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Billietite

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About BillietiteHide

00542290014949574925099.jpg
Valère Louis Billiet (1903-1944)
Formula:
Ba(UO2)6O4(OH)6 · 4-8H2O
Colour:
Yellow to golden-yellow, amber-yellow, orange-yellow
Lustre:
Adamantine
Specific Gravity:
5.28 - 5.36
Crystal System:
Orthorhombic
Name:
Named in 1947 by Johannes F. Vaes in honor of Valère Louis Billiet, born Ghent, Belgium, February 14 1903; was in the resistance during WWII but was arrested; killed on May 3 1945 by an SS officer on board of the SS Ancona in the Bay of Neustedt, near Lubeck. Belgian crystallographer, University of Ghent, Belgium.
This page provides mineralogical data about Billietite.


Classification of BillietiteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
4.GB.10

4 : OXIDES (Hydroxides, V[5,6] vanadates, arsenites, antimonites, bismuthites, sulfites, selenites, tellurites, iodates)
G : Uranyl Hydroxides
B : With additional cations (K, Ca, Ba, Pb, etc.); with mainly UO2(O,OH)5 pentagonal polyhedra
5.7.1.3

5 : OXIDES CONTAINING URANIUM OR THORIUM
7 : AX6O19·xH2O
7.16.15

7 : Oxides and Hydroxides
16 : Oxides of U

Physical Properties of BillietiteHide

Adamantine
Transparency:
Transparent, Translucent
Colour:
Yellow to golden-yellow, amber-yellow, orange-yellow
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Perfect
on {001}, imperfect on {110} and {010}
Density:
5.28 - 5.36 g/cm3 (Measured)    5.3 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of BillietiteHide

Type:
Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 1.725 - 1.730 nβ = 1.780 - 1.822 nγ = 1.790 - 1.829
2V:
Measured: 36°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.065 - 0.099
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Very High
Dispersion:
r > v, very strong
Pleochroism:
Visible
Comments:
X = colourless to pale yellow; Y = Z = greenish yellow to deep golden yellow, amber-brown
Orientation: X = c, Y = a, Z = b

Chemical Properties of BillietiteHide

Formula:
Ba(UO2)6O4(OH)6 · 4-8H2O
IMA Formula:
Ba(UO2)6O4(OH)6 · 8H2O
Common Impurities:
Ca,Si

Crystallography of BillietiteHide

Crystal System:
Orthorhombic
Class (H-M):
mm2 - Pyramidal
Cell Parameters:
a = 12.072 Å, b = 30.167 Å, c = 7.1455 Å
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.4 : 1 : 0.237
Unit Cell V:
2,602.22 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
4
Morphology:
Crystals pseudohexagonal, tabular on {001}, may be elongated along [110], to 5 mm
Twinning:
Very common, on {110} and {111}, the latter producing sector-twinned aragonite-like groups

Crystal StructureHide

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IDSpeciesReferenceLinkYearLocalityPressure (GPa)Temp (K)
0001133BillietitePagoaga M K, Appleman D E, Stewart J M (1987) Crystal structures and crystal chemistry of the uranyl oxide hydrates becquerelite, billietite, and protasite match those published American Mineralogist 72 1230-12381987Shinkolobwe mine, Shaba, Zaire0293
0006120BillietiteFinch R J, Burns P C, Hawthorne F C, Ewing R C (2006) Refinement of the crystal structure of billietite, Ba [(UO2)6 O4 (OH)6] (H2O)8 The Canadian Mineralogist 44 1197-12052006Shaba, Democratic Republic of Congo0293
CIF Raw Data - click here to close

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
7.53 Å(10)
3.77 Å(9)
3.17 Å(8)
2.03 Å(6)
3.54 Å(5)
2.49 Å(4)
2.56 Å(3)
Comments:
Recorded on material from Shinkolobwe, Congo

Geological EnvironmentHide

Geological Setting:
An uncommon alteration product of uraninite

Type Occurrence of BillietiteHide

Place of Conservation of Type Material:
Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA (No. 104455);
National Museum of Natural History, Washington, D.C., USA (No. 160496)
Geological Setting of Type Material:
An alteration product of uraninite

Other Language Names for BillietiteHide

German:Billietit
Simplified Chinese:黄钡铀矿
Spanish:Billietita

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
12 photos of Billietite associated with UranophaneCa(UO2)2(SiO3OH)2•5H2O
5 photos of Billietite associated with CuprosklodowskiteCu(UO2)2(SiO3OH]2 · 6H2O
5 photos of Billietite associated with Rutherfordine(UO2)CO3
4 photos of Billietite associated with MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
3 photos of Billietite associated with BecquereliteCa(UO2)6O4(OH)6 · 8H2O
2 photos of Billietite associated with RoubaultiteCu2(UO2)3(CO3)2O2(OH)2•4H2O
2 photos of Billietite associated with WölsendorfitePb7(UO2)14O19(OH)4 · 12H2O
2 photos of Billietite associated with UraniniteUO2
1 photo of Billietite associated with FourmarieritePb(UO2)4O3(OH)4 · 4H2O
1 photo of Billietite associated with VandenbrandeiteCu(UO2)(OH)4

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

4.GB.05AgrinieriteK2(Ca,Sr)[(UO2)3O3(OH)2]2 · 5H2OOrth.
4.GB.05CompreignaciteK2(UO2)6O4(OH)6 · 7H2OOrth.
4.GB.05RameauiteK2Ca(UO2)6O6(OH)4 · 6H2OMon. m : Bb
4.GB.10BecquereliteCa(UO2)6O4(OH)6 · 8H2OOrth. mm2 : Pna21
4.GB.10ProtasiteBa(UO2)3O3(OH)2 · 3H2OMon.
4.GB.15Richetite(Fe3+,Mg)Pb 8.6(UO2)36O36(OH)24•41H2O Tric.
4.GB.20BauranoiteBa(UO2)2(OH)6 · 1-2H2O
4.GB.20Calciouranoite(Ca,Ba,Pb)U2O7 · 5H2O
4.GB.20Metacalciouranoite(Ca,Ba,Pb,K2)U2O7 · 2H2O
4.GB.25FourmarieritePb(UO2)4O3(OH)4 · 4H2OOrth.
4.GB.30WölsendorfitePb7(UO2)14O19(OH)4 · 12H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Cmcm
4.GB.35MasuyitePb(UO2)3O3(OH)2 · 3H2OOrth.
4.GB.40MetavandendriesscheitePbU7O22 · nH2O n < 12Orth.
4.GB.40VandendriesscheitePbU7O22 · 12H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbca
4.GB.45VandenbrandeiteCu(UO2)(OH)4Tric. 1 : P1
4.GB.50SayritePb2(UO2)5O6(OH)2 · 4H2OMon. 2/m
4.GB.55CuritePb3(UO2)8O8(OH)6 · 3H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
4.GB.60Iriginite(UO2)Mo2O7 · 3H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbcm
4.GB.65UranosphaeriteBi(UO2)O2(OH)Mon. 2/m
4.GB.70HolfertiteCaxU6+2-xTi(O8-xOH4x) · 3H2OTrig. 3 : P3

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

5.7.1.1CompreignaciteK2(UO2)6O4(OH)6 · 7H2OOrth.
5.7.1.2BecquereliteCa(UO2)6O4(OH)6 · 8H2OOrth. mm2 : Pna21

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

7.16.1UraniniteUO2Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
7.16.2Schoepite(UO2)8O2(OH)12 · 12H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbca
7.16.3ParaschoepiteUO3 · 2H2OOrth.
7.16.4Metaschoepite(UO2)8O2(OH)12 · 10H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbcn
7.16.5MetastudtiteUO4 · 2H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
7.16.6Studtite[(UO2)(O2)(H2O)2] · H2OMon.
7.16.7IanthiniteU4+(UO2)5O7 · 10H2OOrth. mm2 : Amm2
7.16.8CompreignaciteK2(UO2)6O4(OH)6 · 7H2OOrth.
7.16.9VandenbrandeiteCu(UO2)(OH)4Tric. 1 : P1
7.16.10RoubaultiteCu2(UO2)3(CO3)2O2(OH)2•4H2OTric. 1 : P1
7.16.11BecquereliteCa(UO2)6O4(OH)6 · 8H2OOrth. mm2 : Pna21
7.16.12RameauiteK2Ca(UO2)6O6(OH)4 · 6H2OMon. m : Bb
7.16.13AgrinieriteK2(Ca,Sr)[(UO2)3O3(OH)2]2 · 5H2OOrth.
7.16.14ProtasiteBa(UO2)3O3(OH)2 · 3H2OMon.
7.16.16BauranoiteBa(UO2)2(OH)6 · 1-2H2O
7.16.17Metacalciouranoite(Ca,Ba,Pb,K2)U2O7 · 2H2O
7.16.18Calciouranoite(Ca,Ba,Pb)U2O7 · 5H2O
7.16.19OrthobranneriteU4+U6+Ti4O12(OH)2Orth.
7.16.20Thorutite(Th,U,Ca)Ti2(O,OH)6Mon.
7.16.21Davidite-(La)La(Y,U)Fe2(Ti,Fe,Cr,V)18(O,OH,F)38Trig.
7.16.22Davidite-(Ce)Ce(Y,U)Fe2(Ti,Fe,Cr,V)18(O,OH,F)38Trig. 3 : R3
7.16.23BranneriteUTi2O6Mon. 2/m : B2/m
7.16.24FourmarieritePb(UO2)4O3(OH)4 · 4H2OOrth.
7.16.25Richetite(Fe3+,Mg)Pb 8.6(UO2)36O36(OH)24•41H2O Tric.
7.16.26CuritePb3(UO2)8O8(OH)6 · 3H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
7.16.27MasuyitePb(UO2)3O3(OH)2 · 3H2OOrth.
7.16.28VandendriesscheitePbU7O22 · 12H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbca
7.16.29MetavandendriesscheitePbU7O22 · nH2O n < 12Orth.
7.16.30SayritePb2(UO2)5O6(OH)2 · 4H2OMon. 2/m
7.16.31WölsendorfitePb7(UO2)14O19(OH)4 · 12H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Cmcm
7.16.32Clarkeite(Na,Ca,Pb)(UO2)O(OH) · 0-1H2OTrig.
7.16.33UranosphaeriteBi(UO2)O2(OH)Mon. 2/m

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for BillietiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Vaes, J.F. (1947) Six nouveaux minéraux d'urane provenant de Shinkolobwe (Katanga). Annales de la Société Géologique Belge: 70: B212-B229, esp. B214-B217 (in French).
(1947) Mineralogical Abstracts: 10: 146. (abstract)
Fleischer, M. (1948) New mineral names. American Mineralogist: 33: 384. (abstract)
Frondel, J.W., Cuttitta, F. (1953) Studies of uranium minerals (XII): the status of billietite and becquerelite. American Mineralogist: 38: 1019-1024.
Frondel, C. (1958) Systematic mineralogy of uranium and thorium. United States Geological Survey, Bulletin 1064: 68-72.
Christ, C.L., Clark, J.R. (1960) Crystal chemical studies of some uranyl oxide hydrates. American Mineralogist: 45: 1026-1061.
Pagoaga, M.K., Appleman, D.E., Stewart, J.M. (1987) Crystal structures and crystal chemistry of the uranyl oxide hydrates becquerelite, billietite, and protasite. American Mineralogist: 72: 1230-1238.
Vochten, R., van Haverbeeke, L. (1990) Transformation of schoepite into the uranyl oxide hydrates: becquerelite, billietite and wölsendorfite. Mineralogy and Petrology: 43: 65-72.
Anthony, J.W., et al. (1997) Handbook of Mineralogy: Vol. 3: 56.
Burns, P.C. (2005) U6+ minerals and inorganic compounds: insights into an expanded structural hierarchy of crystal structures. Canadian Mineralogist: 43: 1839-1894.
Finch, R.L., Burns, P.C., Hawthorne, F.C., Ewing, R.C. (2006) Refinement of the crystal structure of billietite, Ba[(UO2)6O4(OH)6](H2O)8. The Canadian Mineralogist: 44: 1197-1205.
Frost, R.L., Cejka, J., Weier, M.L. (2007) Raman spectroscopic study of the uranyl oxyhydroxide hydrates: becquerelite, billietite, curite, schoepite and vandendriesscheite. Journal of Raman Spectroscopy: 38: 460-466.

Internet Links for BillietiteHide

Localities for BillietiteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Australia
 
  • South Australia
    • Flinders Ranges
      • North Flinders Ranges
        • Arkaroola Region (Arkaroola Wilderness Sanctuary; Arkaroola Station)
          • Mt Painter area
2003, Brugger, J., Ansermet, S. & Pring, A. ' Uranium minerals from Mt Painter, Northern Flinders ranges, South Australia' Australian Journal of Mineralogy, vol. 9, n°1, pp 15-31; Brugger, J., Meisser, N., Etschmann, B., Ansermet, S., & Pring, A. (2011). Paulscherrerite from the Number 2 Workings, Mount Painter Inlier, Northern Flinders Ranges, South Australia:“Dehydrated schoepite” is a mineral after all. American Mineralogist, 96(2-3), 229-240.
China
 
  • Liaoning
    • Benxi
      • Nanfen District
Dahlkamp, F.J. (2009): Uranium Deposits of the World. Springer (Berlin, Heidelberg), pp. 31-156
Czech Republic
 
  • Hradec Králové Region
    • Krkonoše Mtn (Riesengebirge)
      • Špindlerův Mlýn (Spindlermühle)
Pauliš P., Kopecký S., Černý P. 2007: Uranové minerály České Republiky a jejich naleziště. 1. část. (Kutna Hora, issue 1)
  • Karlovy Vary Region
    • Karlovy Vary District
Collected by Jan Hloušek; identified by J. Plasil; publication in due
  • Ústí nad Labem Region
    • Teplice District
      • Moldava
Pauliš P., Kopecký S., Černý P. 2007: Uranové minerály České Republiky a jejich naleziště. 1. část. (Kutna Hora, issue 1)]
  • Vysočina Region
    • Žďár nad Sázavou District
      • Nové Město na Moravě
Pauliš P., Kopecký S., Černý P. 2007: Uranové minerály České Republiky a jejich naleziště. 1. část. (Kutna Hora, issue 1)
DR Congo (TL)
 
  • Haut-Katanga
    • Kambove District
      • Shinkolobwe
Pinch, William W. (1977) Rare Minerals Report. Mineralogical Record, 8(5), 390-391 [390].; Anderson, V. (1978) Microminerals. Mineralogical Record, 9(1) 32-34 [33].; Gauthier, Gilbert, François, Armand, Deliens, Michel, Piret, P. (1989) Famous Mineral Localities: The Uranium Deposits of the Shaba Region, Zaire. Mineralogical Record, 20(4), 265-288; 304 [278].; Deliens, M. (1996) Overzicht van de mineralogie van de koper-, kobalt- en uraniumvoorkomens in Zuid-Shaba (Zaïre). Pages 35-49 in: Schatten der Aarde. Van mineraal tot juweel. Tentoonstelling in de abdij Saint-Gérard de Brogne van 27 april tot 27 oktober 1996. Catalogus opgemaakt onder de leiding van R. Warin, AGAB en P. Van hee, MKA (in Dutch).
    • Lubumbashi
Deliens, M. (1996) Overzicht van de mineralogie van de koper-, kobalt- en uraniumvoorkomens in Zuid-Shaba (Zaïre). Pages 35-49 in: Schatten der Aarde. Van mineraal tot juweel. Tentoonstelling in de abdij Saint-Gérard de Brogne van 27 april tot 27 oktober 1996. Catalogus opgemaakt onder de leiding van R. Warin, AGAB en P. Van hee, MKA (in Dutch).
  • Lualaba
    • Kolwezi mining district
      • Kamoto
B Thorne collection
Specimen in the collection of Brent Thorne; Deliens, M. (1996) Overzicht van de mineralogie van de koper-, kobalt- en uraniumvoorkomens in Zuid-Shaba (Zaïre). Pages 35-49 in: Schatten der Aarde. Van mineraal tot juweel. Tentoonstelling in de abdij Saint-Gérard de Brogne van 27 april tot 27 oktober 1996. Catalogus opgemaakt onder de leiding van R. Warin, AGAB en P. Van hee, MKA (in Dutch).
      • Kolwezi
Anthony, J. W. et al. (1997): Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3, 56; Wilson, W. E. (2018) The Musonoi mine, Kolwezi District, Lualaba Province, Democratic Republic of the Congo. Mineralogical Record 49:236-304
France
 
  • Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes
    • Haute-Savoie
      • Bonneville
        • Vallorcine
Meisser, N. (2012): La minéralogie de l'uranium dans le massif des Aiguilles Rouges. Matér. Géol. Suisse, Sér. géotech. 96, 183 p.
    • Loire
      • Roanne
        • Saint-Priest-la-Prugne
          • Les Bois-Noirs Mining Claim
Denis Vernet - personnal
  • Bourgogne-Franche-Comté
    • Nièvre
      • Château-Chinon
        • Dun-sur-Grandry
          • Grandry
OLLIC Pascal Collection
Le Règne Minéral, Hors Série IV, 1998
  • Brittany
    • Côtes-d'Armor
      • Saint-Brieuc
        • Le Mené
Le Règne Minéral, Hors Série IV, 1998
Le Règne Minéral, Hors Série IV, 1998; BILAN ENVIRONNEMENTAL (2014) Sites miniers de la Bretagne Départements des Côtes d’Armor, du Finistère et du Morbihan
  • Grand Est
    • Haut-Rhin
      • Thann-Guebwiller
        • Kruth
Le Règne Minéral, Hors Série IV (1998)
  • Nouvelle-Aquitaine
    • Haute-Vienne
      • Bellac
        • Compreignac
P Haas collection
      • Saint-Sylvestre
Anthony, J. W. et al. (1997): Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3, 56
  • Occitanie
    • Hérault
      • Lodève
        • Le Puech
Caubel, A. (1997) Minéralogie du gisement d'uranium de Rabejac (Hérault). Le Règne Minéral: 13: 5-18.; Bariand, P., Bachet, B., Brassy, C., Medenbach, O., Deliens, M., Vautier, R., & Piret, P. (1993) A New Uranium Mineral from the Talmessi Mine, Iran, and Rabejac, France. Mineralogical Record: 24: 463-467; Dal Bo, F., Hatert, F., & Philippo, S. (2018). Supergene Uranyl Mineralization of the Rabejac Deposit, Lodève, France. Minerals, 8(9), 414.
Germany
 
  • Baden-Württemberg
    • Freiburg Region
      • Ortenaukreis
        • Oberwolfach
KOLITSCH, U. (1997): Ianthinit und weitere Neufunde aus der Grube Clara im mittleren Schwarzwald. - Erzgräber 11 (2), 76-88; WALENTA, K. (1999): Neue Mineralfunde von der Grube Clara. 8. Folge, 1. Teil. Lapis 24 (11), 34-37.
      • Rottweil
        • Schenkenzell
          • Wittichen
            • Böckelsbach valley
No reference listed
            • Burgfelsen
No reference listed
            • Heubach Valley
No reference listed
      • Waldshut
        • St Blasien
          • Menzenschwand
Walenta: "Die Mineralien des Schwarzwaldes", Weise (Munich), 1992
  • Bavaria
    • Upper Palatinate
Anthony, J. W. et al. (1997): Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3, 56; Dill, H. G., & Weber, B. (2010). Accessory minerals of fluorite and their implication regarding the environment of formation (Nabburg–Wölsendorf fluorite district, SE Germany), with special reference to fetid fluorite (“Stinkspat”). Ore Geology Reviews, 37(2), 65-86.
  • Rhineland-Palatinate
    • Bad Kreuznach District
      • Bad Kreuznach
        • Feilbingert
          • Lemberg
N. Jb. Miner. Abh. 115, 1-30 (1971)
  • Saxony
    • Vogtlandkreis
      • Bergen
Schnorrer-Köhler, G. (1991): Mineralogische Notizen V. Aufschluss 42, 155-171.; Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
Italy
 
  • Sardinia
    • Metropolitan City of Cagliari
      • Capoterra
Ciriotti, M.E., Blaß, G. (2010): Pot-pourri 2009: Identificazioni UKiS AMI, Minerali italiani di interesse. Micro, 1/2010, 124-127
  • Trentino-Alto Adige
    • Trento Province (Trentino)
      • Bocenago
        • Monte Toff
Campostrini I.(2013): Minerali secondari dei giacimenti uraniferi nelle Arenarie di Val Gardena del Trentino occidentale (Alpi Meridionali, Italia). Studi Trent. Sci. Nat., 93, pagg. 89-114.
      • Borgo Chiese
        • Condino
Campostrini, I., Demartin, F., & Gramaccioli, C. M. (2006). Rio Giulis. Minerali secondari del giacimento uranifero presso Condino, Trento. Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 30(3), 152-165.
Peru
 
  • Puno
    • Carabaya Province
Li, V. (2016). The Uranium Mineralization of the Macusani District, Southeast Peru: Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Geochronology and Ore-Genetic Model. PhD Thesis Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada
Spain
 
  • Catalonia
    • Lleida (Lérida)
      • El Pallars Jussà
        • La Vall Fosca
          • La Torre de Cabdella (La Torre de Capdella)
            • Castell-estaó
Abella, J. y Viñals, J. (2009). Čejkaita, arsenuranilita, compreignacita, natrozippeita y otros minerales raros de uranio en el yacimiento «Mina Eureka», Castell-estaó, La Torre de Cabdella, Lleida, Catalunya. Revista de Minerales. (2009-2), 52-71
Sweden
 
  • Västra Götaland County
    • Bengtsfors
Switzerland
 
  • Valais
    • Saint-Maurice
      • Salvan
        • Les Marécottes
          • La Creusaz
            • SE crest of Mt. Luisin
Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Verlag Wepf & Co. (Basel), p. 77
Meisser, N. (2012): La minéralogie de l'uranium dans le massif des Aiguilles Rouges. Matér. Géol. Suisse, Sér. géotech. 96, 183 p.
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Min News 16:1 p1
 
Mineral and/or Locality  
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