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Valère Louis Billiet (1903-1944)
Ba(UO2)6O4(OH)6 · 8H2O
Yellow to golden-yellow, ...
Named in 1947 by Johannes F. Vaes in honor of Valère Louis Billiet, born Ghent, Belgium, February 14 1903; was in the resistance during WWII but was arrested; killed on May 3 1945 by an SS officer on board of the SS Ancona in the Bay of Neustedt, near Lubeck. Belgian crystallographer, University of Ghent, Belgium.
This page provides mineralogical data about Billietite.

Classification of Billietite

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)

4 : OXIDES (Hydroxides, V[5,6] vanadates, arsenites, antimonites, bismuthites, sulfites, selenites, tellurites, iodates)
G : Uranyl Hydroxides
B : With additional cations (K, Ca, Ba, Pb, etc.); with mainly UO2(O,OH)5 pentagonal polyhedra

7 : AX6O19·xH2O

7 : Oxides and Hydroxides
16 : Oxides of U

Physical Properties of Billietite

Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Transparent, Translucent
Yellow to golden-yellow, amber-yellow, orange-yellow
on {001}, imperfect on {110} and {010}
5.28 - 5.36 g/cm3 (Measured)    5.3 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of Billietite

Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 1.725 - 1.730 nβ = 1.780 - 1.822 nγ = 1.790 - 1.829
Measured: 36°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.065 - 0.099
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Very High
r > v, very strong
X = colourless to pale yellow; Y = Z = greenish yellow to deep golden yellow, amber-brown
Orientation: X = c, Y = a, Z = b

Chemical Properties of Billietite

IMA Formula:
Ba(UO2)6O4(OH)6 · 8H2O
Elements listed in formula:
Analytical Data:
Chemical analysis of material from Shaba Province, Congo
UO3  (82.76)
SiO2  (0.76)
CaO   (0.30)
BaO   (6.88)
H2O   (8.97)

sum   99.67 wt.-%
Common Impurities:

Crystallography of Billietite

Crystal System:
Class (H-M):
mm2 - Pyramidal
Cell Parameters:
a = 12.072 Å, b = 30.167 Å, c = 7.1455 Å
a:b:c = 0.4 : 1 : 0.237
Unit Cell Volume:
V 2,602.22 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Crystals pseudohexagonal, tabular on {001}, may be elongated along [110], to 5 mm
Very common, on {110} and {111}, the latter producing sector-twinned aragonite-like groups
X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data:
7.53 (10)
3.77 (9)
3.17 (8)
2.03 (6)
3.54 (5)
2.49 (4)
2.56 (3)
Recorded on material from Shinkolobwe, Congo

Occurrences of Billietite

Type Occurrence of Billietite

Place of Conservation of Type Material:
Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA (No. 104455);
National Museum of Natural History, Washington, D.C., USA (No. 160496)
Geological Setting of Type Material:
An alteration product of uraninite

Relationship of Billietite to other Species

4.GB.05AgrinieriteK2Ca[(UO2)3O3(OH)2]2 · 5H2O
4.GB.05CompreignaciteK2(UO2)6O4(OH)6 · 7H2O
4.GB.05RameauiteK2Ca(UO2)6O6(OH)4 · 6H2O
4.GB.10BecquereliteCa(UO2)6O4(OH)6 · 8H2O
4.GB.10ProtasiteBa(UO2)3O3(OH)2 · 3H2O
4.GB.15Richetite(Fe3+,Mg)xPb2+8.6(UO2)36O36(OH)24 · 41H2O
4.GB.20BauranoiteBaU2O7 · 4-5H2O
4.GB.20Calciouranoite(Ca,Ba,Pb,K,Na)U2O7 · 5H2O
4.GB.20Metacalciouranoite(Ca,Na,Ba)U2O7 · 2H2O
4.GB.25FourmarieritePb1-xO3-2x(UO2)4(OH)4+2x · 4H2O
4.GB.30WölsendorfitePb7(UO2)14O19(OH)4 · 12H2O
4.GB.35MasuyitePb(UO2)3O3(OH)2 · 3H2O
4.GB.40MetavandendriesscheitePbU7O22 · nH2O
4.GB.40VandendriesscheitePb1.6(UO2)10O6(OH)11 · 11H2O
4.GB.50SayritePb2(UO2)5O6(OH)2 · 4H2O
4.GB.55CuritePb3+x[(UO2)4O4+x(OH)3-x]2 · 2H2O
4.GB.60Iriginite(UO2)Mo26+O7 · 3H2O
4.GB.70Holfertite(UO2)1.75Ca0.25TiO4 · 3H2O
7.16.2Schoepite(UO2)8O2(OH)12 · 12H2O
7.16.3ParaschoepiteUO3 · (2-x)H2O
7.16.4Metaschoepite(UO2)8O2(OH)12 · 10H2O
7.16.6Studtite(UO2)O2(H2O)2 · 2H2O
7.16.7IanthiniteU24+(UO2)4O6(OH)4 · 9H2O
7.16.8CompreignaciteK2(UO2)6O4(OH)6 · 7H2O
7.16.10RoubaultiteCu2O2(UO2)3(CO3)2(OH)2 · 4H2O
7.16.11BecquereliteCa(UO2)6O4(OH)6 · 8H2O
7.16.12RameauiteK2Ca(UO2)6O6(OH)4 · 6H2O
7.16.13AgrinieriteK2Ca[(UO2)3O3(OH)2]2 · 5H2O
7.16.14ProtasiteBa(UO2)3O3(OH)2 · 3H2O
7.16.16BauranoiteBaU2O7 · 4-5H2O
7.16.17Metacalciouranoite(Ca,Na,Ba)U2O7 · 2H2O
7.16.18Calciouranoite(Ca,Ba,Pb,K,Na)U2O7 · 5H2O
7.16.24FourmarieritePb1-xO3-2x(UO2)4(OH)4+2x · 4H2O
7.16.25Richetite(Fe3+,Mg)xPb2+8.6(UO2)36O36(OH)24 · 41H2O
7.16.26CuritePb3+x[(UO2)4O4+x(OH)3-x]2 · 2H2O
7.16.27MasuyitePb(UO2)3O3(OH)2 · 3H2O
7.16.28VandendriesscheitePb1.6(UO2)10O6(OH)11 · 11H2O
7.16.29MetavandendriesscheitePbU7O22 · nH2O
7.16.30SayritePb2(UO2)5O6(OH)2 · 4H2O
7.16.31WölsendorfitePb7(UO2)14O19(OH)4 · 12H2O
7.16.32ClarkeiteNa(UO2)O(OH) · nH2O

Other Names for Billietite

Name in Other Languages:
Simplified Chinese:黄钡铀矿

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Billietite

Reference List:
Vaes, J.F. (1947) Six nouveaux minéraux d'urane provenant de Shinkolobwe (Katanga). Annales de la Société Géologique Belge: 70: B212-B229, esp. B214-B217 (in French).

(1947) Mineralogical Abstracts: 10: 146. (abstract)

Fleischer, M. (1948) New mineral names. American Mineralogist: 33: 384. (abstract)

Frondel, J.W., Cuttitta, F. (1953) Studies of uranium minerals (XII): the status of billietite and becquerelite. American Mineralogist: 38: 1019-1024.

Frondel, C. (1958) Systematic mineralogy of uranium and thorium. United States Geological Survey, Bulletin 1064: 68-72.

Christ, C.L., Clark, J.R. (1960) Crystal chemical studies of some uranyl oxide hydrates. American Mineralogist: 45: 1026-1061.

Pagoaga, M.K., Appleman, D.E., Stewart, J.M. (1987) Crystal structures and crystal chemistry of the uranyl oxide hydrates becquerelite, billietite, and protasite. American Mineralogist: 72: 1230-1238.

Vochten, R., van Haverbeeke, L. (1990) Transformation of schoepite into the uranyl oxide hydrates: becquerelite, billietite and wölsendorfite. Mineralogy and Petrology: 43: 65-72.

Anthony, J.W., et al. (1997) Handbook of Mineralogy: Vol. 3: 56.

Burns, P.C. (2005) U6+ minerals and inorganic compounds: insights into an expanded structural hierarchy of crystal structures. Canadian Mineralogist: 43: 1839-1894.

Finch, R.L., Burns, P.C., Hawthorne, F.C., Ewing, R.C. (2006) Refinement of the crystal structure of billietite, Ba[(UO2)6O4(OH)6](H2O)8. The Canadian Mineralogist: 44: 1197-1205.

Frost, R.L., Cejka, J., Weier, M.L. (2007) Raman spectroscopic study of the uranyl oxyhydroxide hydrates: becquerelite, billietite, curite, schoepite and vandendriesscheite. Journal of Raman Spectroscopy: 38: 460-466.

Internet Links for Billietite URL:
Please feel free to link to this page.

Localities for Billietite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
(TL) indicates type locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) indicates first recorded locality for everything else. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
  • South Australia
    • Flinders Ranges
      • North Flinders Ranges
        • Arkaroola Region (Arkaroola Station)
          • Mt Painter area
2003, Brugger, J., Ansermet, S. & Pring, A. ' Uranium minerals from Mt Painter, Northern Flinders ranges, South Australia' Australian Journal of Mineralogy, vol. 9, n°1, pp 15-31; Brugger, J., Meisser, N., Etschmann, B., Ansermet, S., & Pring, A. (2011). Paulscherrerite from the Number 2 Workings, Mount Painter Inlier, Northern Flinders Ranges, South Australia:“Dehydrated schoepite” is a mineral after all. American Mineralogist, 96(2-3), 229-240.
  • Liaoning Province (Manchuria; Dongbei Region)
    • Benxi Prefecture
      • Nanfen District
Dahlkamp, F.J. (2009): Uranium Deposits of the World. Springer (Berlin, Heidelberg), pp. 31-156
Czech Republic
  • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
    • Hradec Králové Region
      • Krkonoše Mtn (Riesengebirge)
        • Špindlerův Mlýn (Spindlermühle)
Pauliš P., Kopecký S., Černý P. 2007: Uranové minerály České Republiky a jejich naleziště. 1. část. (Kutna Hora, issue 1)
    • Ústí Region
      • Krušné Hory Mts (Erzgebirge)
        • Dubí (Eichwald)
Pauliš P., Kopecký S., Černý P. 2007: Uranové minerály České Republiky a jejich naleziště. 1. část. (Kutna Hora, issue 1)]
  • Moravia (Mähren; Maehren)
    • Vysočina Region
      • Nové Město na Moravě
Pauliš P., Kopecký S., Černý P. 2007: Uranové minerály České Republiky a jejich naleziště. 1. část. (Kutna Hora, issue 1)
Democratic Republic of Congo (Zaïre)
  • Katanga (Shaba)
    • Katanga Copper Crescent
      • Kolwezi District
        • Kamoto
B Thorne collection
Specimen in the collection of Brent Thorne
        • Kolwezi
Anthony, J. W. et al. (1997): Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3, 56
      • Lubumbashi (Elizabethville)
      • Shinkolobwe
Mineralogical Record: 8: 390; Mineralogical Record: 9: 33; Mineralogical Record: 20: 278.
      • Swambo
  • Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes
    • Haute-Savoie
      • Vallorcine
Meisser, N. (2012): La minéralogie de l'uranium dans le massif des Aiguilles Rouges. Matér. Géol. Suisse, Sér. géotech. 96, 183 p.
    • Loire
      • Saint-Just-en-Chevalet
        • Saint-Priest-la-Prugne
          • Les Bois-Noirs Mining Claim
Denis Vernet - personnal
  • Bourgogne-Franche-Comté
    • Nièvre
Le Règne Minéral, Hors Série IV, 1998
  • Brittany
    • Côtes-d'Armor
Le Règne Minéral, Hors Série IV, 1998
      • Collinée
Le Règne Minéral, Hors Série IV, 1998
  • Grand Est
    • Haut-Rhin
      • Thur valley (Thann valley)
        • Kruth
Le Règne Minéral, Hors Série IV (1998)
  • Nouvelle-Aquitaine
    • Haute-Vienne
      • Compreignac
P Haas collection
      • Saint-Sylvestre
Anthony, J. W. et al. (1997): Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3, 56
  • Occitanie
    • Hérault
      • Lodève
[Le Règne Minéral 1997, 13, p.5-18]; Bariand, P., Bachet, B., Brassy, C., Medenbach, O., Deliens, M., Vautier, R., & Piret, P. (1993) A New Uranium Mineral from the Talmessi Mine, Iran, and Rabejac, France. Mineralogical Record: 24: 463-467
  • Baden-Württemberg
    • Black Forest
      • Menzenschwand
Walenta: "Die Mineralien des Schwarzwaldes", Weise (Munich), 1992
      • Schenkenzell
        • Wittichen
          • Böckelsbach valley
No reference listed
          • Burgfelsen
No reference listed
          • Heubach Valley
No reference listed
      • Wolfach
        • Oberwolfach
          • Rankach valley
KOLITSCH, U. (1997): Ianthinit und weitere Neufunde aus der Grube Clara im mittleren Schwarzwald. - Erzgräber 11 (2), 76-88; WALENTA, K. (1999): Neue Mineralfunde von der Grube Clara. 8. Folge, 1. Teil. Lapis 24 (11), 34-37.
  • Bavaria
    • Upper Palatinate
Anthony, J. W. et al. (1997): Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3, 56
  • Rhineland-Palatinate
    • Bad Kreuznach
      • Niederhausen
        • Lemberg
N. Jb. Miner. Abh. 115, 1-30 (1971)
  • Saxony
    • Vogtland
      • Zobes-Bergen District
        • Bergen U deposit
          • Bergen
Schnorrer-Köhler, G. (1991): Mineralogische Notizen V. Aufschluss 42, 155-171.; Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
  • Sardinia
    • Cagliari Province
      • Capoterra
Ciriotti, M.E., Blaß, G. (2010): Pot-pourri 2009: Identificazioni UKiS AMI, Minerali italiani di interesse. Micro, 1/2010, 124-127
  • Trentino-Alto Adige (Trentino-Südtirol)
    • Trento Province
      • Giudicarie Valleys
        • Chiese Valley
          • Condino
Campostrini, I., Demartin, F., & Gramaccioli, C. M. (2006). Rio Giulis. Minerali secondari del giacimento uranifero presso Condino, Trento. Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 30(3), 152-165.
        • Rendena Valley
          • Bocenago & Spiazzo
Campostrini I.(2013): Minerali secondari dei giacimenti uraniferi nelle Arenarie di Val Gardena del Trentino occidentale (Alpi Meridionali, Italia). Studi Trent. Sci. Nat., 93, pagg. 89-114.
  • Puno Department
    • Carabaya Province
Li, V. (2016). The Uranium Mineralization of the Macusani District, Southeast Peru: Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Geochronology and Ore-Genetic Model. PhD Thesis Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada
  • Catalonia
    • Lleida (Lérida)
      • El Pallars Jussà
        • La Vall Fosca
          • La Torre de Cabdella (La Torre de Capdella)
            • Castell-estaó
Abella, J. y Viñals, J. (2009). Čejkaita, arsenuranilita, compreignacita, natrozippeita y otros minerales raros de uranio en el yacimiento «Mina Eureka», Castell-estaó, La Torre de Cabdella, Lleida, Catalunya. Revista de Minerales. (2009-2), 52-71
  • Dalsland
    • Bengtsfors
  • Wallis (Valais)
    • Anniviers Valley
      • Saint-Luc
Wulser P.A. et al. 2005, Eur. J. Mineral. 17, 933-942
    • Le Trient Valley
      • Les Marécottes
        • La Creusaz
          • SE crest of Mt. Luisin
Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Verlag Wepf & Co. (Basel), p. 77
Meisser, N. (2012): La minéralogie de l'uranium dans le massif des Aiguilles Rouges. Matér. Géol. Suisse, Sér. géotech. 96, 183 p.
  • Pennsylvania
    • Carbon Co.
      • Jim Thorpe (Mauch Chunk)
Geyer, A.R., Smith, R.C. & Barnes, J.H. (1976) Mineral Collecting in Pennsylvania.
Anthony, J. W. et al. (1997): Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3, 56
  • Utah
    • Emery Co.
      • San Rafael District (San Rafael Swell)
        • Delta
Min News 16:1 p1
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