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Jean Baptiste Biot [April 21, 1774 Paris, France - February 3, 1862 Paris, France]
Member of:
Named in 1847 by Johann Friedrich Ludwig Hausmann in honour of the French physicist, mathematician, meteoriticist, astronomer, and mineralogist, Jean-Baptiste Biot [April 21, 1774, Paris, France - February 3, 1862, Paris, France], who studied the optical properties of the micas. Biot and his associate, Félix Savart, discovered that an electric current in a wire produced a magnetic field. Biot received many awards in his lifetime in recognition of the value of his scientific researches.
A series or subgroup of the Mica Group.

The CNMMN Subcommittee on Nomenclature of the Micas (1998, 1999) has recommended that the name biotite be used for a series between the joins Annite-Phlogopite and Siderophyllite-Eastonite, and is therefore no longer to be regarded as a species name. Fluorophlogopite and Fluorotetraferriphlogopite should be included. The name is most commonly used for the micas on the Fe-rich end of the series, including Annite, Fluorannite, Tetra-ferri-annite and Siderophyllite.

The name "biotite" is also used as a generic field term for any incompletely analysed dark mica.

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Classification of BiotiteHide

Redefined by the IMA

Pronounciation of BiotiteHide

PlayRecorded byCountry
Jolyon & Katya RalphUnited Kingdom

Age informationHide

Age range:
Paleoarchean to Quaternary : 3366 Ma to 1.34 ± 0.05 Ma - based on data.

Crystallographic forms of BiotiteHide

Crystal Atlas:
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Biotite no.7 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
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Edge Lines | Miller Indicies | Axes

Opaque | Translucent | Transparent

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X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

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Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Synonyms of BiotiteHide

Other Language Names for BiotiteHide

Serbian (Cyrillic Script):Биотит
Simplified Chinese:黑云母

Varieties of BiotiteHide

AnomiteMica group. A variety of Biotite which has its optic axial plane perpendicular to (010).
Barian-Titanian BiotiteA barium- and titanium-bearing biotite mica.
Chrom-BiotitA Cr-bearing variety of biotite.
Chromian BiotiteA Chromian Biotite
Eastonite (of Winchell)A name for the Biotite end-member.
HeterophylliteDesignation for a uniaxial biotite from Mangualde, Portugal.
ManganophylliteA Mn-rich variety of Biotite.

Originally described from Harstigen Mine, Pajsberg, Filipstad, Värmland, Sweden.
Mg(T) MicaAn Aluminium-poor Biotite group mica.
NatronbiotiteA biotite with Na partially replacing K
OxybiotiteAn oxidized biotite (?). Name not mentioned in the mica report.
RubellanOxidized and dehydrogenated Biotite.
TitanbiotiteTi-bearing variety of biotite; occurs in volcanic rocks.
Titanian BiotiteTi variety of Biotite

Relationship of Biotite to other SpeciesHide

Member of:
Other Members of this group:
Anandite(Ba,K)(Fe2+,Mg)3((Si,Al,Fe)4O10)(S,OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
AnniteKFe2+3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
AspidoliteNaMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
BalestraiteKLi2V5+Si4O12Mon. 2 : B2
BityiteLiCaAl2(AlBeSi2O10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
CeladoniteK(Mg,Fe2+)Fe3+(Si4O10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
ChromphylliteK(Cr,Al)2(AlSi3O10)(OH,F)2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
ClintoniteCa(Mg,Al)3(Al3SiO10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
FerroaluminoceladoniteK(Fe2+,Mg)(Al,Fe3+)(Si4O10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
FerroceladoniteK(Fe2+,Mg)(Fe3+,Al)(Si4O10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
FluorophlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(F,OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
Glauconite(K,Na)(Mg,Fe2+,Fe3+)(Fe3+,Al)(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
HendricksiteK(Zn,Mg,Mn2+)3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
IlliteK0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
LepidoliteA Li-rich mica in, or close to, the so-called Polylithionite-Trilithionite series.Mon.
LuanshiweiiteKLiAl1.50.5(Si3.5Al0.5)O10(OH,F)2 Mon. 2/m : B2/b
MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
NorrishiteKLiMn3+2(Si4O10)O2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
Oxykinoshitalite(Ba,K)(Mg,Ti,Fe3+,Fe2+)3((Si,Al)4O10)(O,OH,F)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
OxyphlogopiteK(Mg,Ti,Fe)3[(Si,Al)4O10](O,F)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
PolylithioniteKLi2Al(Si4O10)(F,OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
RoscoeliteK(V3+,Al)2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
ShirokshiniteKNaMg2(Si4O10)F2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
ShirozuliteK(Mn2+,Mg)3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
Suhailite(NH4)Fe2+3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
TrilithioniteK(Li1.5Al1.5)(AlSi3O10)(F,OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
VoloshiniteRb(LiAl1.51.5)(Al0.5Si3.5)O10F2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
Wonesite(Na,K)(Mg,Fe,Al)6((Al,Si)4O10)2(OH,F)4Mon. 2/m : B2/m
YangzhumingiteKMg2.5(Si4O10)F2Mon. 2/m : B2/m

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Quartz97 photos of Biotite associated with Quartz on
Almandine75 photos of Biotite associated with Almandine on
Corundum53 photos of Biotite associated with Corundum on
Microcline53 photos of Biotite associated with Microcline on
Calcite50 photos of Biotite associated with Calcite on
Albite-Anorthite Series31 photos of Biotite associated with Albite-Anorthite Series on
Feldspar Group30 photos of Biotite associated with Feldspar Group on
Muscovite30 photos of Biotite associated with Muscovite on
Zircon29 photos of Biotite associated with Zircon on
Kyanite28 photos of Biotite associated with Kyanite on

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

Biotite in petrologyHide

An essential component of (items highlighted in red)
Common component of (items highlighted in red)
Accessory component of (items highlighted in red)

References for BiotiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Parry, W.T., Nackowski, M.P. (1963) Copper, lead, and zinc in biotites from Basin and Range quartz monzonites. Economic Geology: 58: 1126-1144.
Dodge, F.C.W., Smith, V.C., May, R.E. (1969) Biotites from the granitic rocks of the central Sierra Nevada batholith. Journal of Petrology: 10: 250-271.
Lovering, T.G., Cooper, J.R., Drewes, H.D., Cone, G.C. (1970) Copper in biotite from igneous rocks in southern Arizona as an ore indicator. USGS Professional Paper 700-B: 1-8.
Giardini, A.A., Hurst, V.J., Melton, C.E., John, C., Stormer, J. (1974) Biotite as a primary inclusion in diamond: Its nature and significance. American Mineralogist: 59: 783-789.
Kesler, S.E., Issigonis, M.J., Brownlow, A.H., Damon, P.E., Moore, W.J., Northcote, K.E., Preto, V.A. (1975) Geochemistry of biotites from mineralized and barren intrusive systems. Economic Geology: 70: 559-567.
Rehrig, W.A., McKinney, C.N. (1976) The distribution and origin of anomalous copper in biotite. Mining Engineering: 27, 68 pp.
Ohta, T., Takeda, H., Takéuchi, Y. (1982) Mica polytypism: similarities in the crystal structures of coexisting 1M and 2M 1 oxybiotite. American Mineralogist: 67: 298-310.
Dymek, R.F. (1983) Titanium, aluminium and interlayer cation substitution in biotite from high-grade gneisses, West Greenland. American Mineralogist: 68: 880-899.
Banfield, J.F., Eggleton, R.A. (1988) Transmission electron microscope study of biotite weathering. Clays and Clay Minerals: 36: 47-60.
Walmsley, J.C., Lang, A.R. (1992) Oriented biotite inclusions in diamond coat. Mineralogical Magazine: 56: 108-111.
Rieder, M., Cavazzani, G., D'Yakonov, Y.S., Frank-Kamenetskii, V.A., Gottardi, G., Guggenheim, S., Koval, P.V., Müller, G., Neiva, A.M.R., Radaslovich, E.W., Robert, J.-L., Sassi, F.P., Takeda, H., Weiss, Z., Wones, D.R. (1998) Nomenclature of the micas. The Canadian Mineralogist: 36: 905-912.
Rieder, M., Cavazzani, G., D'Yakonov, Y.S., Frank-Kamenetskii, V.A., Gottardi, G., Guggenheim, S., Koval, P.V., Müller, G., Neiva, A.M.R., Radaslovich, E.W., Robert, J.-L., Sassi, F.P., Takeda, H., Weiss, Z., Wones, D.R.(1999) Nomenclature of the Micas. Mineralogical Magazine: 63: 267-267.
Li, G., Peacor, D.R., Essene, E.J. (1998) The formation of sulfides during alteration of biotite to chlorite-corrensite. Clays and Clay Minerals: 46: 649-657.
Ibhi, A., Nachit, H (2000) The substitution mechanism of Ba and Ti into phyllosilicate phases: the example of barium-titanium biotite. Annals of Chim. Sci. Mat. 25, 627-634.
Parry, W.T., Wilson, P.N., Moser, D., Heizler, M.T. (2001) U-Pb dating of zircon and 40Ar/39Ar dating of biotite at Bingham, Utah. Economic Geology: 96: 1671-1683.
Machev, P., Klain, L., Hecht, L. (2004) Mineralogy and chemistry of biotites from the Belogradchik pluton - some petrological implications for granitoid magmatism in north west Bulgaria. Bulgarian Geological Society conference paper, Annual Scientific Conference “Geology 2004”, pp. 48-50. (

Internet Links for BiotiteHide

Localities for BiotiteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListShow