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Harry and Bessie Berman
Mn2+Mn23+(PO4)2(OH)2 · 4H2O
Reddish-brown; yellowish ...
Sub-Vitreous, Resinous, Greasy, Dull
Named by Cornelius S. Hurlbut in 1936 in honour of Dr. Harry Berman [February 16, 1902 Boston, Massachusetts, USA - August 27, 1944 Prestwick, Scotland], co-author of seventh edition of Dana's System of Mineralogy, systematic mineralogist, early classifier of the structures of silicates, Professor of Mineralogy, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.
A late-stage secondary hydrothermal mineral replacing primary phosphate species.

Structurally related to ercitite and coralloite (chemically the arsenate analogue of bermanite).

Classification of Bermanite

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)

D : Phosphates, etc. with additional anions, with H2O
C : With only medium-sized cations, (OH, etc.):RO4 = 1:1 and < 2:1

11 : (AB)3(XO4)2Zq·xH2O

19 : Phosphates
12 : Phosphates of Mn

Physical Properties of Bermanite

Sub-Vitreous, Resinous, Greasy, Dull
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Transparent, Translucent
Reddish-brown; yellowish brown to brownish red with red internal reflections in transmitted light
Colour darkens on exposure.
Light red brown
Hardness (Mohs):
On {001}, perfect; on {110}, imperfect.
2.84 - 2.85 g/cm3 (Measured)    2.87 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of Bermanite

Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 1.685 - 1.690 nβ = 1.725 - 1.729 nγ = 1.748 - 1.751
Measured: 72° to 75°, Calculated: 74°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.063
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
r > v weak
Optical Extinction:
Y^a = 32.5°, Y^c = -36.5°, X = b
X = Light red
Y = Pale yellow
Z = Deep red

Chemical Properties of Bermanite

Mn2+Mn23+(PO4)2(OH)2 · 4H2O
Elements listed in formula:

Crystallography of Bermanite

Crystal System:
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:
Cell Parameters:
a = 5.425 Å, b = 19.206 Å, c = 5.425 Å
β = 110.29°
a:b:c = 0.282 : 1 : 0.282
Unit Cell Volume:
V 530.17 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Crystals tabular {010}. Sheaflike aggregates and rosettes commonly as thin films or druses on fractures.
Polysynthetic about [101] with composition plane {101} or about [101] with composition plane {101}, common. As reflection twins on {001} about [100], or with two or more individuals twinned on {301} about [100], producing composite fourlings.
Pseudo-orthorhombic; Space group: P21
X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data:
9.63 (100)
5.10 (16)
4.82 (28)
3.673 (19)
3.263 (23)
3.062 (11)
2.905 (36)
1.828 (10)
ICDD 20-712

Occurrences of Bermanite

Type Occurrence of Bermanite

General Appearance of Type Material:
Narrow veinlets and in drusy cavities in triplite.
Place of Conservation of Type Material:
Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: #97863 thru #97865.; U.S. National Museum of Natural History, Washington, D.C., USA: #120405.
Geological Setting of Type Material:
In granite pegmatite.

Relationship of Bermanite to other Species

Structurally related to group(s):
Arthurite GroupM2+M23+(TO4)2(OH)2 · 4H2O
8.DC.05NissoniteCu2Mg2(PO4)2(OH)2 · 5H2O
8.DC.07EuchroiteCu2(AsO4)(OH) · 3H2O
8.DC.10LegranditeZn2(AsO4)(OH) · H2O
8.DC.12StrashimiriteCu8(AsO4)4(OH)4 · 5H2O
8.DC.15ArthuriteCuFe23+(AsO4)2(OH)2 · 4H2O
8.DC.15EarlshannoniteMn2+Fe23+(PO4)2(OH)2 · 4H2O
8.DC.15OjuelaiteZnFe23+(AsO4)2(OH)2 · 4H2O
8.DC.15WhitmoreiteFe2+Fe23+(PO4)2(OH)2 · 4H2O
8.DC.15Cobaltarthurite(Co,Mg)Fe23+(AsO4)2(OH)2 · 4H2O
8.DC.15BendadaiteFe2+Fe23+(AsO4)2(OH)2 · 4H2O
8.DC.15KunatiteCuFe23+(PO4)2(OH)2 · 4H2O
8.DC.15UKI-2006-(PO:FeHZn)ZnFe23+(PO4)2(OH)2 · 4H2O
8.DC.15UKI-2006-(PO:AlCuFeH)Fe2+Al23+(PO4)2(OH)2 · 4H2O
8.DC.17KleemaniteZnAl2(PO4)2(OH)2 · 3H2O
8.DC.20CoralloiteMn2+Mn23+(AsO4)2(OH)2 · 4H2O
8.DC.22KovdorskiteMg2(PO4)(OH) · 3H2O
8.DC.25FerristrunziteFe3+Fe23+(PO4)2(OH)3 · 5H2O
8.DC.25FerrostrunziteFe2+Fe23+(PO4)2(OH)2 · 6H2O
8.DC.25MetavauxiteFe2+Al2(PO4)2(OH)2 · 8H2O
8.DC.25MetavivianiteFe2+Fe23+(PO4)2(OH)2 · 6H2O
8.DC.25StrunziteMn2+Fe23+(PO4)2(OH)2 · 6H2O
8.DC.27BerauniteFe2+Fe53+(PO4)4(OH)5 · 6H2O
8.DC.30GordoniteMgAl2(PO4)2(OH)2 · 8H2O
8.DC.30LaueiteMn2+Fe23+(PO4)2(OH)2 · 8H2O
8.DC.30MangangordoniteMn2+Al2(PO4)2(OH)2 · 8H2O
8.DC.30ParavauxiteFe2+Al2(PO4)2(OH)2 · 8H2O
8.DC.30PseudolaueiteMn2+Fe23+(PO4)2(OH)2 · 8H2O
8.DC.30SigloiteFe3+Al2(PO4)2(OH)3 · 7H2O
8.DC.30StewartiteMn2+Fe23+(PO4)2(OH)2 · 8H2O
8.DC.30UshkoviteMgFe23+(PO4)2(OH)2 · 8H2O
8.DC.30FerrolaueiteFe2+Fe23+(PO4)2(OH)2 · 8H2O
8.DC.30Kastningite(Mn2+,Fe2+,Mg)Al2(PO4)2(OH)2 · 8H2O
8.DC.30MaghrebiteMgAl2(AsO4)2(OH)2 · 8H2O
8.DC.30NordgauiteMnAl2(PO4)2(F,OH)2 · 5H2O
8.DC.32TinticiteFe3+5.34(PO4)3.62(VO4)0.38(OH)4 · 6.7H2O
8.DC.35VauxiteFe2+Al2(PO4)2(OH)2 · 6H2O
8.DC.37VantasseliteAl4(PO4)3(OH)3 · 9H2O
8.DC.40CacoxeniteFe243+Al(PO4)17O6(OH)12 · 17H2O
8.DC.45Gormanite(Fe2+,Mg)3(Al,Fe3+)4(PO4)4(OH)6 · 2H2O
8.DC.45Souzalite(Mg,Fe2+)3(Al,Fe3+)4(PO4)4(OH)6 · 2H2O
8.DC.47KingiteAl3(PO4)2F2(OH) · 7H2O
8.DC.50WavelliteAl3(PO4)2(OH,F)3 · 5H2O
8.DC.50AllanpringiteFe33+(PO4)2(OH)3 · 5H2O
8.DC.52KribergiteAl5(PO4)3(SO4)(OH)4 · 4H2O
8.DC.55MapimiteZn2Fe33+(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 10H2O
8.DC.57OgdensburgiteCa2Fe43+(Zn,Mn2+)(AsO4)4(OH)6 · 6H2O
8.DC.60Nevadaite(Cu2+,Al,V3+)6Al8(PO4)8F8(OH)2 · 22H2O
8.DC.60CloncurryiteCu0.5(VO)0.5Al2(PO4)2F2 · 5H2O
19.12.1MetaswitzeriteMn3(PO4)2 · 4H2O
19.12.5Niahite(NH4)(Mn2+,Mg)(PO4) · H2O
19.12.6RobertsiteCa2Mn33+(PO4)3O2 · 3H2O
19.12.7PararobertsiteCa2Mn33+(PO4)3O2 · 3H2O
19.12.8SinkankasiteMn2+Al(PO3OH)2(OH) · 6H2O
19.12.9MangangordoniteMn2+Al2(PO4)2(OH)2 · 8H2O
19.12.18LandesiteMn2+3-xFex3+(PO4)2(OH)x · (3-x)H2O
19.12.19Phosphoferrite(Fe2+,Mn2+)3(PO4)2 · 3H2O
19.12.20Reddingite(Mn2+,Fe2+)3(PO4)2 · 3H2O
19.12.21EarlshannoniteMn2+Fe23+(PO4)2(OH)2 · 4H2O
19.12.22Hureaulite(Mn,Fe)5(PO4)2(HPO4)2 · 4H2O
19.12.23Switzerite(Mn,Fe)3(PO4)2 · 7H2O
19.12.24LaueiteMn2+Fe23+(PO4)2(OH)2 · 8H2O
19.12.25PseudolaueiteMn2+Fe23+(PO4)2(OH)2 · 8H2O
19.12.26StrunziteMn2+Fe23+(PO4)2(OH)2 · 6H2O
19.12.27StewartiteMn2+Fe23+(PO4)2(OH)2 · 8H2O
19.12.32WicksiteNaCa2(Fe2+,Mn2+)4MgFe3+(PO4)6 · 2H2O
19.12.35Ludlamite(Fe,Mn,Mg)3(PO4)2 · 4H2O
19.12.37WilhelmvierlingiteCaMnFe3+(PO4)2(OH) · 2H2O
19.12.38FairfielditeCa2(Mn2+,Fe2+)(PO4)2 · 2H2O
19.12.39BeusiteMn2+Mn22+ (PO4)2
19.12.40MesseliteCa2(Fe2+,Mn2+)(PO4)2 · 2H2O
19.12.41Jahnsite-(CaMnFe){Ca}{Mn2+}{Fe22+}{Fe23+}(PO4)4(OH)2 · 8H2O
19.12.42Jahnsite-(CaMnMn){Ca}{Mn2+}{Mn22+}{Fe23+}(PO4)4(OH)2 · 8H2O
19.12.43Jahnsite-(CaMnMg){Ca}{Mn2+}{(Mg,Fe2+)2}{Fe23+}(PO4)4(OH)2 · 8H2O
19.12.47ZodaciteCa4Mn2+Fe43+(PO4)6(OH)4 · 12H2O
19.12.54Lun'okite(Mn,Ca)(Mg,Fe,Mn)Al(PO4)2OH · 4H2O
19.12.55EosphoriteMn2+Al(PO4)(OH)2 · H2O
19.12.56Ernstite(Mn2+,Fe3+)Al(PO4)(OH,O)2 · H2O
19.12.57ChildreniteFe2+Al(PO4)(OH)2 · H2O
19.12.60Whiteite-(CaFeMg){Ca}{(Fe2+,Mn2+)}{Mg2}{Al2}(PO4)4(OH)2 · 8H2O
19.12.61Whiteite-(CaMnMg){Ca}{Mn2+}{Mg2}{Al2}(PO4)4(OH)2 · 8H2O
19.12.62Whiteite-(MnFeMg){(Mn2+,Ca)}{(Fe2+,Mn2+)}{Mg2}{Al2}(PO4)4(OH)2 · 8H2O
19.12.63Rittmannite{(Mn2+,Ca)}{Mn2+}{(Fe2+,Mn2+,Mg)2}{(Al,Fe3+)2}(PO4)4(OH)2 · 8H2O
19.12.64ZanazziiteCa2Mg5Be4(PO4)6(OH)4 · 6H2O

Other Names for Bermanite

Name in Other Languages:

Other Information

Other Information:
Soluble in nitric acid.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Bermanite

Reference List:
Hurlbut, C.S., Jr. (1936): A new phosphate, bermanite, occurring with triplite in Arizona, American Mineralogist: 21: 656-661.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 967-968.

Leavens, P.B. (1967): Reexamination of bermanite, American Mineralogist: 52: 1060-1066.

Hurlbut, C.S., Jr. and L.F. Aristarain (1968) Bermanite, and its occurrence in C´ordoba, Argentina. American Mineralogist: 53: 416–431.

Kampf, A.R. and Moore, P.B. (1976) The crystal structure of bermanite, a hydrated manganese phosphate. American Mineralogist: 61: 1241–1248.

Cooper, M. A., Hawthorne, F. C. and Černý, P. (2009): The crystal structure of ercitite, Na2(H2O)4[Mn3+2(OH)2(PO4)2], and its relation to bermanite, Mn2+(H2O)4[Mn3+2(OH)2(PO4)2]. Canadian Mineralogist 47, 173-180.

Internet Links for Bermanite URL:
Please feel free to link to this page.

Localities for Bermanite

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
(TL) indicates type locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) indicates first recorded locality for everything else. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
  • Córdoba
    • Punilla Department
Kampf, A.R., F. Colombo, W.B. Simmons Jr., A. Falster, J.W. Nizamoff (2010): Galliskiite, Ca4Al2(PO4)2F8 x 5H2O, a new mineral from the Gigante granitic pegmatite, Cordoba province, Argentina. American Mineralogist. 95, 392-96
      • Tanti
Dina, H. (1993). Hentschelita en Cerro Blanco, Tanti, Córdoba. Informacion Tecnologica, 48(3-4), 277-282.
Demartin F, Gay H D, Gramaccioli C M, Pilati T (1997) Benyacarite, a new titanium-bearing phosphate mineral species from Cerro Blanco, Argentina. The Canadian Mineralogist 35, 707-712
  • San Luis
    • Coronel Pringles Department
      • Totoral pegmatitic field
        • La Florida
OYARZABAL, J. and GALLISKI, M.A.. Hureaulite, Mn+25(H2O)4[PO3(OH)]2[PO4]2, from different deposits of the Totoral pegmatitic field, San Luis. Rev. Asoc. Geol. Argent. [online]. 2007, vol.62, n.2, pp. 210-216.
  • South Australia
    • Eyre Peninsula
      • Middleback Range
        • Iron Knob
Pring, A., Francis, G. & Birch, W. D. (1992): Nissonite, namibite, and other additions to the mineral suite from Iron Monarch, South Australia. Australian Mineral. 6, 31-39.
    • Olary Province
      • Boolcoomatta Reserve (Boolcoomata Station; Boolcoomatta)
  • Minas Gerais
    • Conselheiro Pena
various photographs
Sergio Varvello collection
Mineralogical Record 24: 384-385
    • Galiléia
      • Sapucaia do Norte
AmMin 89:1087
Cassedanne, J.P. & Baptista, A. (1999): Famous Mineral Localities: The Sapucaia Pegmatite Minas Gerais, Brazil. Mineralogical Record, 30: 347-360 + 365
Handbook of Mineralogy
  • Paraíba
    • Borborema mineral province
      • Pedra Lavrada
Knut Eldjarn collection
Czech Republic
  • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
    • Karlovy Vary Region
      • Horní Slavkov (Schlaggenwald)
        • Krásno (Schönfeld)
          • Vysoký Kámen
Jirásek J. et al. (2016): Fosfáty a doprovodné minerály z živcového lomu Vysoký kámen u Krásna, Česká republika. Bulletin mineralogicko-petrologického oddělení Národního muzea v Praze, vol. 24, No. 1, pp. 80-94.
Democratic Republic of Congo (Zaïre)
  • Sud-Kivu
    • Mwenga
Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. IV
  • Nouvelle-Aquitaine
    • Creuse
      • Crozant
FONTAN F (1976) Les phosphates des pegmatites de la région de Crozant. Bulleti de la société française de minéralogie et de cristallographie 99 p 318-321
  • Occitanie
    • Pyrénées-Orientales
BERBAIN,C., RILEY, T., FAVREAU, G., (2012)Phosphates des pegmatites du massif des Albères (Pyrénées-Orientales), 117, 121-172, le Cahier des Micromonteurs, Association Française de Micromineralogie
        • Collioure (Cotlliure)
BERBAIN. C, RILEY. T, FAVREAU. G, (2012) Phosphates des pegmatites du massif des Albères. Ed Association Française de Microminéralogie
  • Bavaria
    • Upper Palatinate
      • Waidhaus
        • Hagendorf
  • Macedonia Department
    • Kavála Prefecture
      • Kavála
Andrew P. Fornadel, Paul G. Spry, Vasilios Melfos, Michael Vavelidis and Panagiotis Ch. Voudouris (2011): Is the Palea Kavala Bi–Te–Pb–Sb ± Au district, northeastern Greece, an intrusion-related system? Ore Geology Reviews, 39, 119-133.
  • Fianarantsoa Province
    • Amoron'i Mania Region
      • Ampandramaika-Malakialina Pegmatite Field
        • Ambatofinandrahana District
Behier, J. (1960): Contribution á la mineralogie de Madagascar. Annales Géologiques de Madagascar XXIX, Tananarive, 19, p 20
  • Erongo Region
    • Karibib District
      • Okatjimukuju Farm 55 (Friedrichsfelde Farm)
P. Keller and O. von Knorring, Eur. J. Mineral. , 1989, 1, pp. 567-593.
Bezing, L. von, Bode, R. & Jahn, S. (2008): Namibia Minerals and Localities. Edition Schloss Freudenstein, Bode Verlag GmbH, Haltern, 473 pp. (in English)
      • Tsaobismund Farm 85
Von Bezing, L., Bode, R., and Jahn, S., (2008) Namibia Minerals and Localities. Edition Schloss Freudenstein, Bode Verlag GmbH, Haltern. 472 pp (in English).
Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. IV
      • Usakos
        • Sandamap North Farm 115 (Sandamab)
in the collection from F.J.Emmerich
  • Guarda District
    • Gouveia
      • Folgosinho
Pedro Alves collection
    • Guarda
      • Vela
Pedro Alves collection. Characterized by p-XRD and EDS
    • Sabugal
      • Bendada
Schnorrer-Köhler (1991), Mineral Occurrences.
Pedro Alves collection
  • Viana do Castelo District
    • Caminha
      • Arga de Baixo
    • Ponte da Barca
      • São Lourenço de Touvedo
Self-find by Nuno Afonso; XRD analysed.
  • Vila Real District
    • Vila Pouca de Aguiar
      • Alfarela de Jales
Neves, J. M. C. (1960): Pegmatitos com fosfatos de Moreira (Vila Pouca de Aguiar). “Estudos Notas e Trabalhos” do S.F.M., vol. XIV, fascs. 3-4, 257-270.
  • Viseu District
    • Mangualde
Mineralien Atlas
      • Mesquitela
Pedro Alves collection.
  • Western Province
    • Gatumba District
von Knorring, O. and Sahama, T. G. (1982): Some FeMn phosphates from the Buranga pegmatite, Rwanda. Schweiz. Mineral. Petrogr. Mitt. 62, 343-352; Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. IV; Daltry, V.D.C. and O. von Knorring (1998) Type-Mineralogy of Rwanda with Particular Reference to the Buranga Pegmatite. Geologica Belgica 1:1-9
  • Lappland
    • Kiruna district
      • Svappavaara
  • Alabama
    • Coosa Co.
      • Rockford District
        • Two Bit pegmatite
Mineralogy of Alabama Geol Surv Ala. Bull120
Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. IV
  • Arizona
    • Yavapai Co.
      • Eureka District
        • Hillside
          • Bagdad Mine area
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 105, 132-133, 253-254, 275-276; Hurlbut, C.S., Jr. (1936), A new phosphate, bermanite, occurring with triplite in AZ, American Mineralogist: 21: 656-661; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 968; Leavens, P.B. (1967), Reexamination of bermanite, Am.Min.: 52: 1060-1066; Galbraith, F.W. & Brennan (1959), Minerals of AZ: 74, 101.
  • California
    • San Diego Co.
      • Pala District
        • Pala
          • Tourmaline Queen Mountain (Pala Mtn; Queen Mtn)
Seaman, 1976. Pegmatite Minerals of the World.
  • Maine
    • Oxford Co.
      • Greenwood
        • Uncle Tom Mountain
"Maine Mineral Localities, 3rd Ed." by Thompson, W.B., 1998
      • Newry
Van King
King, V. T., 2006, Minerals of Halls Ridge and Plumbago-Puzzle Mountain, Newry, ... Maine, Mineral News, v. 22(6): p. 1-3.
      • Stoneham
"Maine Mineral Localities, 3rd Ed." by Thompson, W.B.,, 1998
  • New Hampshire
    • Grafton Co.
      • Groton
Nashua Mineralogical Society Disp. Cat. 1995.; Rocks & Minerals (2005) 80:242-261 New Hampshire Mineral Locality Index
Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. IV; Mineralogical Record (1973) 4:103-130
  • North Carolina
    • Cleveland Co.
      • Kings Mountain District
  • South Dakota
    • Custer Co.
      • Custer District
        • Custer
Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. IV
Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. IV
        • Fourmile
Rocks & Minerals: 60: 117. Januzzi, R.E. and Seaman, David M. (1976) Mineral Localities Of Connecticut and Southern New York State and Pegmatite Minerals of the World.
        • Pringle
          • Cicero Peak
Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. IV
    • Pennington Co.
      • Keystone District
        • Glendale
Rocks & Minerals: 60: 116.
Rocks & Minerals (2000): 75:3: 156-169.
  • Virginia
    • Amelia Co.
      • Winterham
[Virginia Minerals, Vol 46:2]
  • Wisconsin
    • Florence Co.
R&M 73:11-12 pp 378-399 Wisconsin Mineral Locality Index
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