Pb VII]. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie: 132: 71-86.

Kohatsu, I., Wuensch, B.J. (1971) The crystal structure of aikinite, PbCuBiS3. Acta Crystallographica: B27: 1245-1252.

Mumme, W.G., Welin, E., Wuensch, B.J. (1976) Crystal chemistry and proposed nomenclature for sulfosalts intermediate in the system bismuthinite-aikinite (Bi2S3-CuPbBiS3). American Mineralogist: 61: 15-20.

Pring, A. (1989) Structural disorder in aikinite and krupkaite. American Mineralogist: 74: 250-255.

Berlepsch, P., Makovicky, E., Balić-Žunić, T. (2001) Crystal chemistry of meneghinite homologues and related sulfosalts. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Monatshefte: 2001: 115-135.

Topa, D., Makovicky, E., Paar, W.H. (2002) Composition ranges and exsolution pairs for the members of the Bismuthinite-Aikinite series from Felbertal, Salzburg. The Canadian Mineralogist: 40: 849-869.

Petrícek, V., Makovicky, E. (2006) Interpretation of selected structures of the bismuthinite – aikinite series as commensurately modulated structures. The Canadian Mineralogist: 44(1): 189-206.

Internet Links for Aikinite

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