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Billietite

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Valère Louis Billiet (1903-1944)
Formula:
Ba(UO2)6O4(OH)6 · 4-8H2O
Colour:
Yellow to golden-yellow, amber-yellow, orange-yellow
Lustre:
Adamantine
Specific Gravity:
5.28 - 5.36
Crystal System:
Orthorhombic
Name:
Named in 1947 by Johannes F. Vaes in honor of Valère Louis Billiet, born Ghent, Belgium, February 14 1903; was in the resistance during WWII but was arrested; killed on May 3 1945 by an SS officer on board of the SS Ancona in the Bay of Neustedt, near Lubeck. Belgian crystallographer, University of Ghent, Belgium.
This page provides mineralogical data about Billietite.


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Classification of BillietiteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
4.GB.10

4 : OXIDES (Hydroxides, V[5,6] vanadates, arsenites, antimonites, bismuthites, sulfites, selenites, tellurites, iodates)
G : Uranyl Hydroxides
B : With additional cations (K, Ca, Ba, Pb, etc.); with mainly UO2(O,OH)5 pentagonal polyhedra
5.7.1.3

5 : OXIDES CONTAINING URANIUM OR THORIUM
7 : AX6O19·xH2O
7.16.15

7 : Oxides and Hydroxides
16 : Oxides of U

Physical Properties of BillietiteHide

Adamantine
Transparency:
Transparent, Translucent
Colour:
Yellow to golden-yellow, amber-yellow, orange-yellow
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Perfect
on {001}, imperfect on {110} and {010}
Density:
5.28 - 5.36 g/cm3 (Measured)    5.3 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of BillietiteHide

Type:
Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 1.725 - 1.730 nβ = 1.780 - 1.822 nγ = 1.790 - 1.829
2V:
Measured: 36°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.065 - 0.099
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Very High
Dispersion:
r > v, very strong
Pleochroism:
Visible
Comments:
X = colourless to pale yellow; Y = Z = greenish yellow to deep golden yellow, amber-brown
Orientation: X = c, Y = a, Z = b

Chemical Properties of BillietiteHide

Formula:
Ba(UO2)6O4(OH)6 · 4-8H2O
IMA Formula:
Ba(UO2)6O4(OH)6 · 8H2O
Common Impurities:
Ca,Si

Crystallography of BillietiteHide

Crystal System:
Orthorhombic
Class (H-M):
mm2 - Pyramidal
Cell Parameters:
a = 12.072 Å, b = 30.167 Å, c = 7.1455 Å
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.4 : 1 : 0.237
Unit Cell V:
2,602.22 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
4
Morphology:
Crystals pseudohexagonal, tabular on {001}, may be elongated along [110], to 5 mm
Twinning:
Very common, on {110} and {111}, the latter producing sector-twinned aragonite-like groups

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
7.53 (10)
3.77 (9)
3.17 (8)
2.03 (6)
3.54 (5)
2.49 (4)
2.56 (3)
Comments:
Recorded on material from Shinkolobwe, Congo

Type Occurrence of BillietiteHide

Place of Conservation of Type Material:
Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA (No. 104455);
National Museum of Natural History, Washington, D.C., USA (No. 160496)
Geological Setting of Type Material:
An alteration product of uraninite

Other Language Names for BillietiteHide

German:Billietit
Simplified Chinese:黄钡铀矿
Spanish:Billietita

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Uranophane12 photos of Billietite associated with Uranophane on mindat.org.
Cuprosklodowskite5 photos of Billietite associated with Cuprosklodowskite on mindat.org.
Rutherfordine5 photos of Billietite associated with Rutherfordine on mindat.org.
Malachite4 photos of Billietite associated with Malachite on mindat.org.
Becquerelite3 photos of Billietite associated with Becquerelite on mindat.org.
Roubaultite2 photos of Billietite associated with Roubaultite on mindat.org.
Wölsendorfite2 photos of Billietite associated with Wölsendorfite on mindat.org.
Uraninite2 photos of Billietite associated with Uraninite on mindat.org.
Fourmarierite1 photo of Billietite associated with Fourmarierite on mindat.org.
Vandenbrandeite1 photo of Billietite associated with Vandenbrandeite on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

4.GB.05AgrinieriteK2(Ca,Sr)[(UO2)3O3(OH)2]2 · 5H2OOrth.
4.GB.05CompreignaciteK2(UO2)6O4(OH)6 · 7H2OOrth.
4.GB.05RameauiteK2Ca(H[3]2O)(H[5]2O)4[(UO2)6O6(OH)4](H[4]2O)Mon. m : Bb
4.GB.10BecquereliteCa(UO2)6O4(OH)6 · 8H2OOrth. mm2 : Pna21
4.GB.10ProtasiteBa(UO2)3O3(OH)2 · 3H2OMon.
4.GB.15Richetite(Fe3+,Mg)Pb 8.6(UO2)36O36(OH)24•41H2O Tric.
4.GB.20BauranoiteBa(UO2)2(OH)6 · 1-2H2O
4.GB.20Calciouranoite(Ca,Ba,Pb)U2O7 · 5H2O
4.GB.20Metacalciouranoite(Ca,Ba,Pb,K2)U2O7 · 2H2O
4.GB.25FourmarieritePb(UO2)4O3(OH)4 · 4H2OOrth.
4.GB.30Wölsendorfite(Pb,Ca)U2O7 · 2H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Cmcm
4.GB.35MasuyitePb(UO2)3O3(OH)2 · 3H2OOrth.
4.GB.40MetavandendriesscheitePbU7O22 · nH2O n < 12Orth.
4.GB.40VandendriesscheitePbU7O22 · 12H2O
4.GB.45VandenbrandeiteCu(UO2)(OH)4Tric. 1 : P1
4.GB.50SayritePb2(UO2)5O6(OH)2 · 4H2OMon.
4.GB.55CuritePb3(UO2)8O8(OH)6 · 3H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
4.GB.60Iriginite(UO2)Mo2O7 · 3H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbcm
4.GB.65UranosphaeriteBi(UO2)O2(OH)Mon. 2/m
4.GB.70HolfertiteCaxU6+2-xTi(O8-xOH4x) · 3H2OTrig. 3 : P3

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

5.7.1.1CompreignaciteK2(UO2)6O4(OH)6 · 7H2OOrth.
5.7.1.2BecquereliteCa(UO2)6O4(OH)6 · 8H2OOrth. mm2 : Pna21

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

7.16.1UraniniteUO2Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
7.16.2Schoepite(UO2)8O2(OH)12 · 12H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbca
7.16.3ParaschoepiteUO3 · 2H2OOrth.
7.16.4MetaschoepiteUO3 · 1-2H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbcn
7.16.5MetastudtiteUO4 · 2H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
7.16.6Studtite[(UO2)(O2)(H2O)2] · H2OMon.
7.16.7IanthiniteU4+(UO2)5O7 · 10H2OOrth. mm2 : Amm2
7.16.8CompreignaciteK2(UO2)6O4(OH)6 · 7H2OOrth.
7.16.9VandenbrandeiteCu(UO2)(OH)4Tric. 1 : P1
7.16.10RoubaultiteCu2(UO2)3(CO3)2O2(OH)2•4H2OTric. 1 : P1
7.16.11BecquereliteCa(UO2)6O4(OH)6 · 8H2OOrth. mm2 : Pna21
7.16.12RameauiteK2Ca(H[3]2O)(H[5]2O)4[(UO2)6O6(OH)4](H[4]2O)Mon. m : Bb
7.16.13AgrinieriteK2(Ca,Sr)[(UO2)3O3(OH)2]2 · 5H2OOrth.
7.16.14ProtasiteBa(UO2)3O3(OH)2 · 3H2OMon.
7.16.16BauranoiteBa(UO2)2(OH)6 · 1-2H2O
7.16.17Metacalciouranoite(Ca,Ba,Pb,K2)U2O7 · 2H2O
7.16.18Calciouranoite(Ca,Ba,Pb)U2O7 · 5H2O
7.16.19OrthobranneriteU4+U6+Ti4O12(OH)2Orth.
7.16.20Thorutite(Th,U,Ca)Ti2(O,OH)6Mon.
7.16.21Davidite-(La)(La,Ce)(Y,U,Fe)(Ti,Fe)20(O,OH)38Trig.
7.16.22Davidite-(Ce)(Ce,La)(Y,U,Fe)(Ti,Fe)20(O,OH)38Trig. 3 : R3
7.16.23Brannerite(U4+,REE,Th,Ca)(Ti,Fe3+,Nb)2(O,OH)6Mon. 2/m : B2/m
7.16.24FourmarieritePb(UO2)4O3(OH)4 · 4H2OOrth.
7.16.25Richetite(Fe3+,Mg)Pb 8.6(UO2)36O36(OH)24•41H2O Tric.
7.16.26CuritePb3(UO2)8O8(OH)6 · 3H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
7.16.27MasuyitePb(UO2)3O3(OH)2 · 3H2OOrth.
7.16.28VandendriesscheitePbU7O22 · 12H2O
7.16.29MetavandendriesscheitePbU7O22 · nH2O n < 12Orth.
7.16.30SayritePb2(UO2)5O6(OH)2 · 4H2OMon.
7.16.31Wölsendorfite(Pb,Ca)U2O7 · 2H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Cmcm
7.16.32Clarkeite(Na,Ca,Pb)(UO2)O(OH) · 0-1H2OTrig.
7.16.33UranosphaeriteBi(UO2)O2(OH)Mon. 2/m

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for BillietiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Vaes, J.F. (1947) Six nouveaux minéraux d'urane provenant de Shinkolobwe (Katanga). Annales de la Société Géologique Belge: 70: B212-B229, esp. B214-B217 (in French).
(1947) Mineralogical Abstracts: 10: 146. (abstract)
Fleischer, M. (1948) New mineral names. American Mineralogist: 33: 384. (abstract)
Frondel, J.W., Cuttitta, F. (1953) Studies of uranium minerals (XII): the status of billietite and becquerelite. American Mineralogist: 38: 1019-1024.
Frondel, C. (1958) Systematic mineralogy of uranium and thorium. United States Geological Survey, Bulletin 1064: 68-72.
Christ, C.L., Clark, J.R. (1960) Crystal chemical studies of some uranyl oxide hydrates. American Mineralogist: 45: 1026-1061.
Pagoaga, M.K., Appleman, D.E., Stewart, J.M. (1987) Crystal structures and crystal chemistry of the uranyl oxide hydrates becquerelite, billietite, and protasite. American Mineralogist: 72: 1230-1238.
Vochten, R., van Haverbeeke, L. (1990) Transformation of schoepite into the uranyl oxide hydrates: becquerelite, billietite and wölsendorfite. Mineralogy and Petrology: 43: 65-72.
Anthony, J.W., et al. (1997) Handbook of Mineralogy: Vol. 3: 56.
Burns, P.C. (2005) U6+ minerals and inorganic compounds: insights into an expanded structural hierarchy of crystal structures. Canadian Mineralogist: 43: 1839-1894.
Finch, R.L., Burns, P.C., Hawthorne, F.C., Ewing, R.C. (2006) Refinement of the crystal structure of billietite, Ba[(UO2)6O4(OH)6](H2O)8. The Canadian Mineralogist: 44: 1197-1205.
Frost, R.L., Cejka, J., Weier, M.L. (2007) Raman spectroscopic study of the uranyl oxyhydroxide hydrates: becquerelite, billietite, curite, schoepite and vandendriesscheite. Journal of Raman Spectroscopy: 38: 460-466.

Internet Links for BillietiteHide

Localities for BillietiteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Australia
 
  • South Australia
    • Flinders Ranges
      • North Flinders Ranges
        • Arkaroola Region (Arkaroola Station)
          • Mt Painter area
2003, Brugger, J., Ansermet, S. & Pring, A. ' Uranium minerals from Mt Painter, Northern Flinders ranges, South Australia' Australian Journal of Mineralogy, vol. 9, n°1, pp 15-31; Brugger, J., Meisser, N., Etschmann, B., Ansermet, S., & Pring, A. (2011). Paulscherrerite from the Number 2 Workings, Mount Painter Inlier, Northern Flinders Ranges, South Australia:“Dehydrated schoepite” is a mineral after all. American Mineralogist, 96(2-3), 229-240.
China
 
  • Liaoning Province (Manchuria; Dongbei Region)
    • Benxi Prefecture
      • Nanfen District
Dahlkamp, F.J. (2009): Uranium Deposits of the World. Springer (Berlin, Heidelberg), pp. 31-156
Czech Republic
 
  • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
    • Hradec Králové Region
      • Krkonoše Mtn (Riesengebirge)
        • Špindlerův Mlýn (Spindlermühle)
Pauliš P., Kopecký S., Černý P. 2007: Uranové minerály České Republiky a jejich naleziště. 1. část. (Kutna Hora, issue 1)
    • Ústí Region
      • Krušné Hory Mts (Erzgebirge)
        • Dubí (Eichwald)
Pauliš P., Kopecký S., Černý P. 2007: Uranové minerály České Republiky a jejich naleziště. 1. část. (Kutna Hora, issue 1)]
  • Moravia (Mähren; Maehren)
    • Vysočina Region
      • Nové Město na Moravě
Pauliš P., Kopecký S., Černý P. 2007: Uranové minerály České Republiky a jejich naleziště. 1. část. (Kutna Hora, issue 1)
Democratic Republic of Congo (Zaïre)
 
  • Katanga (Shaba)
    • Katanga Copper Crescent
      • Kolwezi District
        • Kamoto
B Thorne collection
Specimen in the collection of Brent Thorne
        • Kolwezi
Anthony, J. W. et al. (1997): Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3, 56
      • Lubumbashi (Elizabethville)
      • Shinkolobwe
Mineralogical Record: 8: 390; Mineralogical Record: 9: 33; Mineralogical Record: 20: 278.
      • Swambo
France
 
  • Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes
    • Haute-Savoie
      • Vallorcine
Meisser, N. (2012): La minéralogie de l'uranium dans le massif des Aiguilles Rouges. Matér. Géol. Suisse, Sér. géotech. 96, 183 p.
    • Loire
      • Saint-Just-en-Chevalet
        • Saint-Priest-la-Prugne
          • Les Bois-Noirs Mining Claim
Denis Vernet - personnal
  • Bourgogne-Franche-Comté
    • Nièvre
Le Règne Minéral, Hors Série IV, 1998
  • Brittany
    • Côtes-d'Armor
Le Règne Minéral, Hors Série IV, 1998
      • Collinée
Le Règne Minéral, Hors Série IV, 1998
  • Grand Est
    • Haut-Rhin
      • Thur valley (Thann valley)
        • Kruth
Le Règne Minéral, Hors Série IV (1998)
  • Nouvelle-Aquitaine
    • Haute-Vienne
      • Compreignac
P Haas collection
      • Saint-Sylvestre
Anthony, J. W. et al. (1997): Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3, 56
  • Occitanie
    • Hérault
      • Lodève
[Le Règne Minéral 1997, 13, p.5-18]; Bariand, P., Bachet, B., Brassy, C., Medenbach, O., Deliens, M., Vautier, R., & Piret, P. (1993) A New Uranium Mineral from the Talmessi Mine, Iran, and Rabejac, France. Mineralogical Record: 24: 463-467
Germany
 
  • Baden-Württemberg
    • Black Forest
      • Menzenschwand
Walenta: "Die Mineralien des Schwarzwaldes", Weise (Munich), 1992
      • Schenkenzell
        • Wittichen
          • Böckelsbach valley
No reference listed
          • Burgfelsen
No reference listed
          • Heubach Valley
No reference listed
      • Wolfach
        • Oberwolfach
          • Rankach valley
KOLITSCH, U. (1997): Ianthinit und weitere Neufunde aus der Grube Clara im mittleren Schwarzwald. - Erzgräber 11 (2), 76-88; WALENTA, K. (1999): Neue Mineralfunde von der Grube Clara. 8. Folge, 1. Teil. Lapis 24 (11), 34-37.
  • Bavaria
    • Upper Palatinate
Anthony, J. W. et al. (1997): Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3, 56
  • Rhineland-Palatinate
    • Bad Kreuznach
      • Niederhausen
        • Lemberg
N. Jb. Miner. Abh. 115, 1-30 (1971)
  • Saxony
    • Vogtland
      • Zobes-Bergen District
        • Bergen U deposit
          • Bergen
Schnorrer-Köhler, G. (1991): Mineralogische Notizen V. Aufschluss 42, 155-171.; Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
Italy
 
  • Sardinia
    • Cagliari Province
      • Capoterra
Ciriotti, M.E., Blaß, G. (2010): Pot-pourri 2009: Identificazioni UKiS AMI, Minerali italiani di interesse. Micro, 1/2010, 124-127
  • Trentino-Alto Adige (Trentino-Südtirol)
    • Trento Province
      • Giudicarie Valleys
        • Chiese Valley
          • Condino
Campostrini, I., Demartin, F., & Gramaccioli, C. M. (2006). Rio Giulis. Minerali secondari del giacimento uranifero presso Condino, Trento. Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 30(3), 152-165.
        • Rendena Valley
          • Bocenago & Spiazzo
Campostrini I.(2013): Minerali secondari dei giacimenti uraniferi nelle Arenarie di Val Gardena del Trentino occidentale (Alpi Meridionali, Italia). Studi Trent. Sci. Nat., 93, pagg. 89-114.
Peru
 
  • Puno Department
    • Carabaya Province
Li, V. (2016). The Uranium Mineralization of the Macusani District, Southeast Peru: Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Geochronology and Ore-Genetic Model. PhD Thesis Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada
Spain
 
  • Catalonia
    • Lleida (Lérida)
      • El Pallars Jussà
        • La Vall Fosca
          • La Torre de Cabdella (La Torre de Capdella)
            • Castell-estaó
Abella, J. y Viñals, J. (2009). Čejkaita, arsenuranilita, compreignacita, natrozippeita y otros minerales raros de uranio en el yacimiento «Mina Eureka», Castell-estaó, La Torre de Cabdella, Lleida, Catalunya. Revista de Minerales. (2009-2), 52-71
Sweden
 
  • Dalsland
    • Bengtsfors
Switzerland
 
  • Wallis (Valais)
    • Anniviers Valley
      • Saint-Luc
Wulser P.A. et al. 2005, Eur. J. Mineral. 17, 933-942
    • Le Trient Valley
      • Les Marécottes
        • La Creusaz
          • SE crest of Mt. Luisin
Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Verlag Wepf & Co. (Basel), p. 77
Meisser, N. (2012): La minéralogie de l'uranium dans le massif des Aiguilles Rouges. Matér. Géol. Suisse, Sér. géotech. 96, 183 p.
USA
 
  • Pennsylvania
    • Carbon Co.
      • Jim Thorpe (Mauch Chunk)
Geyer, A.R., Smith, R.C. & Barnes, J.H. (1976) Mineral Collecting in Pennsylvania.
Anthony, J. W. et al. (1997): Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3, 56
  • Utah
    • Emery Co.
      • San Rafael District (San Rafael Swell)
        • Delta
Min News 16:1 p1
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