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Biotite

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About BiotiteHide

09617510014946555347896.jpg
Jean Baptiste Biot [April 21, 1774 Paris, France - February 3, 1862 Paris, France]
Formula:
K(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Approximated formula based on common species regarded as 'biotite'. A slash in the formula indicates different elements can occur in this position but without assumption on priority.
Name:
Named in 1847 by Johann Friedrich Ludwig Hausmann in honour of the French physicist, mathematician, meteoriticist, astronomer, and mineralogist, Jean-Baptiste Biot [April 21, 1774, Paris, France - February 3, 1862, Paris, France], who studied the optical properties of the micas. Biot and his associate, Félix Savart, discovered that an electric current in a wire produced a magnetic field. Biot received many awards in his lifetime in recognition of the value of his scientific researches.
A series or subgroup of the Mica Group.

The CNMMN Subcommittee on Nomenclature of the Micas (1998, 1999) has recommended that the name biotite be used for a series between the joins Annite-Phlogopite and Siderophyllite-Eastonite, and is therefore no longer to be regarded as a species name. Fluorophlogopite and Fluorotetraferriphlogopite should be included. The name is most commonly used for the micas on the Fe-rich end of the series, including Annite, Fluorannite, Tetra-ferri-annite and Siderophyllite.

The name "biotite" is also used as a generic field term for any incompletely analysed dark mica.

May alter to vermiculite.

Rock-forming biotite may be confused with stilpnomelane.


Classification of BiotiteHide

Notes:
Redefined by the IMA

Pronounciation of BiotiteHide

Pronounciation:
PlayRecorded byCountry
Jolyon & Katya RalphUnited Kingdom

Chemical Properties of BiotiteHide

Formula:
K(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2

Approximated formula based on common species regarded as 'biotite'. A slash in the formula indicates different elements can occur in this position but without assumption on priority.

Age distributionHide

Recorded ages:
Paleoarchean to Quaternary : 3366 Ma to 0.49 ± 0.01 Ma - based on 274 recorded ages.

Crystallographic forms of BiotiteHide

Crystal Atlas:
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Biotite no.7 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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IDSpeciesReferenceLinkYearLocalityPressure (GPa)Temp (K)
0000386AnniteHazen R M, Burnham C W (1973) The crystal structures of one-layer phlogopite and annite American Mineralogist 58 889-90019730293
0002392AnniteRedhammer G J, Beran A, Schneider J, Amthauer G, Lottermoser W (2000) Spectroscopic and structural properties of synthetic micas on the annite-siderophyllite binary: Synthesis, crystal structure refinement, Mossbauer, and infrared spectroscopy American Mineralogist 85 449-46520000293
0002393AnniteRedhammer G J, Beran A, Schneider J, Amthauer G, Lottermoser W (2000) Spectroscopic and structural properties of synthetic micas on the annite-siderophyllite binary: Synthesis, crystal structure refinement, Mossbauer, and infrared spectroscopy American Mineralogist 85 449-46520000293
0002394AnniteRedhammer G J, Beran A, Schneider J, Amthauer G, Lottermoser W (2000) Spectroscopic and structural properties of synthetic micas on the annite-siderophyllite binary: Synthesis, crystal structure refinement, Mossbauer, and infrared spectroscopy American Mineralogist 85 449-46520000293
0002395AnniteRedhammer G J, Beran A, Schneider J, Amthauer G, Lottermoser W (2000) Spectroscopic and structural properties of synthetic micas on the annite-siderophyllite binary: Synthesis, crystal structure refinement, Mossbauer, and infrared spectroscopy American Mineralogist 85 449-46520000293
0002396AnniteRedhammer G J, Beran A, Schneider J, Amthauer G, Lottermoser W (2000) Spectroscopic and structural properties of synthetic micas on the annite-siderophyllite binary: Synthesis, crystal structure refinement, Mossbauer, and infrared spectroscopy American Mineralogist 85 449-46520000293
0002397AnniteRedhammer G J, Beran A, Schneider J, Amthauer G, Lottermoser W (2000) Spectroscopic and structural properties of synthetic micas on the annite-siderophyllite binary: Synthesis, crystal structure refinement, Mossbauer, and infrared spectroscopy American Mineralogist 85 449-46520000293
0002398AnniteRedhammer G J, Beran A, Schneider J, Amthauer G, Lottermoser W (2000) Spectroscopic and structural properties of synthetic micas on the annite-siderophyllite binary: Synthesis, crystal structure refinement, Mossbauer, and infrared spectroscopy American Mineralogist 85 449-46520000293
0002399AnniteRedhammer G J, Beran A, Schneider J, Amthauer G, Lottermoser W (2000) Spectroscopic and structural properties of synthetic micas on the annite-siderophyllite binary: Synthesis, crystal structure refinement, Mossbauer, and infrared spectroscopy American Mineralogist 85 449-46520000293
0002929AnniteRedhammer G J, Roth G (2002) Single-crystal structure refinements and crystal chemistry of synthetic trioctahedral micas KM3(Al,Si)4O10(OH)2, where M = Ni, Mg, Co, Fe, Al American Mineralogist 87 1464-147620020293
0002930AnniteRedhammer G J, Roth G (2002) Single-crystal structure refinements and crystal chemistry of synthetic trioctahedral micas KM3(Al,Si)4O10(OH)2, where M = Ni, Mg, Co, Fe, Al American Mineralogist 87 1464-147620020293
0004299AnniteLaurora A, Brigatti M F, Mottana A, Malferrari D, Caprilli E (2007) Crystal chemistry of trioctahedral micas in alkaline and subalkaline volcanic rocks: A case study from Mt. Sassetto (Tolfa district, Latium, central Italy) American Mineralogist 92 468-4802007Mt. Sassetto, Tolfa district, Latium, Italy0293
0004300AnniteLaurora A, Brigatti M F, Mottana A, Malferrari D, Caprilli E (2007) Crystal chemistry of trioctahedral micas in alkaline and subalkaline volcanic rocks: A case study from Mt. Sassetto (Tolfa district, Latium, central Italy) American Mineralogist 92 468-4802007Mt. Sassetto, Tolfa district, Latium, Italy0293
0004301AnniteLaurora A, Brigatti M F, Mottana A, Malferrari D, Caprilli E (2007) Crystal chemistry of trioctahedral micas in alkaline and subalkaline volcanic rocks: A case study from Mt. Sassetto (Tolfa district, Latium, central Italy) American Mineralogist 92 468-4802007Mt. Sassetto, Tolfa district, Latium, Italy0293
0005541AnniteDrabek M, Rieder M, Viti C, Weiss Z, Fryda J (1998) Hydrothermal synthesis of a Cs ferruginous trioctahedral mica The Canadian Mineralogist 36 755-76119980293
0000024PhlogopiteHendricks S B, Jefferson M E (1939) Polymorphism of the micas with optical measurements American Mineralogist 24 729-77119390293
0000025PhlogopiteHendricks S B, Jefferson M E (1939) Polymorphism of the micas with optical measurements American Mineralogist 24 729-77119390293
0000026PhlogopiteHendricks S B, Jefferson M E (1939) Polymorphism of the micas with optical measurements American Mineralogist 24 729-77119390293
0000077PhlogopitePabst A (1955) Redescription of the single layer structure of the micas American Mineralogist 40 967-97419550293
0000114PhlogopiteSteinfink H (1962) Crystal structure of a trioctahedral mica: Phlogopite American Mineralogist 47 886-88919620293
0001810PhlogopiteBrigatti M F, Medici L, Saccani E, Vaccaro C (1996) Crystal chemistry and petrologic significance of Fe3+-rich phlogopite from the Tapira carbonatite complex, Brazil American Mineralogist 81 913-92719960293
0001811PhlogopiteBrigatti M F, Medici L, Saccani E, Vaccaro C (1996) Crystal chemistry and petrologic significance of Fe3+-rich phlogopite from the Tapira carbonatite complex, Brazil American Mineralogist 81 913-92719960293
0001812PhlogopiteBrigatti M F, Medici L, Saccani E, Vaccaro C (1996) Crystal chemistry and petrologic significance of Fe3+-rich phlogopite from the Tapira carbonatite complex, Brazil American Mineralogist 81 913-92719960293
0001813PhlogopiteBrigatti M F, Medici L, Saccani E, Vaccaro C (1996) Crystal chemistry and petrologic significance of Fe3+-rich phlogopite from the Tapira carbonatite complex, Brazil American Mineralogist 81 913-92719960293
0001814PhlogopiteBrigatti M F, Medici L, Saccani E, Vaccaro C (1996) Crystal chemistry and petrologic significance of Fe3+-rich phlogopite from the Tapira carbonatite complex, Brazil American Mineralogist 81 913-92719960293
0001815PhlogopiteBrigatti M F, Medici L, Saccani E, Vaccaro C (1996) Crystal chemistry and petrologic significance of Fe3+-rich phlogopite from the Tapira carbonatite complex, Brazil American Mineralogist 81 913-92719960293
0001816PhlogopiteBrigatti M F, Medici L, Saccani E, Vaccaro C (1996) Crystal chemistry and petrologic significance of Fe3+-rich phlogopite from the Tapira carbonatite complex, Brazil American Mineralogist 81 913-92719960293
0001817PhlogopiteBrigatti M F, Medici L, Saccani E, Vaccaro C (1996) Crystal chemistry and petrologic significance of Fe3+-rich phlogopite from the Tapira carbonatite complex, Brazil American Mineralogist 81 913-92719960293
0001818PhlogopiteBrigatti M F, Medici L, Saccani E, Vaccaro C (1996) Crystal chemistry and petrologic significance of Fe3+-rich phlogopite from the Tapira carbonatite complex, Brazil American Mineralogist 81 913-92719960293
0001819PhlogopiteBrigatti M F, Medici L, Saccani E, Vaccaro C (1996) Crystal chemistry and petrologic significance of Fe3+-rich phlogopite from the Tapira carbonatite complex, Brazil American Mineralogist 81 913-92719960293
0001820PhlogopiteBrigatti M F, Medici L, Saccani E, Vaccaro C (1996) Crystal chemistry and petrologic significance of Fe3+-rich phlogopite from the Tapira carbonatite complex, Brazil American Mineralogist 81 913-92719960293
0001821PhlogopiteBrigatti M F, Medici L, Saccani E, Vaccaro C (1996) Crystal chemistry and petrologic significance of Fe3+-rich phlogopite from the Tapira carbonatite complex, Brazil American Mineralogist 81 913-92719960293
0001822PhlogopiteBrigatti M F, Medici L, Saccani E, Vaccaro C (1996) Crystal chemistry and petrologic significance of Fe3+-rich phlogopite from the Tapira carbonatite complex, Brazil American Mineralogist 81 913-92719960293
0002225PhlogopiteHawthorne F C, Teertstra D K, Cerny P (1999) Crystal-structure refinement of a rubidian cesian phlogopite American Mineralogist 84 778-78119990293
0002917PhlogopiteRedhammer G J, Roth G (2002) Single-crystal structure refinements and crystal chemistry of synthetic trioctahedral micas KM3(Al,Si)4O10(OH)2, where M = Ni, Mg, Co, Fe, Al American Mineralogist 87 1464-147620020293
0002918PhlogopiteRedhammer G J, Roth G (2002) Single-crystal structure refinements and crystal chemistry of synthetic trioctahedral micas KM3(Al,Si)4O10(OH)2, where M = Ni, Mg, Co, Fe, Al American Mineralogist 87 1464-147620020293
0002919PhlogopiteRedhammer G J, Roth G (2002) Single-crystal structure refinements and crystal chemistry of synthetic trioctahedral micas KM3(Al,Si)4O10(OH)2, where M = Ni, Mg, Co, Fe, Al American Mineralogist 87 1464-147620020293
0002920PhlogopiteRedhammer G J, Roth G (2002) Single-crystal structure refinements and crystal chemistry of synthetic trioctahedral micas KM3(Al,Si)4O10(OH)2, where M = Ni, Mg, Co, Fe, Al American Mineralogist 87 1464-147620020293
0002921PhlogopiteRedhammer G J, Roth G (2002) Single-crystal structure refinements and crystal chemistry of synthetic trioctahedral micas KM3(Al,Si)4O10(OH)2, where M = Ni, Mg, Co, Fe, Al American Mineralogist 87 1464-147620020293
0002922PhlogopiteRedhammer G J, Roth G (2002) Single-crystal structure refinements and crystal chemistry of synthetic trioctahedral micas KM3(Al,Si)4O10(OH)2, where M = Ni, Mg, Co, Fe, Al American Mineralogist 87 1464-147620020293
0002923PhlogopiteRedhammer G J, Roth G (2002) Single-crystal structure refinements and crystal chemistry of synthetic trioctahedral micas KM3(Al,Si)4O10(OH)2, where M = Ni, Mg, Co, Fe, Al American Mineralogist 87 1464-147620020293
0002924PhlogopiteRedhammer G J, Roth G (2002) Single-crystal structure refinements and crystal chemistry of synthetic trioctahedral micas KM3(Al,Si)4O10(OH)2, where M = Ni, Mg, Co, Fe, Al American Mineralogist 87 1464-147620020293
0002925PhlogopiteRedhammer G J, Roth G (2002) Single-crystal structure refinements and crystal chemistry of synthetic trioctahedral micas KM3(Al,Si)4O10(OH)2, where M = Ni, Mg, Co, Fe, Al American Mineralogist 87 1464-147620020293
0002926PhlogopiteRedhammer G J, Roth G (2002) Single-crystal structure refinements and crystal chemistry of synthetic trioctahedral micas KM3(Al,Si)4O10(OH)2, where M = Ni, Mg, Co, Fe, Al American Mineralogist 87 1464-147620020293
0002928PhlogopiteRedhammer G J, Roth G (2002) Single-crystal structure refinements and crystal chemistry of synthetic trioctahedral micas KM3(Al,Si)4O10(OH)2, where M = Ni, Mg, Co, Fe, Al American Mineralogist 87 1464-147620020293
0003534PhlogopiteComodi P, Fumagalli P, Montagnoli M, Zanazzi P F (2004) A single-crystal study on the pressure behavior of phlogopite and petrological implications American Mineralogist 89 647-65320040.0001293
0003535PhlogopiteComodi P, Fumagalli P, Montagnoli M, Zanazzi P F (2004) A single-crystal study on the pressure behavior of phlogopite and petrological implications American Mineralogist 89 647-65320041.2293
0003536PhlogopiteComodi P, Fumagalli P, Montagnoli M, Zanazzi P F (2004) A single-crystal study on the pressure behavior of phlogopite and petrological implications American Mineralogist 89 647-65320043.2293
0003537PhlogopiteComodi P, Fumagalli P, Montagnoli M, Zanazzi P F (2004) A single-crystal study on the pressure behavior of phlogopite and petrological implications American Mineralogist 89 647-65320045293
0003538PhlogopiteComodi P, Fumagalli P, Montagnoli M, Zanazzi P F (2004) A single-crystal study on the pressure behavior of phlogopite and petrological implications American Mineralogist 89 647-65320046293
0004002PhlogopiteMesto E, Schingaro E, Scordari F, Ottolini L (2006) An electron microprobe analysis, secondary ion mass spectrometry and single crystal X-ray diffraction study of phlogopites from Mt. Vulture, Potenza, Italy: Consideration of cation partioning American Mineralogist 91 182-1902006Mt. Vulture, Potenza, Italy0293
0004003PhlogopiteMesto E, Schingaro E, Scordari F, Ottolini L (2006) An electron microprobe analysis, secondary ion mass spectrometry and single crystal X-ray diffraction study of phlogopites from Mt. Vulture, Potenza, Italy: Consideration of cation partioning American Mineralogist 91 182-1902006Mt. Vulture, Potenza, Italy0293
0004004PhlogopiteMesto E, Schingaro E, Scordari F, Ottolini L (2006) An electron microprobe analysis, secondary ion mass spectrometry and single crystal X-ray diffraction study of phlogopites from Mt. Vulture, Potenza, Italy: Consideration of cation partioning American Mineralogist 91 182-1902006Mt. Vulture, Potenza, Italy0293
0004291PhlogopiteLaurora A, Brigatti M F, Mottana A, Malferrari D, Caprilli E (2007) Crystal chemistry of trioctahedral micas in alkaline and subalkaline volcanic rocks: A case study from Mt. Sassetto (Tolfa district, Latium, central Italy) American Mineralogist 92 468-4802007Mt. Sassetto, Tolfa district, Latium, Italy0293
0004292PhlogopiteLaurora A, Brigatti M F, Mottana A, Malferrari D, Caprilli E (2007) Crystal chemistry of trioctahedral micas in alkaline and subalkaline volcanic rocks: A case study from Mt. Sassetto (Tolfa district, Latium, central Italy) American Mineralogist 92 468-4802007Mt. Sassetto, Tolfa district, Latium, Italy0293
0004293PhlogopiteLaurora A, Brigatti M F, Mottana A, Malferrari D, Caprilli E (2007) Crystal chemistry of trioctahedral micas in alkaline and subalkaline volcanic rocks: A case study from Mt. Sassetto (Tolfa district, Latium, central Italy) American Mineralogist 92 468-4802007Mt. Sassetto, Tolfa district, Latium, Italy0293
0004294PhlogopiteLaurora A, Brigatti M F, Mottana A, Malferrari D, Caprilli E (2007) Crystal chemistry of trioctahedral micas in alkaline and subalkaline volcanic rocks: A case study from Mt. Sassetto (Tolfa district, Latium, central Italy) American Mineralogist 92 468-4802007Mt. Sassetto, Tolfa district, Latium, Italy0293
0004295PhlogopiteLaurora A, Brigatti M F, Mottana A, Malferrari D, Caprilli E (2007) Crystal chemistry of trioctahedral micas in alkaline and subalkaline volcanic rocks: A case study from Mt. Sassetto (Tolfa district, Latium, central Italy) American Mineralogist 92 468-4802007Mt. Sassetto, Tolfa district, Latium, Italy0293
0004296PhlogopiteLaurora A, Brigatti M F, Mottana A, Malferrari D, Caprilli E (2007) Crystal chemistry of trioctahedral micas in alkaline and subalkaline volcanic rocks: A case study from Mt. Sassetto (Tolfa district, Latium, central Italy) American Mineralogist 92 468-4802007Mt. Sassetto, Tolfa district, Latium, Italy0293
0004297PhlogopiteLaurora A, Brigatti M F, Mottana A, Malferrari D, Caprilli E (2007) Crystal chemistry of trioctahedral micas in alkaline and subalkaline volcanic rocks: A case study from Mt. Sassetto (Tolfa district, Latium, central Italy) American Mineralogist 92 468-4802007Mt. Sassetto, Tolfa district, Latium, Italy0293
0004298PhlogopiteLaurora A, Brigatti M F, Mottana A, Malferrari D, Caprilli E (2007) Crystal chemistry of trioctahedral micas in alkaline and subalkaline volcanic rocks: A case study from Mt. Sassetto (Tolfa district, Latium, central Italy) American Mineralogist 92 468-4802007Mt. Sassetto, Tolfa district, Latium, Italy0293
0004302PhlogopiteLaurora A, Brigatti M F, Mottana A, Malferrari D, Caprilli E (2007) Crystal chemistry of trioctahedral micas in alkaline and subalkaline volcanic rocks: A case study from Mt. Sassetto (Tolfa district, Latium, central Italy) American Mineralogist 92 468-4802007Mt. Sassetto, Tolfa district, Latium, Italy0293
0004303PhlogopiteLaurora A, Brigatti M F, Mottana A, Malferrari D, Caprilli E (2007) Crystal chemistry of trioctahedral micas in alkaline and subalkaline volcanic rocks: A case study from Mt. Sassetto (Tolfa district, Latium, central Italy) American Mineralogist 92 468-4802007Mt. Sassetto, Tolfa district, Latium, Italy0293
0004304PhlogopiteLaurora A, Brigatti M F, Mottana A, Malferrari D, Caprilli E (2007) Crystal chemistry of trioctahedral micas in alkaline and subalkaline volcanic rocks: A case study from Mt. Sassetto (Tolfa district, Latium, central Italy) American Mineralogist 92 468-4802007Mt. Sassetto, Tolfa district, Latium, Italy0293
0004305PhlogopiteLaurora A, Brigatti M F, Mottana A, Malferrari D, Caprilli E (2007) Crystal chemistry of trioctahedral micas in alkaline and subalkaline volcanic rocks: A case study from Mt. Sassetto (Tolfa district, Latium, central Italy) American Mineralogist 92 468-4802007Mt. Sassetto, Tolfa district, Latium, Italy0293
0004306PhlogopiteLaurora A, Brigatti M F, Mottana A, Malferrari D, Caprilli E (2007) Crystal chemistry of trioctahedral micas in alkaline and subalkaline volcanic rocks: A case study from Mt. Sassetto (Tolfa district, Latium, central Italy) American Mineralogist 92 468-4802007Mt. Sassetto, Tolfa district, Latium, Italy0293
0004525PhlogopiteMatarrese S, Schingaro E, Scordari F, Stoppa F, Rosatelli G, Pedrazzi G, Ottolini L (2008) Crystal chemistry of phlogopite from Vulture-S. Michele Subsynthem volcanic rocks (Mt. Vulture, Italy) and volcanological implications Mt. Vulture, Italy American Mineralogist 93 426-4372008Masseria Saraceno pyroclastic flow, Vulture-San Michele Subsynthem,0293
0004526PhlogopiteMatarrese S, Schingaro E, Scordari F, Stoppa F, Rosatelli G, Pedrazzi G, Ottolini L (2008) Crystal chemistry of phlogopite from Vulture-S. Michele Subsynthem volcanic rocks (Mt. Vulture, Italy) and volcanological implications Mt. Vulture, Italy American Mineralogist 93 426-4372008Masseria Saraceno pyroclastic flow, Vulture-San Michele Subsynthem,0293
0004527PhlogopiteMatarrese S, Schingaro E, Scordari F, Stoppa F, Rosatelli G, Pedrazzi G, Ottolini L (2008) Crystal chemistry of phlogopite from Vulture-S. Michele Subsynthem volcanic rocks (Mt. Vulture, Italy) and volcanological implications Mt. Vulture, Italy American Mineralogist 93 426-4372008Masseria Saraceno pyroclastic flow, Vulture-San Michele Subsynthem,0293
0004528PhlogopiteMatarrese S, Schingaro E, Scordari F, Stoppa F, Rosatelli G, Pedrazzi G, Ottolini L (2008) Crystal chemistry of phlogopite from Vulture-S. Michele Subsynthem volcanic rocks (Mt. Vulture, Italy) and volcanological implications Mt. Vulture, Italy American Mineralogist 93 426-4372008Masseria Saraceno pyroclastic flow, Vulture-San Michele Subsynthem,0293
0004529PhlogopiteMatarrese S, Schingaro E, Scordari F, Stoppa F, Rosatelli G, Pedrazzi G, Ottolini L (2008) Crystal chemistry of phlogopite from Vulture-S. Michele Subsynthem volcanic rocks (Mt. Vulture, Italy) and volcanological implications Mt. Vulture, Italy American Mineralogist 93 426-4372008Masseria Saraceno pyroclastic flow, Vulture-San Michele Subsynthem,0293
0004530PhlogopiteMatarrese S, Schingaro E, Scordari F, Stoppa F, Rosatelli G, Pedrazzi G, Ottolini L (2008) Crystal chemistry of phlogopite from Vulture-S. Michele Subsynthem volcanic rocks (Mt. Vulture, Italy) and volcanological implications Mt. Vulture, Italy American Mineralogist 93 426-4372008Masseria Saraceno pyroclastic flow, Vulture-San Michele Subsynthem,0293
0004547PhlogopiteVentruti G, Zema M, Scordari F, Pedrazzi G (2008) Thermal behavior of a Ti-rich phlogopite from Mt. Vulture (Potenza, Italy): An in situ X-ray single-crystal diffraction study American Mineralogist 93 632-6432008trioctahedral mica, Cava St. Antonia, Mt. Vulture, Potenza, Italy0293
0004548PhlogopiteVentruti G, Zema M, Scordari F, Pedrazzi G (2008) Thermal behavior of a Ti-rich phlogopite from Mt. Vulture (Potenza, Italy): An in situ X-ray single-crystal diffraction study American Mineralogist 93 632-6432008trioctahedral mica, Cava St. Antonia, Mt. Vulture, Potenza, Italy0293
0004549PhlogopiteVentruti G, Zema M, Scordari F, Pedrazzi G (2008) Thermal behavior of a Ti-rich phlogopite from Mt. Vulture (Potenza, Italy): An in situ X-ray single-crystal diffraction study American Mineralogist 93 632-6432008trioctahedral mica, Cava St. Antonia, Mt. Vulture, Potenza, Italy0293
0004550PhlogopiteVentruti G, Zema M, Scordari F, Pedrazzi G (2008) Thermal behavior of a Ti-rich phlogopite from Mt. Vulture (Potenza, Italy): An in situ X-ray single-crystal diffraction study American Mineralogist 93 632-6432008trioctahedral mica, Cava St. Antonia, Mt. Vulture, Potenza, Italy0293
0004551PhlogopiteVentruti G, Zema M, Scordari F, Pedrazzi G (2008) Thermal behavior of a Ti-rich phlogopite from Mt. Vulture (Potenza, Italy): An in situ X-ray single-crystal diffraction study American Mineralogist 93 632-6432008trioctahedral mica, Cava St. Antonia, Mt. Vulture, Potenza, Italy0293
0004552PhlogopiteVentruti G, Zema M, Scordari F, Pedrazzi G (2008) Thermal behavior of a Ti-rich phlogopite from Mt. Vulture (Potenza, Italy): An in situ X-ray single-crystal diffraction study American Mineralogist 93 632-6432008trioctahedral mica, Cava St. Antonia, Mt. Vulture, Potenza, Italy0293
0004553PhlogopiteVentruti G, Zema M, Scordari F, Pedrazzi G (2008) Thermal behavior of a Ti-rich phlogopite from Mt. Vulture (Potenza, Italy): An in situ X-ray single-crystal diffraction study American Mineralogist 93 632-6432008trioctahedral mica, Cava St. Antonia, Mt. Vulture, Potenza, Italy0293
0004554PhlogopiteVentruti G, Zema M, Scordari F, Pedrazzi G (2008) Thermal behavior of a Ti-rich phlogopite from Mt. Vulture (Potenza, Italy): An in situ X-ray single-crystal diffraction study American Mineralogist 93 632-6432008trioctahedral mica, Cava St. Antonia, Mt. Vulture, Potenza, Italy0293
0004555PhlogopiteVentruti G, Zema M, Scordari F, Pedrazzi G (2008) Thermal behavior of a Ti-rich phlogopite from Mt. Vulture (Potenza, Italy): An in situ X-ray single-crystal diffraction study American Mineralogist 93 632-6432008trioctahedral mica, Cava St. Antonia, Mt. Vulture, Potenza, Italy0293
0004636PhlogopiteNazzareni S, Comodi P, Bindi L, Safonov O G, Litvin Y A, Perchuk L L (2008) Synthetic hypersilicic Cl-bearing mica in the phlogopite-celadonite join: a mulitmethodical characterization of the missing link between di- and tri- octahedral micas at high pressures American Mineralogist 93 1429-14362008synthetic0293
0017712PhlogopiteZema M, Ventruti G, Lacalamita M, Scordari F (2010) Kinetics of Fe-oxidation/deprotonation process in Fe-rich phlogopite under isothermal conditions American Mineralogist 95 1458-14662010Mt. Vulture, Potenza, Italy0293
0017713PhlogopiteZema M, Ventruti G, Lacalamita M, Scordari F (2010) Kinetics of Fe-oxidation/deprotonation process in Fe-rich phlogopite under isothermal conditions American Mineralogist 95 1458-14662010Mt. Vulture, Potenza, Italy0293
0017714PhlogopiteZema M, Ventruti G, Lacalamita M, Scordari F (2010) Kinetics of Fe-oxidation/deprotonation process in Fe-rich phlogopite under isothermal conditions American Mineralogist 95 1458-14662010Mt. Vulture, Potenza, Italy0293
0017715PhlogopiteZema M, Ventruti G, Lacalamita M, Scordari F (2010) Kinetics of Fe-oxidation/deprotonation process in Fe-rich phlogopite under isothermal conditions American Mineralogist 95 1458-14662010Mt. Vulture, Potenza, Italy0293
0017716PhlogopiteZema M, Ventruti G, Lacalamita M, Scordari F (2010) Kinetics of Fe-oxidation/deprotonation process in Fe-rich phlogopite under isothermal conditions American Mineralogist 95 1458-14662010Mt. Vulture, Potenza, Italy0293
0020820PhlogopiteScordari F, Schingaro E, Lacalamita M, Mesto E (2012) Crystal chemistry of trioctahedral micas-2M_1 from Bunyaruguru kamafugite (southwest Uganda) American Mineralogist 97 430-4392012southwest Uganda0293
0020821PhlogopiteScordari F, Schingaro E, Lacalamita M, Mesto E (2012) Crystal chemistry of trioctahedral micas-2M_1 from Bunyaruguru kamafugite (southwest Uganda) American Mineralogist 97 430-4392012southwest Uganda0293
0020822PhlogopiteScordari F, Schingaro E, Lacalamita M, Mesto E (2012) Crystal chemistry of trioctahedral micas-2M_1 from Bunyaruguru kamafugite (southwest Uganda) American Mineralogist 97 430-4392012southwest Uganda0293
0020823PhlogopiteScordari F, Schingaro E, Lacalamita M, Mesto E (2012) Crystal chemistry of trioctahedral micas-2M_1 from Bunyaruguru kamafugite (southwest Uganda) American Mineralogist 97 430-4392012southwest Uganda0293
0020824PhlogopiteScordari F, Schingaro E, Lacalamita M, Mesto E (2012) Crystal chemistry of trioctahedral micas-2M_1 from Bunyaruguru kamafugite (southwest Uganda) American Mineralogist 97 430-4392012southwest Uganda0293
0019915PhlogopiteSchingaro E, Lacalamita M, Scordari F, Mesto E (2013) 3T-phlogopite from Kasenyi kamafugite (SW Uganda): EPMA, XPS, FTIR, and SCXRD study American Mineralogist 98 709-7172013Kasenyi kamafugite, southwest Uganda0293
0005597PhlogopiteRussell R L, Guggenheim S (1999) The crystal structures of near-end-member phlogopite at high temperatures and heat-treated Fe-rich phlogopite: The influence of the O, OH, F site The Canadian Mineralogist 37 711-7201999Silver Crater mine, Ontario, Canada0293
0005598PhlogopiteRussell R L, Guggenheim S (1999) The crystal structures of near-end-member phlogopite at high temperatures and heat-treated Fe-rich phlogopite: The influence of the O,OH,F site The Canadian Mineralogist 37 711-7201999Silver Crater mine, Ontario, Canada0293
0005599PhlogopiteRussell R L, Guggenheim S (1999) The crystal structures of near-end-member phlogopite at high temperatures and heat-treated Fe-rich phlogopite: The influence of the O, OH, F site The Canadian Mineralogist 37 711-7201999White Well, Australia0293
0005600PhlogopiteRussell R L, Guggenheim S (1999) The crystal structures of near-end-member phlogopite at high temperatures and heat-treated Fe-rich phlogopite: The influence of the O, OH, F site The Canadian Mineralogist 37 711-7201999White Well, Australia0293
0005601PhlogopiteRussell R L, Guggenheim S (1999) The crystal structures of near-end-member phlogopite at high temperatures and heat-treated Fe-rich phlogopite: The influence of the O, OH, F site The Canadian Mineralogist 37 711-7201999White Well, Australia0293
0005602PhlogopiteRussell R L, Guggenheim S (1999) The crystal structures of near-end-member phlogopite at high temperatures and heat-treated Fe-rich phlogopite: The influence of the O, OH, F site The Canadian Mineralogist 37 711-7201999White Well, Australia0293
0005744PhlogopiteBrigatti M F, Medici L, Poppi L, Vaccaro C (2001) Crystal chemistry of trioctahedral micas - 1M from the Alto Paranaiba Igneous Province, Southeastern Brazil The Canadian Mineralogist 39 1333-13452001Alto Paranaiba Igneous Province, Southeastern Brazil0293
0005745PhlogopiteBrigatti M F, Medici L, Poppi L, Vaccaro C (2001) Crystal chemistry of trioctahedral micas - 1M from the Alto Paranaiba Igneous Province, Southeastern Brazil The Canadian Mineralogist 39 1333-13452001Alto Paranaiba Igneous Province, Southeastern Brazil0293
0005746PhlogopiteBrigatti M F, Medici L, Poppi L, Vaccaro C (2001) Crystal chemistry of trioctahedral micas - 1M from the Alto Paranaiba Igneous Province, Southeastern Brazil T-O3 given as 1.663, but I compute 1.647 The Canadian Mineralogist 39 1333-13452001Alto Paranaiba Igneous Province, Southeastern Brazil0293
0005747PhlogopiteBrigatti M F, Medici L, Poppi L, Vaccaro C (2001) Crystal chemistry of trioctahedral micas - 1M from the Alto Paranaiba Igneous Province, Southeastern Brazil The Canadian Mineralogist 39 1333-13452001Alto Paranaiba Igneous Province, Southeastern Brazil0293
0005748PhlogopiteBrigatti M F, Medici L, Poppi L, Vaccaro C (2001) Crystal chemistry of trioctahedral micas - 1M from the Alto Paranaiba Igneous Province, Southeastern Brazil The Canadian Mineralogist 39 1333-13452001Alto Paranaiba Igneous Province, Southeastern Brazil0293
0005749PhlogopiteBrigatti M F, Medici L, Poppi L, Vaccaro C (2001) Crystal chemistry of trioctahedral micas - 1M from the Alto Paranaiba Igneous Province, Southeastern Brazil The Canadian Mineralogist 39 1333-13452001Alto Paranaiba Igneous Province, Southeastern Brazil0293
0005750PhlogopiteBrigatti M F, Medici L, Poppi L, Vaccaro C (2001) Crystal chemistry of trioctahedral micas - 1M from the Alto Paranaiba Igneous Province, Southeastern Brazil The Canadian Mineralogist 39 1333-13452001Alto Paranaiba Igneous Province, Southeastern Brazil0293
0005751PhlogopiteBrigatti M F, Medici L, Poppi L, Vaccaro C (2001) Crystal chemistry of trioctahedral micas - 1M from the Alto Paranaiba Igneous Province, Southeastern Brazil The Canadian Mineralogist 39 1333-13452001Alto Paranaiba Igneous Province, Southeastern Brazil0293
0005752PhlogopiteBrigatti M F, Medici L, Poppi L, Vaccaro C (2001) Crystal chemistry of trioctahedral micas - 1M from the Alto Paranaiba Igneous Province, Southeastern Brazil The Canadian Mineralogist 39 1333-13452001Alto Paranaiba Igneous Province, Southeastern Brazil0293
0006494PhlogopiteBrigatti M F, Poppi L (1993) Crystal chemistry of Ba-rich trioctahedral micas-1M European Journal of Mineralogy 5 857-87119930293
0006495PhlogopiteBrigatti M F, Poppi L (1993) Crystal chemistry of Ba-rich trioctahedral micas-1M European Journal of Mineralogy 5 857-87119930293
0006496PhlogopiteBrigatti M F, Poppi L (1993) Crystal chemistry of Ba-rich trioctahedral micas-1M European Journal of Mineralogy 5 857-87119930293
0006497PhlogopiteBrigatti M F, Poppi L (1993) Crystal chemistry of Ba-rich trioctahedral micas-1M European Journal of Mineralogy 5 857-87119930293
0006498PhlogopiteBrigatti M F, Poppi L (1993) Crystal chemistry of Ba-rich trioctahedral micas-1M European Journal of Mineralogy 5 857-87119930293
0006499PhlogopiteBrigatti M F, Poppi L (1993) Crystal chemistry of Ba-rich trioctahedral micas-1M European Journal of Mineralogy 5 857-87119930293
0006500PhlogopiteBrigatti M F, Poppi L (1993) Crystal chemistry of Ba-rich trioctahedral micas-1M European Journal of Mineralogy 5 857-87119930293
0002506SiderophylliteBrigatti M F, Lugli C, Poppi L, Foord E E, Kile D E (2000) Crystal chemical variations in Li- and Fe-rich micas from Pikes Peak batholith (central Colorado) sample: 140(2) American Mineralogist 85 1275-128620000293
0002507SiderophylliteBrigatti M F, Lugli C, Poppi L, Foord E E, Kile D E (2000) Crystal chemical variations in Li- and Fe-rich micas from Pikes Peak batholith (central Colorado) American Mineralogist 85 1275-128620000293
0002508SiderophylliteBrigatti M F, Lugli C, Poppi L, Foord E E, Kile D E (2000) Crystal chemical variations in Li- and Fe-rich micas from Pikes Peak batholith (central Colorado) American Mineralogist 85 1275-128620000293
0002509SiderophylliteBrigatti M F, Lugli C, Poppi L, Foord E E, Kile D E (2000) Crystal chemical variations in Li- and Fe-rich micas from Pikes Peak batholith (central Colorado) American Mineralogist 85 1275-128620000293
0002927SiderophylliteRedhammer G J, Roth G (2002) Single-crystal structure refinements and crystal chemistry of synthetic trioctahedral micas KM3(Al,Si)4O10(OH)2, where M = Ni, Mg, Co, Fe, Al American Mineralogist 87 1464-147620020293
0002931SiderophylliteRedhammer G J, Roth G (2002) Single-crystal structure refinements and crystal chemistry of synthetic trioctahedral micas KM3(Al,Si)4O10(OH)2, where M = Ni, Mg, Co, Fe, Al American Mineralogist 87 1464-147620020293
0006975SiderophylliteBrigatti M F, Kile D E, Poppi L (2003) Crystal structure and chemistry of lithium-bearing trioctahedral micas-3T European Journal of Mineralogy 15 349-35520030293
0006976SiderophylliteBrigatti M F, Kile D E, Poppi L (2003) Crystal structure and chemistry of lithium-bearing trioctahedral micas-3T European Journal of Mineralogy 15 349-35520030293
0006977SiderophylliteBrigatti M F, Kile D E, Poppi L (2003) Crystal structure and chemistry of lithium-bearing trioctahedral micas-3T European Journal of Mineralogy 15 349-35520030293
0002208TetraferrianniteComodi P, Zanazzi P F, Weiss Z, Rieder M, Drabek M (1999) "Cs-tetra-ferri-annite:" High-pressure and high-temperature behavior of a potential nuclear waste disposal phase American Mineralogist 84 325-33219990.0001293
0002209TetraferrianniteComodi P, Zanazzi P F, Weiss Z, Rieder M, Drabek M (1999) "Cs-tetra-ferri-annite:" High-pressure and high-temperature behavior of a potential nuclear waste disposal phase American Mineralogist 84 325-33219993.94293
0002210TetraferrianniteComodi P, Zanazzi P F, Weiss Z, Rieder M, Drabek M (1999) "Cs-tetra-ferri-annite:" High-pressure and high-temperature behavior of a potential nuclear waste disposal phase American Mineralogist 84 325-33219990293
0002211TetraferrianniteComodi P, Zanazzi P F, Weiss Z, Rieder M, Drabek M (1999) "Cs-tetra-ferri-annite:" High-pressure and high-temperature behavior of a potential nuclear waste disposal phase American Mineralogist 84 325-33219990569
0002212TetraferrianniteComodi P, Zanazzi P F, Weiss Z, Rieder M, Drabek M (1999) "Cs-tetra-ferri-annite:" High-pressure and high-temperature behavior of a potential nuclear waste disposal phase American Mineralogist 84 325-33219990708
0002213TetraferrianniteComodi P, Zanazzi P F, Weiss Z, Rieder M, Drabek M (1999) "Cs-tetra-ferri-annite:" High-pressure and high-temperature behavior of a potential nuclear waste disposal phase American Mineralogist 84 325-33219990293
0000311FluorophlogopiteMcCauley J W, Newnham R E, Gibbs G V (1973) Crystal structure analysis of synthetic fluorophlogopite American Mineralogist 58 249-25419730293
0000385FluorophlogopiteHazen R M, Burnham C W (1973) The crystal structures of one-layer phlogopite and annite American Mineralogist 58 889-90019730293
0000628FluorophlogopiteHazen R M, Finger L W (1978) The crystal structures and compressibilities of layer minerals at high pressure. II. Phlogopite and chlorite American Mineralogist 63 293-29619783.5293
0020180FluorophlogopiteScordari F, Schingaro E, Ventruti G, Nicotra E, Viccaro M, Tagliani S M (2013) Fluorophlogopite from Piano delle Concazze (Mt. Etna, Italy): Crystal chemistry and implications for the crystallization conditions American Mineralogist 98 1017-10252013Piano delle Concazze, Mt. Etna, Italy0293
0020181FluorophlogopiteScordari F, Schingaro E, Ventruti G, Nicotra E, Viccaro M, Tagliani S M (2013) Fluorophlogopite from Piano delle Concazze (Mt. Etna, Italy): Crystal chemistry and implications for the crystallization conditions American Mineralogist 98 1017-10252013Piano delle Concazze, Mt. Etna, Italy0293
0020182FluorophlogopiteScordari F, Schingaro E, Ventruti G, Nicotra E, Viccaro M, Tagliani S M (2013) Fluorophlogopite from Piano delle Concazze (Mt. Etna, Italy): Crystal chemistry and implications for the crystallization conditions American Mineralogist 98 1017-10252013Piano delle Concazze, Mt. Etna, Italy0293
0020183FluorophlogopiteScordari F, Schingaro E, Ventruti G, Nicotra E, Viccaro M, Tagliani S M (2013) Fluorophlogopite from Piano delle Concazze (Mt. Etna, Italy): Crystal chemistry and implications for the crystallization conditions American Mineralogist 98 1017-10252013Piano delle Concazze, Mt. Etna, Italy0293
0006911FluorophlogopiteFerraris G, Gula A, Ivaldi G, Nespolo M, Sokolova E, Uvarova Y, Khomyakov A P (2001) First structure determination of an MDO-2O mica polytype associated with a 1M polytype European Journal of Mineralogy 13 1013-102320010293
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X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

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Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Synonyms of BiotiteHide

Other Language Names for BiotiteHide

Catalan:Biotita
Czech:Biotit
Dutch:Biotiet
Estonian:Biotiit
Finnish:Biotiitti
French:Biotite
Galician:Biotita
Italian:Biotite
Japanese:黒雲母
Korean:흑운모
Lithuanian:Biotitas
Polish:Biotyt
Portuguese:Biotite
Romanian:Biotit
Russian:Биотит
Serbian:Биотит
Simplified Chinese:黑云母
Slovak:Biotit
Turkish:Biyotit
Ukrainian:Біотит

Varieties of BiotiteHide

AnomiteMica group. An anomalous (hence the name) variety of "biotite" which has its optic axial plane perpendicular to (010).
Barium and Titanium-bearing BiotiteA barium- and titanium-bearing biotite mica.
Chrom-BiotitA Cr-bearing variety of biotite.
Chromium-bearing BiotiteA Cr-bearing variety of biotite.
Eastonite (of Winchell)A name for the Biotite end-member.
HeterophylliteDesignation for a uniaxial biotite from Mangualde, Portugal.
ManganophylliteA Mn-rich variety of Biotite.
Mg(T) MicaAn Aluminium-poor Biotite group mica.
NatronbiotiteA biotite with Na partially replacing K
OxybiotiteAn oxidized biotite (?). Name not mentioned in the mica report.
RubellanOxidized and dehydrogenated Biotite.
Titanian BiotiteTi variety of Biotite
WodaniteA titanian biotite with 12.5% TiO2

Relationship of Biotite to other SpeciesHide

Other Members of this group:
AspidoliteNaMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
BalestraiteKLi2V5+Si4O12Mon. 2 : B2
EphesiteNaLiAl2(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2Tric.
GarmiteCsLiMg2(Si4O10)F2Mon.
HendricksiteKZn3(Si3Al)O10(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
LepidoliteA Li-rich mica in, or close to, the so-called Polylithionite-Trilithionite series.Mon.
Masutomilite(K,Rb)(Li,Mn3+,Al)3(AlSi3O10)(F,OH)2Mon.
NorrishiteKLiMn3+2(Si4O10)O2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
PolylithioniteKLi2Al(Si4O10)(F,OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
PreiswerkiteNaMg2Al(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2Mon.
ShirozuliteKMn2+3(Si3Al)O10(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
SokolovaiteCsLi2Al(Si4O10)F2Mon.
Suhailite(NH4)Fe2+3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
TainioliteKLiMg2(Si4O10)F2Mon.
TrilithioniteK(Li1.5Al1.5)(AlSi3O10)(F,OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
Wonesite(Na,K)(Mg,Fe,Al)6((Al,Si)4O10)2(OH,F)4Mon. 2/m : B2/m
ZinnwalditeMica Group.
Group Members:
Annite KFe2+3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
Eastonite KMg2Al(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2Mon.
Fluorannite KFe2+3(Si3Al)O10F2Mon.
Fluorophlogopite KMg3(AlSi3O10)(F,OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
Fluorotetraferriphlogopite KMg3(Fe3+Si3O10)F2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
Oxyphlogopite K(Mg,Ti,Fe)3[(Si,Al)4O10](O,F)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
Phlogopite KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
Siderophyllite KFe2+2Al(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2Mon.
Tetraferriannite KFe2+3(Si3Fe3+)O10(OH)2Mon.
Tetraferriphlogopite KMg3(Fe3+Si3O10)(OH,F)2

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

Biotite in petrologyHide

An essential component of rock names highlighted in red, an accessory component in rock names highlighted in green.

References for BiotiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Parry, W.T. and Nackowski, M.P. (1963) Copper, lead, and zinc in biotites from Basin and Range quartz monzonites. Economic Geology: 58: 1126-1144.
Wones, D.R. and Eugster, H.P. (1965) Stability of biotite: experiment, theory and application. American Mineralogist: 50: 1228-1272.
Dodge, F.C.W., Smith, V.C., and May, R.E. (1969) Biotites from the granitic rocks of the central Sierra Nevada batholith. Journal of Petrology: 10: 250-271.
Lovering, T.G., Cooper, J.R., Drewes, H.D., and Cone, G.C. (1970) Copper in biotite from igneous rocks in southern Arizona as an ore indicator. USGS Professional Paper 700-B: 1-8.
Giardini, A.A., Hurst, V.J., Melton, C.E., John, C., and Stormer, J. (1974) Biotite as a primary inclusion in diamond: Its nature and significance. American Mineralogist: 59: 783-789.
Kesler, S.E., Issigonis, M.J., Brownlow, A.H., Damon, P.E., Moore, W.J., Northcote, K.E., and Preto, V.A. (1975) Geochemistry of biotites from mineralized and barren intrusive systems. Economic Geology: 70: 559-567.
Rehrig, W.A. and McKinney, C.N. (1976) The distribution and origin of anomalous copper in biotite. Mining Engineering: 27, 68 pp.
Tulloch, A. (1979) Secondary Ca-Al silicates as low-grade alteration products of granitoid biotite. Contributions to Mineralogy & Petrology: 69: 105-117.
Neiva, A. (1981) Geochemistry of hybrid granitoid rocks and of their biotites from Central Northern Portugal and their petrogenesis. Lithos: 14: 149-163.
Ohta, T., Takeda, H., and Takéuchi, Y. (1982) Mica polytypism: similarities in the crystal structures of coexisting 1M and 2M 1 oxybiotite. American Mineralogist: 67: 298-310.
Dymek, R.F. (1983) Titanium, aluminium and interlayer cation substitution in biotite from high-grade gneisses, West Greenland. American Mineralogist: 68: 880-899.
Banfield, J.F. and Eggleton, R.A. (1988) Transmission electron microscope study of biotite weathering. Clays and Clay Minerals: 36: 47-60.
Walmsley, J.C. and Lang, A.R. (1992) Oriented biotite inclusions in diamond coat. Mineralogical Magazine: 56: 108-111.
Abdel-Rahman, M.A. (1994) Nature of biotites from alkaline, calc-alkaline and peraluminous magmas. Journal of Petrology: 35: 525-541.
Nijland, T., Verschure, R. and Maijler, C. (1994) Catalytic effect of biotite: formation of hydrogarnet lenses. Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences (Paris): 318: 501-506.
Rieder, M., Cavazzani, G., D'Yakonov, Y.S., Frank-Kamenetskii, V.A., Gottardi, G., Guggenheim, S., Koval, P.V., Müller, G., Neiva, A.M.R., Radaslovich, E.W., Robert, J.-L., Sassi, F.P., Takeda, H., Weiss, Z., and Wones, D.R. (1998) Nomenclature of the micas. The Canadian Mineralogist: 36: 905-912. (http://www.minsocam.org/MSA/IMA/ima98(10%29.pdf)
Rieder, M., Cavazzani, G., D'Yakonov, Y.S., Frank-Kamenetskii, V.A., Gottardi, G., Guggenheim, S., Koval, P.V., Müller, G., Neiva, A.M.R., Radaslovich, E.W., Robert, J.-L., Sassi, F.P., Takeda, H., Weiss, Z., and Wones, D.R.(1999) Nomenclature of the Micas. Mineralogical Magazine: 63: 267-267.
Li, G., Peacor, D.R., and Essene, E.J. (1998) The formation of sulfides during alteration of biotite to chlorite-corrensite. Clays and Clay Minerals: 46: 649-657.
Ibhi, A. and Nachit, H (2000) The substitution mechanism of Ba and Ti into phyllosilicate phases: the example of barium-titanium biotite. Annals of Chim. Sci. Mat. 25, 627-634.
Parry, W.T., Wilson, P.N., Moser, D., and Heizler, M.T. (2001) U-Pb dating of zircon and 40Ar/39Ar dating of biotite at Bingham, Utah. Economic Geology: 96: 1671-1683.
Shabani, A. and Lalonde, E. (2003) Composition of biotite from granitic rocks of the Canadian Appalachian orogen: a potential tectonomagmatic indicator? Canadian Mineralogist: 41: 1381-1396.
Machev, P., Klain, L., and Hecht, L. (2004) Mineralogy and chemistry of biotites from the Belogradchik pluton - some petrological implications for granitoid magmatism in north-west Bulgaria. Bulgarian Geological Society conference paper, Annual Scientific Conference “Geology 2004”, pp. 48-50. (https://www.researchgate.net/publication/255591087_MINERALOGY_AND_CHEMISTRY_OF_BIOTITES_FROM_THE_BELOGRADCHIK_PLUTON_-_SOME_PETROLOGICAL_IMPLICATIONS_FOR_GRANITOID_MAGMATISM_IN_NORTH_WEST_BULGARIA)

Internet Links for BiotiteHide

Significant localities for BiotiteHide

Showing 19 significant localities out of 13,905 recorded on mindat.org.

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Australia
 
  • Western Australia
    • Ashburton Shire
[Tetraferriannite] Miyano, T., Klein, C. (1983): Conditions of Reibeckite Formation In The Iron Formation Of The Dales Gorge Member, Hamersley Group, Western Australia, American Mineralogist (1983): 68: 517-529
Canada
 
  • Québec
    • Abitibi-Témiscamingue
      • La Vallée-de-l'Or RCM
        • Réservoir-Dozois
Olivier Langelier Collection
China
 
  • Inner Mongolia
    • Baotou City (Baotou Prefecture)
      • Bayan Obo mining district
        • Bayan Obo
          • Bayan Obo deposit (Bayun-Obo deposit; Baiyunebo deposit)
[Fluorotetraferriphlogopite] Miyawaki, R.,Shimazaki, H.,Shigeoka, M., Yokoyama, K.,Matsubara, S.,Yurimoto, H., Yang, Z., Zhang, P., Inoue, A., Kogure, T. and Jige, M.(2011): Fluorokinoshitalite and fluorotetraferriphlogopite; new species of fluoro-mica from Bayan Obo, Inner Mongolia, China. Clay Science. 15 (1), 13-18. ; Miyawaki R, Shimazaki H, Shigeoka M, Yokoyama K, Matsubara S, Yurimoto H (2011) Yangzhumingite, KMg2.5Si4O10F2, a new mineral in the mica group from Bayan Obo, Inner Mongolia, China. European Journal of Mineralogy 23, 467-473
  • Jiangsu
    • Suzhou
      • Suzhou City
[Fluorannite] Shen Ganfu, Lu Qi, and Xu Jinsha (2000): Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica 19(4), 356-362.
Germany
 
  • Baden-Württemberg
    • Karlsruhe Region
      • Rhein-Neckar-Kreis
        • Eberbach
[var: Wodanite] Freudenberg, W (1919) Mitt. badisch. geol. Landesanst 8. 317
  • Rhineland-Palatinate
    • Mayen-Koblenz District
      • Mendig
        • Bell
[Oxyphlogopite] Chukanov N.V. et al.: Oxyphlogopite, K(Mg,Ti,Fe)3[(Si,Al)4O10](O,F)2, a new mica-group mineral // Zapiski RMO (in press).
Italy
 
  • Sicily
    • Metropolitan City of Catania
      • Etna Volcanic Complex
        • Biancavilla
[Fluorophlogopite] Antonio Gianfagna, Fernando Scordari, Simona Mazziotti-Tagliani, Gennaro Ventruti, and Luisa Ottolini (2007) Fluorophlogopite from Biancavilla (Mt. Etna, Sicily, Italy): Crystal structure and crystal chemistry of a new F-dominant analog of phlogopite. American Mineralogist, Volume 92, pages 1601–1609. - Sicurella, G., Ciriotti, M.E., Gianfagna, A., Mazziotti-Tagliani, S., Blass, G. (2010): Minerali di Monte Calvario, Biancavilla (Catania, Sicilia). Micro (località), 2/2010, 329-368.
Russia
 
  • Murmansk Oblast
    • Kovdor Massif
[Tetraferriphlogopite] World of Stones 95: 5-6, 64.; Rimskaya-Korsakova O.M. and Sokolova E.P. (1964) ZVMO, 93(4), p.411 (in Rus.).; Jambor, J.L. and Roberts, A.C. (2001) New mineral names. American Mineralogist: 86: 197-200.
Sweden
 
  • Värmland County
    • Filipstad
      • Persberg ore district
        • Pajsberg
[var: Manganophyllite] Igelström (1872) Översigt KVA, pp. 63-64. ; Hamberg, A. (1890): Mineralogische Studien. 7. Über die Manganophylle von der Grube Harstigen bei Pajsberg in Vermland. Geologiska Föreningen i Stockholm Förhandlingar 133, 567-579
USA
 
  • Colorado
    • El Paso Co.
[Siderophyllite] Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.
  • Connecticut
    • Tolland Co.
      • Willington
        • West Willington
Ague, J. J. (1995): Deep Crustal Growth of Quartz, Kyanite and Garnet into Large-Aperature, fluid-filled fractures, northeastern Connecticut, USA. Journal of Metamorphic Geology: 13: 299-314.
  • Massachusetts
    • Essex Co.
[Annite] Dana (1868), A System of Mineralogy, 5th edition; Dyar, M. Darby and Burns, Roger G. (1986): Miissbauer spectral study of ferruginous one-layer trioctahedral micas (American Mineralogist, Volume 71, pages 955-965).
  • New Jersey
    • Sussex County
      • Franklin Mining District
        • Franklin
          • Franklin Marble
[Fluorophlogopite] Dunn (1995)
        • Ogdensburg
          • Sterling Hill
[Phlogopite] Harold Moritz collection
[Fluorophlogopite] Tracy, Robert J. (1991) Ba-rich Micas from the Franklin Marble, Lime Crest and Sterling Hill, New Jersey, American Mineralogist, v76, p. 1683-1693.
      • Sparta Township
        • Franklin Marble
[Phlogopite] Jaszczak, John A. (1997), Unusual graphite crystals from the Lime Crest quarry, Sparta, New Jersey: Rocks & Minerals: 72(5): 330-334
  • New York
    • St. Lawrence Co.
      • West Pierrepont
[Phlogopite] George Robinson & Steven Chamberlain (2007) Gazetteer of major New York State mineral localities. Rocks & Minerals, 82, #6, 472-483.; George Robinson & Steven Chamberlain (2007) Gazetteer of major New York State mineral localities. Rocks & Minerals, 82, #6, 472-483.
  • Pennsylvania
    • Northampton Co.
      • Easton
        • Chestnut Hill (College Hill; Lafayette Hill; Mount Lafayette; Paxinosa Ridge)
          • C.K. Williams Quarry complex (Williams and Company Rock Quarry)
[Eastonite] The Mineralogy of Pennsylvania; Samual G. Gordon 1922; Pg 119 The Talc Deposits of Phillipburg, N.J. and Easton; Peck, F. B., Trenton 1905 8vo., 26pp Livi, K.J.T. and Veblen, D.R. (1987) “Eastonite” from Easton, Pennsylvania: A mixture of phlogopite and a new form of serpentine. American Mineralogist, 72, 113-125.
 
Mineral and/or Locality  
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