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About AkaganeiteHide

(Fe3+,Ni2+)8(OH,O)16Cl1.25 · nH2O
Yellowish brown, rusty brown
Specific Gravity:
3.52 (Calculated)
Crystal System:
Named after its discovery locality
The presence of akaganeite indicates high concentrations of chloride in an acidic environment (Ståhl et al. 2003).

Note: The spelling akaganéite is incorrect (Burke, 2008).

Classification of AkaganeiteHide

Approval Year:

4 : OXIDES (Hydroxides, V[5,6] vanadates, arsenites, antimonites, bismuthites, sulfites, selenites, tellurites, iodates)
D : Metal: Oxygen = 1:2 and similar
K : With large (+- medium-sized) cations; tunnel structures

1 : XO(OH)

7 : Oxides and Hydroxides
20 : Oxides of Fe

Physical Properties of AkaganeiteHide

Transparent, Translucent
Yellowish brown, rusty brown
Brownish yellow
3.52 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of AkaganeiteHide

r > v strong

Chemical Properties of AkaganeiteHide

(Fe3+,Ni2+)8(OH,O)16Cl1.25 · nH2O
IMA Formula:
(Fe3+,Ni2+)8(OH,O)16Cl1.25 · nH2O
Idealised Formula:

Crystallography of AkaganeiteHide

Crystal System:
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Cell Parameters:
a = 10.561 Å, b = 3.031 Å, c = 10.483 Å
β = 90.63°
a:b:c = 3.484 : 1 : 3.459
Unit Cell V:
335.54 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Powder Diffraction Data:
1.6434 Å(35)
2.2952 Å(35)
2.5502 Å(55)
2.6344 Å(25)
3.333 Å(100)
5.276 Å(30)
7.467 Å(40)
Pattern of synthetic β-FeO(OH)

Type Occurrence of AkaganeiteHide

General Appearance of Type Material:
fine-grained to powdery masses, consisting of bundles of tiny spindlelike crystals up to 5 µm in length
Geological Setting of Type Material:
oxidation zone of a pyrrhotite-bearing iron sulphide deposit, apparently formed from pyrrhotite by ferric-sulphate-bearing solutions
Associated Minerals at Type Locality:

Synonyms of AkaganeiteHide

Other Language Names for AkaganeiteHide

Simplified Chinese:四方纤铁矿

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
2 photos of Akaganeite associated with MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
1 photo of Akaganeite associated with Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
1 photo of Akaganeite associated with Spinel GroupAE2O4

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

4.DK.FerrihollanditeBa(Mn4+6Fe3+2)O16Mon. 2/m
4.DK.4.DK.FerricoronaditePb(Mn4+6Fe3+2)O16Tet. 4/m : I4/m
4.DK.05aCoronaditePb(Mn4+6Mn3+2)O16Mon. 2/m
4.DK.05aCryptomelaneK(Mn4+7Mn3+)O16Mon. 2/m
4.DK.05aHollanditeBa(Mn4+6Mn3+2)O16Mon. 2/m
4.DK.05aManjiroiteNa(Mn4+7Mn3+)O16Tet. 4/m : I4/m
4.DK.05bMannarditeBa(Ti4+6V3+2)O16Tet. 4/m : I41/a
4.DK.05bHenrymeyeriteBa(Ti4+7Fe2+)O16Tet. 4/m : I4/m
4.DK.05aStrontiomelaneSr(Mn4+6Mn3+2)O16Mon. 2/m : P21/b
4.DK.10Romanèchite(Ba,H2O)2(Mn4+,Mn3+)5O10Mon. 2/m
4.DK.10Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2OMon. 2/m : P2/m

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

7.20.1WüstiteFeOIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
7.20.2MagnetiteFe2+Fe3+2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
7.20.3Maghemite(Fe3+0.670.33)Fe3+2O4Iso. 4 3 2 : P41 3 2
7.20.4HematiteFe2O3Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3c
7.20.5Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
7.20.8Lepidocrociteγ-Fe3+O(OH)Orth. mm2 : Cmc21
7.20.11MagnesioferriteMgFe3+2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
7.20.12MuskoxiteMg7Fe4O13 · 10H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m)
7.20.13SrebrodolskiteCa2Fe3+2O5Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
7.20.14HercyniteFe2+Al2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
7.20.15BrownmilleriteCa2(Al,Fe3+)2O5Orth. mm2

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for AkaganeiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Mackay, A.L. (1962) β-ferric oxyhydroxide - akaganéite. Mineralogical Magazine: 33: 270-280.
Fleischer, M. (1963) New mineral names. American Mineralogist: 48: 708-712.
American Mineralogist (1971), 56, 659.
Murad, E. (1979) Mössbauer and X-ray data on β-FeOOH (akaganéite). Clay Minerals: 14: 273-284.
Buchwald, V.F. and Clarke, R.S., Jr. (1989) Corrosion of Fe-Ni alloys by Cl-containing akaganéite (β-FeOOH): the Antarctic meteorite case. American Mineralogist: 74: 656-667.
Post, J.E., Buchwald, V.F. (1991) Crystal structure refinement of akaganéite. American Mineralogist: 76: 272-277.
Anthony, J.W. et al. (1997) Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3, 7.
Post, J.E., Heaney, P.J., von Dreele, R.B., Hanson, J.C. (2003) Neutron and temperature-resolved synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction study of akaganéite. American Mineralogist: 88: 782-788.
Ståhl, K., Nielsen, K., Jiang, J., Lebech, B., Hanson, J.C., Norby, P., van Lanschot, J. (2003) On the akaganéite crystal structure, phase transformations and possible role in post-excavational corrosion of iron artifacts. Corrosion Science: 45: 2563–2575.
Holtstam, Dan (2006) Akaganéite as a corrosion product of natural, non-meteoritic iron from Qeqertarsuaq, West Greenland. Gff-Uppsala: 128(1): 69-71.
Rémazeilles, C., Refait, P. (2007) On the formation of β-FeOOH (akaganéite) in chloride-containing environments. Corrosion Science: 49: 844-857.
Burke, E.A.J. (2008) Tidying up mineral names: An IMA scheme for suffixes, hyphens and diacritical marks. Mineralogical Record: 39: 131-135.
Scheck, J., Lemke, T., Gebauer, D. (2015) The role of chloride ions during the formation of akaganéite revisited. Minerals: 5(4): 778-787.
Peretyazhko, T.S., Fox, A., Sutter, B., Niles, P.B., Adams, M., Morris, R.V., Ming, D.W. (2016) Synthesis of akaganeite in the presence of sulfate: Implications for akaganeite formation in Yellowknife Bay, Gale Crater, Mars. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta: 188: 284-296.

Internet Links for AkaganeiteHide

Localities for AkaganeiteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
  • Eastern Antarctica
    • Coats Land
      • Pensacola Mts
        • Neptune Mountains
Buchwald, V. & Clark Jr, R.S. (1989) Corrosion of Fe-Ni alloys by Cl-containing akaganéite (β-FeOOH): The Antarctic meteorite case. American Mineralogist 74(5&6):656-667. (May-June1989).
    • Victoria Land
      • Allan Hills
Kuebler, K. E. (2013) A comparison of the iddingsite alteration products in two terrestrial basalts and the Allan Hills 77005 martian meteorite using Raman spectroscopy and electron microprobe analyses: Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets 118 (4): 803-830. (Apr 2013).
  • Chaco Province
    • Doce de Octubre Department
      • Gran Chaco
J. W. Anthony et al.: Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. III (1997)
Atlantic Ocean
  • Mid-Atlantic Ridge complex
Bogdanov, Y.A., Vikent’ev, I.V., Lein, A.Y., Bogdanova, O.Y., Sagalevich, A.M., and Sivtsov, A.V. (2008): Geology of Ore Deposits 50(2), 119-134.
Bogdanov, Y.A., Vikent’ev, I.V., Lein, A.Y., Bogdanova, O.Y., Sagalevich, A.M., and Sivtsov, A.V. (2008): Geology of Ore Deposits 50(2), 119-134.
Bogdanov, Y.A., Vikent’ev, I.V., Lein, A.Y., Bogdanova, O.Y., Sagalevich, A.M., and Sivtsov, A.V. (2008): Geology of Ore Deposits 50(2), 119-134.
  • Wallonia
    • Liège
      • Visé
1./ A.M. Fransolet, J Jedwab and R. Van Tassel, 1974, Inventaire minéralogique de Richelles, Belgique, Annales de la Société Géologique de Belgique, Tome 27, pp. 23-26.
  • Santa Catarina
    • São Francisco do Sul
      • Morro do Rócio
[Mandarino, 1997]
  • Ontario
    • Sudbury District
      • Levack Township
Ames, D.E., Kjarsgaard, I.M., and Douma, S.L., 2003, Sudbury Ni-Cu-PGE Ore Mineralogy Compilation: Sudbury Targeted Geoscience Initiative (TGI): Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 1787
  • Tarapacá
    • Iquique Province
      • Salar Grande
samples analysed by Anthony Kampf, Curator Emeritus of Mineral Sciences at NHM of LAC, California; Kampf, A.R., Sciberras, M.J., Williams, P.A., Dini, M. & Molina Donoso, A.A. (2013): Leverettite from the Torrecillas mine, Iquique Provence, Chile: the Co-analogue of herbertsmithite. Mineralogical Magazine 77, 3047-3054.
  • Guangxi
    • Hechi
      • Nandan County
        • Lihu - Yaochai area
B Hendriksen collection
Czech Republic
  • Vysočina Region
    • Třebíč District
      • Námešť nad Oslavou
        • Vícenice
Skála R., Frýda J., Sekanina J.: Mineralogy of the Vícenice octahedrite. Journal of the Geological Society, 2000, 45, 1-2, 175-192.
  • Greenland
    • Qeqertalik
      • Disko Island
Holtstam, Dan (2006) Akaganéite as a corrosion product of natural, non-meteoritic iron from Qeqertarsuaq, West Greenland. Gff-Uppsala: 128(1): 69-71.
  • Baden-Württemberg
    • Freiburg
      • Ortenaukreis
        • Oberwolfach
Walenta, K. (1992): Die Mineralien des Schwarzwaldes. Chr. Weise Verlag, München, 336 pp. (in German)
  • Lower Saxony
    • Goslar
      • Goslar
        • Astfeld
No reference listed
Schnorrer, G. (1993): Mineralogische Notizen VI. Aufschluss, 44, 44-58.
  • North Rhine-Westphalia
    • Arnsberg
      • Märkischer Kreis
        • Iserlohn
          • Letmathe
Blaß, G. & Graf, H.W. (1993) Neue Funde. Mineralien-Welt, 4 (2), 57-60.; Bender, D. and Krimmelbein, W. (1994) Aktuelle Übersicht: Mineralien der Zinkhütte Genna/Sauerland. Stand Juni 1994. Mineralien-Welt, 4/94, 10.
  • Saxony
    • Erzgebirgskreis
      • Marienberg District
        • Wolkenstein
Tony Nickischer
  • Thuringia
    • Suhl
  • Attica
    • East Attica
      • Lavreotiki
Schnorrer-Köhler, G., Standfuss, L. & Standfuss, K. (1991): Neue Funde aus den antiken Schlacken von Lavrion, Griechenland. Lapis, 16 (6), 21-23; 58.
          • Passa Limani area
Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet, and Rewitzer, Christian (1996) Laurion: The Minerals of the Ancient Slags, Janssen Print, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
          • Sounion area
No reference listed
          • Thorikos area
Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet and Rewitzer, Christian (1996) Laurion: The Minerals in the Ancient Slags, Janssen Print, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
          • Vrissaki area
Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet, and Rewitzer, Christian (1996) Laurion: The Minerals in the Ancient Slags, Janssen Print, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
  • Uttar Pradesh
Organizing Committee IMA-IMAGOD meetings '70. Editorial Committee (1970) Introduction to Japanese Minerals. Geological Survey of Japan
  • Lombardy
    • Pavia Province
      • Barbianello
Fioretti, A.M., Zipfel, J. (2004) Barbianello: An ungrouped nickel-rich iron meteorite found in Italy. Meteoritics and Planetary Science, 39, Issue S8, A143-149.
  • Sardinia
    • Sassari Province
      • Sassari
Ara D., Sanna L., Rossi A., Galli E., De Waele J. (2013): Minerali secondari in ambiente sotterraneo: la miniera dell’Argentiera (Sardegna nord-occidentale). In: Cucchi F., Gudi P. (eds.), Atti del XXI Congresso Nazionale di Speleologia “Diffusione delle conoscenze”, Sessione Attività di esplorazione e ricerca. Trieste 2-5 giugno 2011. Edizioni Università di Trieste, Trieste, 290-295.
  • Tuscany
    • Livorno Province
      • Campigliese (Campiglia Mountains; Campiglia Ridge)
        • Campiglia Marittima
Int. Assoc. of Collectors of Slag Minerals, 10 (2), 4-6.
        • Sassetta
          • Canina Valley
Jansen, H. & van den Berg, W. (1998): Slakkenmineralen in Toscane (Italië). Gea, no. 4, 109-117 (in Dutch).
      • Piombino
Cerutti, G., Preite, D. (1995): Mineralien der etruskischen Schlacken von Baratti, Toskana. Lapis, 20, 4, 13-18 and 50.
Japan (TL)
  • Iwate
    • Oshu City
      • Esashi ward
[Mineralogical Magazine(1961) 33, 270-280; Clark, 1993 - "Hey's Mineral Index, 3rd Edition"]
  • Sonora
    • Trincheras Municipality
      • La Mur
Panczner(1987):87 - 295.
New Zealand
  • Bay of Plenty Region
Johnston, J. H. (1977) Jarosite and akaganéite from White Island Volcano, New Zealand: an X-ray and Mossbauer study. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 41:4, 539-544. Railton, G.T., Watters, W.A. (1990) Minerals of New Zealand. New Zealand Geological Survey Bulletin 104, 89 pages.
  • Waikato Region
    • Taupo District
      • Orakeikorako Thermal Area (Orakei Korako; The Hidden Valley)
Rod Martin, Minerals of Ruatapu Cave, Orakei Korako, Taupo Volcanic Zone. Essence of Microscope (NZ)
  • Greater Poland Voivodeship
    • Poznań Co.
Gurdziel, A., & Karwowski, Ł. (2016). Reevesyt i jarosyt–nowe wtórne fazy w meteorycie Morasko. Acta Societatis Metheoriticae Polonorum, 7, 27-35.
  • Lesser Poland Voivodeship
    • Tarnów Co.
      • Gmina Pleśna
Musiał J. 1996: Results of preliminary Mossbauer spectroscopy analysis of ochres from Janowice, Ciężkowice region, Outer Carpathians.Mineralogia Polonica, vol. 27, no. 1
  • Lower Silesian Voivodeship
    • Jelenia Góra Co.
      • Gmina Janowice Wielkie
        • Miedzianka (Kupferberg)
Gunnar Färber
  • Silesian Voivodeship
    • Wodzisław Co.
      • Radlin
Ł. Kruszewski PXRD data (to be published soon); Kruszewski, Ł., Fabiańska, M.J., Segit, T., Kusy, D., Motyliński, R., Ciesielczuk, J., Deput, E., (2019): Carbon-nitrogen compounds, alcohols, mercaptans, monoterpenes, acetates, aldehydes, ketones, SF6, PH3, and other fire gases in coal-mining waste heaps of Upper Silesian Coal Basin (Poland) – a re-investigation by means of in situ FTIR external database approach. Science of The Total Environment (in press)
Red Sea
J. W. Anthony et al.: Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. III (1997)
  • Crimea
Chukhrov F.V., Gorshkov A.I., Berezovskaya V.V., Sivtsov A.V. (1987) New data on mineralogy of Kerch ores, - Izvestiya AN SSSR, ser. geol., 4, p. 60-77 (in Rus.)
      • Kerchenskyi (Fe)-ore basin
        • Kerchenskoe deposit
Arbuzov V.A. et al. (1967) Kerch Iron-Ore Basin (Kerchenskii Zhelezorydny Bassein)/ - Moscow:Nedra. - 576 h/ (Rus.)
  • Murmansk Oblast
    • Khibiny Massif
  • Ryazan Oblast
    • Kasimov District
Pekov, I.V. et al (2007) European Journal of Mineralogy, 19, 891-898.; Chukanov N V, Pekov I V, Levitskaya L A, Zadov A E (2009) Droninoite, Ni3Fe3+Cl(OH)8·2H2O, a new hydrotalcite-group mineral species from the weathered Dronino meteorite. Geology of Ore Deposits 51, 767-773
  • Sakha Republic (Yakutia)
[World of Stones 12:49]
  • Zabaykalsky Krai
    • Buriatia Republic (Buryatia)
      • Baunt District
Sharygin, V. V. Phase CuCrS Meteorite 2 in Uakit Iron (IIAB), Buryatia, Russia: Preliminary Data. In Minerals: Structure, Properties, Methods of Investigation: 9th Geoscience Conference for Young Scientists, Ekaterinburg, Russia, February 5–8, 2018 (p. 229). Springer.
  • Prešov Region
    • Prešov Co.
Duda et. all.,1981:Minerály severnej časti Slanských vrchov. Min.Slovca,Monografia 2,Bratislava, 98 p
  • Norrbotten County
    • Pajala
      • Kitkiöjärvi
D. Holtstam and J. Söderhielm : "The Muonionalusta iron meteorite from Lapland, Sweden : New finds and findings", 5th International Conference "Mineralogy & Museums", Paris, Sept. 5-8th 2004, Bull. de Liaison de la Soc. Franç. de Minéralogie et Cristallographie, 2004, Vol 16, N°2.
  • England
    • Cornwall
      • Perranzabuloe
        • Perran Iron Lode (Great Perran Iron Lode)
Ryback, G., and Tandy, P.C. (1992): Mineralogical Magazine 56, 261-275; Golley, P., and Williams, R. (1995): Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications (Truro), 104 pp.
      • St Stephen-in-Brannel
Claire L. Corkhill et al (2017) Multi-scale investigation of uranium attenuation by arsenic at an abandoned uranium mine, South Terras
    • Norfolk
      • North Norfolk
J. W. Anthony et al.: Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. III (1997)
Tindle, A.G. (2008) Minerals of Britian and Ireland
  • Arizona
    • Greenlee Co.
      • Copper Mountain Mining District (Clifton-Morenci Mining District)
        • Morenci
Merritt Stephen Enders (2000) The Evolution of Supergene Enrichment in the Morenci Porphyry Copper Deposit, Greenlee County, Arizona. PhD Thesis, University of Arizona
    • Mohave County
      • Cerbat Mts (Cerbat Range)
        • Wallapai Mining District
          • Mineral Park Mining District
            • Ithaca Peak
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd. ed.: 103; Eidel, J.J., et al (1968), Copper-molybdenum mineralization at Mineral Park, Mohave Co., AZ, in J.D. Ridge (ed.), Ore deposits of the United States, 1933-1967, A,I,M.E.: 1258-1281.
    • Santa Cruz Co.
      • Patagonia Mts
        • Patagonia Mining District
          • Washington Camp-Duquesne Mining District
            • San Antonio Canyon
              • Santo Niño Mine area
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 103.
  • Colorado
    • San Juan Co.
      • Eureka Mining District
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.
  • Massachusetts
    • Franklin Co.
      • Rowe
Cerato, A.. 2003: Mineralogical Study of Davis Mine, Rowe, MA, Using X-Ray Diffraction Techniques
  • Minnesota
    • St. Louis Co.
      • Hibbing
J. W. Anthony et al.: Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. III (1997)
  • Nevada
    • Elko Co.
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
    • Humboldt Co.
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
    • Pershing Co.
      • East Range
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
  • New Mexico
    • Taos Co.
J. W. Anthony et al.: Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. III (1997)
  • Pennsylvania
    • Chester Co.
      • Malvern Borough
Jan H.Bernard and Jaroslav Hyrsl,2004,Minerals and their Localities,pg 349
  • Tennessee
    • Cocke Co.
Buchwald, V. F. (1975) Handbook of Iron Meteorites. University of California Press. 1418 pages.
  • Aeolis quadrangle
    • Gale Crater
      • Aeolis Mons (Mount Sharp)
        • Lower Mt. Sharp
          • Kimberley quadrangle
Grotzinger, J.P., Crisp, J.A., Vasavada, A.R., the MSL Science Team (2015): Curiosity's Mission of Exploration at Gale Crater, Mars. Elements: 11: 19-26; Grotzinger, J.P., Crisp, J.A., Vasavada, A.R., the MSL Science Team (2015): Curiosity's Mission of Exploration at Gale Crater, Mars. Elements: 11: 19-26
      • Aeolis Palus
Several papers on: Science Express, , 9 December 2013, summarized by Dr Vivien Gornitz, Bulletin of the New York Mineralogical Club, February 2014.
Grotzinger, J.P., Crisp, J.A., Vasavada, A.R., the MSL Science Team (2015): Curiosity's Mission of Exploration at Gale Crater, Mars. Elements: 11: 19-26
Grotzinger, J.P., Crisp, J.A., Vasavada, A.R., the MSL Science Team (2015): Curiosity's Mission of Exploration at Gale Crater, Mars. Elements: 11: 19-26
The Moon
  • Descartes Highlands
  • Mare Crisium
Mokhov A.V., Kartashov P.M., Bogatikov O.A. (2007) Moon under a microscope, - Moscow, Nauka, p.128 (in Rus.).
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