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Pb21Cu20Cl42(OH)40 · 6H2O
Indigo blue
After Édouard Cumenge (April 16, 1828- July 20, 1902), French mining engineer at Boleo, Mexico.
A secondary mineral.
May be confused with diaboleite.

Correct spelling defined by Burke (2008); other, incorrect spelling is cumengéite.

Classification of Cumengeite

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)

D : Oxyhalides, hydroxyhalides and related double halides
B : With Pb, Cu, etc.
Dana 7th ed.:

6 : AmBn(O,OH)pXq

Physical Properties of Cumengeite

Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Indigo blue
Hardness (Mohs):
{101} good; {110} distinct; {001} Poor.
4.656 g/cm3 (Measured)    4.66 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of Cumengeite

Uniaxial (-)
RI values:
nω = 2.026 - 2.041 nε = 1.926 - 1.965
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.100
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Very High
O = darker blue with green tint
E = Pure blue

Chemical Properties of Cumengeite

Pb21Cu20Cl42(OH)40 · 6H2O
Elements listed in formula:

Crystallography of Cumengeite

Crystal System:
Class (H-M):
4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) - Ditetragonal Dipyramidal
Space Group:
Cell Parameters:
a = 15.065(2) Å, c = 24.436(5) Å
a:c = 1 : 1.622
Unit Cell Volume:
V 5,545.85 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Octahedral or cubo-octahedral crystals. Commonly on the faces of boleite or pseudoboleite.

Epitaxial Relationships of Cumengeite

Epitaxial Minerals:
Epitaxy Comments:
Parallel overgrowths of cumengite on crystals of boleite and pseudoboleite.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data:
7.02 (4)
4.86 (9)
3.98 (4)
3.73 (6)
3.08 (4)
2.66 (4)
2.38 (10)

Occurrences of Cumengeite

Type Occurrence of Cumengeite

Associated Minerals at Type Locality:

Relationship of Cumengeite to other Species


Other Names for Cumengeite

Name in Other Languages:

Other Information

Other Information:
Soluble in HNO3.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Cumengeite

Reference List:
Mallard F E (1893) Sur la boléite, la cumengéite et la percylite. Bulletin de la Société Française de Minéralogie 16, 184-195

Lacroix A (1895) Sur quelques minéraux des mines du Boléo (Basse-Californie). Bulletin du Muséum D'Histoire Naturelle 1, 39-42

Friedel (1906) Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 29: 14.

Hadding (1919) Geologiska Föeningens I Stockholm. Förhandlinger, Stockholm: 41: 175.

Gossner and Arm (1929) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 72: 202.

Hocart (1930) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 74: 20.

Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: Halides, Nitrates, Borates, Carbonates, Sulfates, Phosphates, Arsenates, Tungstates, Molybdates, Etc. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 79.

Hawthorne, F. C.; Groat, L. A. (1986): The crystal structure and chemical composition of cumengeite. Mineralalogical Magazine: 50, 157-162.

Anthony, J.W., Bideaux, R.A., Bladh, K.W., and Nichols, M.C. (1997) Handbook of Mineralogy, Volume III. Halides, Hydroxides, Oxides. Mineral Data Publishing, Tucson, AZ, 628pp.: 150.

Cruciani, G., Orlandi, P., Pasero, M., Russo, M. (2005): First Italian occurrence of cumengéite from Vesuvio: crystal structure refinement and revision of the chemical formula. Mineralogical Magazine, 69, 1037-1045.

Burke, E. A. J. (2008): Tidying up Mineral Names: An IMA scheme for Suffixes, Hyphens and Diacritical Marks. Mineralogical Record, 39, 131-135.

Internet Links for Cumengeite URL:
Please feel free to link to this page.
The following Cumengeite specimens are currently listed for sale on

Localities for Cumengeite

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
(TL) indicates type locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) indicates first recorded locality for everything else. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
  • New South Wales
    • Yancowinna Co.
Worner, H. K. and Mitchell, R. W., eds. Birch, W. D. (et al) (1982) Minerals of Broken Hill, published by Australian Mining & Smelting Limited ISBN 0-909221-18-9
  • South Australia
    • Mt Lofty Ranges
      • South Mt Lofty Ranges (Adelaide Hills)
        • Clarendon
Kolitsch, U. and Elliott, P. (1999): Mineralogy of the Mount Malvern Mine near Clarendon, South Australia. Australian J. Mineral. 5, 3-17.
  • Tasmania
    • Central Coast municipality
      • Penguin
Bottrill, R.S. & Baker, W.E. (2008) A Catalogue of the Minerals of Tasmania. Bull. 73. Minerals Resources Tasmania
  • Western Australia
    • Ashburton Shire
Nickel, E.H., Gartrell, B.J. (1993) Secondary Minerals of Ashburton Downs Western Australia, Mineralogical Record (May-June 1993) 24:3: 203-218.
Ashburtonite, a new bicarbonate-silicate mineral from Ashburton Downs; J.D. Grice, E.H. Nickel, R.A. Gault; American Mineralogist, Vol 76, 001701-1707, 1991
  • Carinthia
    • Friesach - Hüttenberg area
      • Hüttenberg
        • Waitschach
Kolitsch, U., Brandstätter, F., Schreiber, F., Fink, R. & Auer, C. (2013): Die Mineralogie der weltweit einzigartigen Schlacken von Waitschach, Kärnten. Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien, Serie A, 115, 19-87 (in German).
  • Antofagasta Region
    • Antofagasta Province
      • Antofagasta
Arfè, G., Boni, M., Mondillo, N., Aiello, R., Balassone, G., Arseneau, V. and Soyk, D. (2016): Supergene alteration in the Capricornio Au-Ag epithermal vein system, Antofagasta Region, Chile. Can. Mineral. 54, 681-706.
    • Tocopilla Province
      • Gatico District
Sample analysed by Dr. Jochen Schluter (Hamburg University), Germany.
  • Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur
    • Var
      • Le Pradet
Cap Garonne museum specimen - EDS analysis by Association Jean Wyart, 2009
  • Lower Saxony
    • Harz
      • Goslar
        • Astfeld
van den Berg, W. & van Loon, C. (1990): Slag Minerals from the Rammelsberg, Harz Mountains, Germany. UK Journal of Mines & Minerals, 8, 18-23.
      • Lautenthal
Karl Volkman collection
  • North Rhine-Westphalia
    • Ruhr Coal Mining area
      • Essen
Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", 1990
  • Attikí Prefecture (Attica; Attika)
    • Lavrion District (Laurion; Laurium)
      • Lavrion District Mines
        • Sounion area
          • Sounion Mines
J. Gröbner und U. Kolitsch (2002): Neufunde von Laurion aus den Jahren 2001 und 2002. Aufschluss 53 (5-6), 363-371.
Grolig, H. & Grolig, E. (1978): Lavrion in Attika. Lapis, 3 (5), 16-25; 40 (in German).
        • Agios Nikolaos [St Nicholas] area
Fritz Schreiber collection (U. Kolitsch SXRD analysis)
        • Sounion area
Fritz Schreiber collection (Uwe Kolitsch SXRD-analysis)
Ko Jansen collection
Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet and Rewitzer, Christian, (1996) Laurion: The Minerals in the Ancient Slags, Janssen Print, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
        • Thorikos area
Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet and Rewitzer, Christian (1996) Laurion: The Minerals in the Ancient Slags, Janssen Print, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
        • Vrissaki area
Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet, and Rewitzer, Christian (1996) Laurion: The Minerals in the Ancient Slags, Janssen Print, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
  • Campania
    • Naples Province
      • Somma-Vesuvius Complex
Russo, M., Punzo, I. (2004): I minerali del Somma-Vesuvio, AMI
  • Latium
    • Rome Province
      • Anzio
Palombi, S., Bellatreccia, F. & Pucci, R. (2009): Le scorie metallurgiche di Tor Caldara, Anzio - RM. Il Cercapietre, no. 1-2, 44-56. []
  • Liguria
    • Genova Province
      • Genova
        • Varenna Valley
Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 22 (3), 39-41.
  • Sardinia
    • Cagliari Province
      • Villaputzu
Orlandi, P. & Campostrini, I. (2005): Zibaldone. Aggiornamenti di mineralogia italiana 2004. Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 3/2005, 184-191.
  • Tuscany
    • Livorno Province
      • Campigliese (Campiglia Mountains; Campiglia Ridge)
        • Campiglia Marittima
          • Madonna di Fucinaia (Madonna della Fucinaia) slag heaps
        • Sassetta
          • Canina Valley
Jansen, H. & van den Berg, W. (1998): Slakkenmineralen in Toscane (Italië). Gea, no. 4, 109-117 (in Dutch).
        • Suvereto
Luigi Chiappino data
      • Piombino
Cerutti, G. and Preite, D. (1995): Mineralien der etruskischen Schlacken von Baratti, Toskana. Lapis, 20 (4), 13-18; 50 (in German).
Mexico (TL)
  • Baja California Sur (BC Sur)
    • Mun. de Mulegé
      • Boleo District 16 (1893), 184; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 80; Mineralogical Record 5 (1973), 280-87; Min Mag 50 (1986), 157
Rocks & Min.:63:390.; 2009 New Mexico Mineral Symposium abstracts
  • Banská Bystrica Region
    • Revúca Co.
      • Nandráž
Koděra et all.,1990: Topografická mineralógia Slovenska, I-III, 1590p
  • Asturias
José Rafael González López collection.
  • Balkan Province
    • Cheleken Peninsula
Lebedev, L.M., Nikitina, J.B. (1983): The Cheleken ore forming system. Russ. Acad. Sci., Moscow (in Russian.)
  • England
    • Cornwall
      • St Agnes District
        • Crantock
BMS Newsletter 79, March 2010 (
        • Newquay
No reference listed
No reference listed
          • Trevelgue
No reference listed
        • Perranzabuloe
          • Perran St George and Droskyn Mines
George Eric Stanley Curtis specimen
      • St Just District
        • St Just
          • Botallack
[Journal of the Russell Society, 6(1), 17-26 (1995)]
      • Wadebridge District
        • Padstow
          • Gunver Head
Goley, P. and Williams R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications
        • St Minver
          • Trebetherick
No reference listed
      • Wendron & Falmouth District
        • Falmouth
Goley, P. and Williams R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications; Allan C. Dean, Robert F. Symes, John H. Thomas and Peter A. Williams (1983) Cumengéite from Cornwall. Mineralogical Magazine 47:235-236.
        • Feock
          • Penpol
Steve Sorrell collection
  • Wales
    • Gwynedd
      • Lleyn Peninsula
        • Llanengan
          • Abersoch
Dossett, I. & Green, D.I., 1998. Atacamite, botallackite and cumengeite from Abersoch, Gwynedd, Wales. Journal of the Russell Society 7(1), 37-38.
  • Arizona
    • Maricopa Co.
      • Big Horn Mts
        • Osborn District
          • Tonopah
            • Belmont Mountain
Collected by and in the collection of Joe Ruiz. Analyzed by the University of Arizona.
      • Painted Rock Mts
        • Painted Rock District
          • Theba
Raman ID on 2007 material; Michael Cline. Confirmed via single crystal X-ray by Dr. Marcus Origlieri.; Bob Meyer (2011) The Micro Mineral Collector. Friends of Mineralogy - Pacific Northwest Chapter Newsletter
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