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LiAlSi2O6 · H2O
Colorless, White
Vitreous, Sub-Vitreous
Specific Gravity:
2.28 - 2.34
Crystal System:
Member of:
Named in 1957 by Cornelius Searle Hurlbut, Jr. for the type locality at Bikita, Masvingo (Fort Victoria), Masvingo, Zimbabwe (formerly Southern Rhodesia).
Isostructural with:
Hide all sections | Show all sections

Classification of BikitaiteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
G : Tektosilicates with zeolitic H2O; zeolite family
D : Chains of 6-membered rings – tabular zeolites
Dana 7th ed.:

2 : Zeolite group - related species

16 : Silicates Containing Aluminum and other Metals
1 : Aluminosilicates of Li

Physical Properties of BikitaiteHide

Vitreous, Sub-Vitreous
Transparent, Translucent
Colorless, White
Perfect on the {100}, Good on the {001}
2.28 - 2.34 g/cm3 (Measured)    2.3 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of BikitaiteHide

Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 1.510 nβ = 1.521 nγ = 1.523
Measured: 45°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.013
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Optical Extinction:
X^c = 28°, Z=b

Chemical Properties of BikitaiteHide

LiAlSi2O6 · H2O

Crystallography of BikitaiteHide

Crystal System:
Class (H-M):
1 - Pedial
Space Group:
Cell Parameters:
a = 8.606 Å, b = 4.9573 Å, c = 7.597 Å
α = 89.89°, β = 114.42°, γ = 89.96°
a:b:c = 1.736 : 1 : 1.532
Unit Cell V:
295.11 ų
Granular; bladed crystals are rare
Originally determined as monoclinic

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
Powder Diffraction Data:
9.21 (100)
8.04 (70)
7.84 (80)
6.95 (40)
6.84 (20)
4.19 (40)
4.08 (30)
4.03 (40)
3.40 (20)

Type Occurrence of BikitaiteHide

General Appearance of Type Material:
colorless glassy grains
Geological Setting of Type Material:
Granite pegmatite
Associated Minerals at Type Locality:

Other Language Names for BikitaiteHide

Simplified Chinese:硅锂铝石

Relationship of Bikitaite to other SpeciesHide

Member of:
Other Members of this group:
AlflarseniteNaCa2Be3Si4O13(OH) · 2H2OMon. 2 : P21
AmiciteK2Na2Al4Si4O16 · 5H2OMon. 2
AnalcimeNa(AlSi2O6) · H2OTric.
Barrerite(Na,K,Ca0.5)2[Al2Si7O18] · 7H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
Bellbergite(K,Ba,Sr)2Sr2Ca2(Ca,Na)4[Al3Si3O12]6 · 30H2OHex.
BoggsiteCa8Na3(Si,Al)96O192 · 70H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Imma
Brewsterite-Ba(Ba,Sr)[Al2Si6O16] · 5H2OMon. 2/m : P21/m
Brewsterite-Sr(Sr,Ba,Ca)[Al2Si6O16] · 5H2O
Chabazite-Levyne SubgroupA subgroup of the Zeolite Group.
ChiavenniteCaMnBe2Si5O13(OH)2 · 2H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
ClinoptiloliteNote on the distinguishing differences between clinoptilolite and heulandite (hhttp://rruff.
CowlesiteCaAl2Si3O10 · 6H2OOrth.
Dachiardite-Ca(Ca,Na2,K2)5Al10Si38O96 · 25H2OMon.
Dachiardite-Na(Na2,Ca,K2)5Al10Si38O96 · 25H2OMon.
DirenzoiteNaK6MgCa2(Al13Si47O120) · 36H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pmmn
EdingtoniteBa[Al2Si3O10] · 4H2O
EpistilbiteCaAl2Si6O16 · 5H2OMon.
ErioniteThis name now refers to a group of related minerals.
FaujasiteA subgroup of the Zeolite Group.
FerrieriteZeolite Group.
FerrochiavenniteCa1-2Fe[(Si,Al,Be)5Be2O13(OH)2] · 2H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
Flörkeite(K3Ca2Na)[Al8Si8O32] · 12H2OTric. 1 : P1
Garronite-CaNa2Ca5Al12Si20O64 · 27H2OTet. 4 2m : I4m2
GaultiteNa4Zn2Si7O18 · 5H2OOrth. mm2 : Fdd2
Gismondine-BaBa2Al4Si4O16 · 4-6H2O
Gismondine-CaCaAl2Si2O8 · 4H2O
GmeliniteIn 1997, gmelinite was split into Gmelinite-Ca, Gmelinite-Na and Gmelinite-K.
GobbinsiteNa5(Si11Al5)O32 · 11H2OOrth.
GoosecreekiteCa[Al2Si6O16] · 5H2OMon.
GottardiiteNa3Mg3Ca5Al19Si117O272 · 93H2OOrth.
Harmotome(Ba0.5,Ca0.5,K,Na)5[Al5Si11O32] · 12H2OMon. 2/m : P21/m
HeulanditeNote on the distinguishing differences between heulandite and clinoptilolite (http://rruff.
KirchhoffiteCs(BSi2O6)Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/acd
LaumontiteCaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2OMon. 2/m : B2/m
LovdariteK2Na6Be4Si14O36 · 9H2OOrth. mm2
MaricopaitePb7Ca2(Si,Al)48O100 · 32H2OOrth.
Mazzite-Mg(Mg,K,Ca)5(Si26Al10)O72 · 28H2OHex.
Mazzite-NaNa8[Al4Si14O36]2 · 30H2OHex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
Merlinoite(K,Na)5(Ca,Ba)2Al9Si23O64 · 23H2OOrth.
Montesommaite(K,Na)9Al9Si23O64 · 10H2OOrth.
Mordenite(Na2,Ca,K2)Al2Si10O24 · 7H2OOrth.
MutinaiteNa3Ca4Si85Al11O192 · 60H2OOrth.
NabesiteNa2BeSi4O10 · 4H2OOrth. 2 2 2 : P21 21 21
Natrolite SubgroupA subgroup of the Zeolite Group.
OffretiteKCaMg(Si13Al5)O36 · 15H2OHex. 6 m2 : P6m2
PahasapaiteLi8(Ca,Li,K)10.5Be24(PO4)24 · 38H2OIso. 2 3 : I2 3
ParthéiteCa2(Si4Al4) O15 (OH)2•4H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
Paulingite-Ca(Ca,K,Na,Ba,◻)10 (Si, Al)42O84•34H2OIso.
Paulingite-K(K2,Ca,Na2,Ba)5[Al10Si35O90] · 45H2OIso.
Paulingite-Na(Na2,K2,Ca,Ba)5[Al10Si35O90] · 45H2OIso.
PerlialiteK9Na(Ca,Sr)[Al2Si4O12]6 · 15H2OHex.
PhillipsiteZeolite Group.
Pollucite(Cs,Na)2(Al2Si4O12) · 2H2OIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Ia3d
RoggianiteCa2Be(OH)2Al2Si4O13 · 2.5H2OTet.
StelleriteCa4(Si28Al8)O72 · 28H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Fmmm
Stilbite-CaNaCa4[Al9Si27O72] · nH2OMon. 2/m : B2/m
Stilbite-Na(Na,Ca,K)6-7[Al8Si28O72] · nH2OMon. 2/m : B2/m
Terranovaite(Na,Ca)8(Si68Al12)O160 · 29H2OOrth.
Thomsonite-CaNaCa2[Al5Si5O20] · 6H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
Thomsonite-SrNa(Sr,Ca)2[Al5Si5O20] · 7H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
Tschernichite(Ca,Na2)[Al2Si4O12] · 4-8H2OTet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P4/mmm
TschörtneriteCa4(Ca,Sr,K,Ba)3Cu3[(OH)2|Al3Si3O12]4 · nH2OIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
WairakiteCa(Al2Si4O12) · 2H2OMon. 2/m
WeinebeneiteCaBe3(PO4)2(OH)2 · 4H2OMon.
Wellsite(K,Ba,Ca,K2)Al2Si6O16 · 6H2OMon. 2/m : P21/m
Wenkite(Ba,K)4(Ca,Na)6[(SO4)3|(Si,Al)20O39(OH)2] · 0.5H2OHex.
WillhendersoniteKCa[Al3Si3O12] · 5H2OTric.
YugawaraliteCaAl2Si6O16 · 4H2OMon.

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Apatite2 photos of Bikitaite associated with Apatite on
Eosphorite1 photo of Bikitaite associated with Eosphorite on
Rhodochrosite1 photo of Bikitaite associated with Rhodochrosite on
Fluorapatite1 photo of Bikitaite associated with Fluorapatite on

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

9.GD.05Gmelinite-CaCa2(Si8Al4O24] · 11H2OHex.
9.GD.05Gmelinite-KK4(Si8Al4O24) · 11H2OHex.
9.GD.05Gmelinite-NaNa4(Si8Al4O24] · 11H2OHex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
9.GD.10WillhendersoniteKCa[Al3Si3O12] · 5H2OTric.
9.GD.10Chabazite-Ca(Ca,K2,Na2)2[Al2Si4O12]2 · 12H2OTric. 1 : P1
9.GD.10Chabazite-K(K2,Ca,Na2,Sr,Mg)2[Al2Si4O12]2 · 12H2O
9.GD.10Chabazite-Na(Na2,K2,Ca,Sr,Mg)2[Al2Si4O12]2 · 12H2O
9.GD.10Chabazite-SrSr2[Al2Si4O12]2 · 12H2O
9.GD.10Chabazite-Mg(Mg0.7K0.5Ca0.5Na0.1)[Al3Si9O24]·10H2O Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
9.GD.15Lévyne-Ca(Ca,Na2,K2)[Al2Si4O12] · 6H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
9.GD.15Lévyne-Na(Na2,Ca,K2)[Al2Si4O12] · 6H2OTrig.
9.GD.20Bellbergite(K,Ba,Sr)2Sr2Ca2(Ca,Na)4[Al3Si3O12]6 · 30H2OHex.
9.GD.20Erionite-Ca(Ca,K2,Na2)2[Al4Si14O36] · 15H2OHex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
9.GD.20Erionite-K(K2,Ca,Na2)2[Al4Si14O36] · 15H2OHex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
9.GD.20Erionite-Na(Na2,K2,Ca)2[Al4Si14O36] · 15H2OHex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
9.GD.25OffretiteKCaMg(Si13Al5)O36 · 15H2OHex. 6 m2 : P6m2
9.GD.25Wenkite(Ba,K)4(Ca,Na)6[(SO4)3|(Si,Al)20O39(OH)2] · 0.5H2OHex.
9.GD.30Faujasite-Ca(Ca,Na2,Mg)3.5[Al7Si17O48] · 32H2OIso.
9.GD.30Faujasite-Mg(Mg,Na2,Ca)3.5[Al7Si17O48] · 32H2OIso.
9.GD.30Faujasite-Na(Na2,Ca,Mg)3.5[Al7Si17O48] · 32H2OIso.
9.GD.35MaricopaitePb7Ca2(Si,Al)48O100 · 32H2OOrth.
9.GD.35Mordenite(Na2,Ca,K2)Al2Si10O24 · 7H2OOrth.
9.GD.40Dachiardite-Ca(Ca,Na2,K2)5Al10Si38O96 · 25H2OMon.
9.GD.40Dachiardite-Na(Na2,Ca,K2)5Al10Si38O96 · 25H2OMon.
9.GD.45EpistilbiteCaAl2Si6O16 · 5H2OMon.
9.GD.50Ferrierite-K(K2,Na2,Mg,Ca)3-5Mg[Al5-7Si27.5-31O72] · 18H2OOrth.
9.GD.50Ferrierite-Mg(Mg,Na2,K2,Ca)3-5Mg[Al5-7Si27.5-31O72] · 18H2OOrth.
9.GD.50Ferrierite-Na(Na2,K2,Mg,Ca)3-5Mg[Al5-7Si27.5-31O72] · 18H2OMon. 2/m

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

16.1.1PetaliteLiAl(Si4O10)Mon. 2/m : P2/b
16.1.3EucryptiteLiAlSiO4Trig. 3 : R3
16.1.4VirgiliteLiAlSi2O6Hex. 6 2 2 : P62 2 2
16.1.5Cookeite(Al2Li)Al2(AlSi3O10)(OH)8Mon. 2/m
16.1.8SwineforditeLi(Al,Li,Mg)4((Si,Al)4O10)2(OH,F)4 · nH2OMon.
16.1.13Clino-holmquistite Root Name☐{Li2}{Z2+3Z3+2}(Si8O22)(OH,F,Cl)2Mon.
16.1.15BityiteLiCaAl2(AlBeSi2O10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
16.1.16SogdianiteK(□,Na)2Li3(Zr,Fe,Ti)2[Si12O30]Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P6/mcc

Fluorescence of BikitaiteHide

Not fluorescent in UV, but may be associated with red-fluorescing eucryptite

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for BikitaiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Monatshefte (1986): 241-252.
Comodi, P., G.D. Gatta, & P.F. Zanazzi (2003), Effects of pressure on the structure of bikitaite: European Journal of Mineralogy: 15: 247-255.

Internet Links for BikitaiteHide

Localities for BikitaiteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
  • Ontario
    • Kenora District
      • Paterson Lake Area
Tindle, A.G., Breaks, F.W., and Selway, J.B. (2002) Tourmaline in petalite-subtype gramitic pegmatites: evidence of fractionation and contamination from Pakeagama Lake and Separation Lake areas of northwestern Ontario, Canada. Canadian Mineralogist, 40, 753-788.; Blackburn C. et al (2002) Separation Rapids Rare-Element Pegmatite Field, Ontario. in 48th Annual Meeting Institute on Lake Superior Geology. Vol 48 Part 2 - Field Trip Guidebook
  • North Carolina
    • Cleveland Co.
      • Kings Mountain District
Mineralogical Record: 1: 92.; Am Min 54 (1969), 1467-1469; Rocks and Minerals, (1985) 60:76-82; Carolina Geological Society Field Trip Guidebook 1981, 39-48
  • Masvingo
    • Bikita area
Fernando Brederodes specimen photo ID 629137
Amer.Min.(1958) 43, 768-770; Amer.Min.(1957) 42, 792-797
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