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Bixbyite

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About BixbyiteHide

Formula:
Mn3+2O3
May contain up to about 25 mol% Fe2O3. In the type material, the Mn:Fe ratio is nearly 1.1.
Colour:
Black
Lustre:
Metallic
Hardness:
6 - 6½
Specific Gravity:
4.945
Crystal System:
Isometric
Name:
For Maynard Bixby (1853-1935), prospector, miner, mine broker, author, explorer of the Thomas Range, and mineral dealer of Salt Lake City, Utah, USA, who collected and provided the first specimens. He published several editions of the authoritative "Catalogue of Utah Minerals and Localities" and authored articles on several mineral localities in the western states.
This page provides mineralogical data about Bixbyite.


Classification of BixbyiteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
4.CB.10

4 : OXIDES (Hydroxides, V[5,6] vanadates, arsenites, antimonites, bismuthites, sulfites, selenites, tellurites, iodates)
C : Metal: Oxygen = 2: 3,3: 5, and similar
B : With medium-sized cations
4.3.7.2

4 : SIMPLE OXIDES
3 : A2X3
7.19.1

7 : Oxides and Hydroxides
19 : Oxides of Mn and Fe

Physical Properties of BixbyiteHide

Metallic
Transparency:
Opaque
Colour:
Black
Streak:
Black
Hardness:
6 - 6½ on Mohs scale
Hardness:
VHN100=946 - 1402 kg/mm2 - Vickers
Cleavage:
Imperfect/Fair
on {111}, in traces
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven
Density:
4.945 g/cm3 (Measured)    5.031 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of BixbyiteHide

Type:
Isotropic
Reflectivity:
400 nmR=24.7%
420 nmR=24.1%
440 nmR=23.5%
460 nmR=23.0%
480 nmR=22.8%
500 nmR=22.9%
520 nmR=23.3%
540 nmR=23.6%
560 nmR=23.5%
580 nmR=23.2%
600 nmR=22.9%
620 nmR=22.7%
640 nmR=22.4%
660 nmR=22.2%
680 nmR=22.2%
700 nmR=22.1%

Reflectance graph
Graph shows reflectance levels at different wavelengths (in nm). Top of box is 100%. Peak reflectance is 24.7%.

Chemical Properties of BixbyiteHide

Formula:
Mn3+2O3

May contain up to about 25 mol% Fe2O3. In the type material, the Mn:Fe ratio is nearly 1.1.
Common Impurities:
Al,Mg,Si,Ti

Crystallography of BixbyiteHide

Crystal System:
Isometric
Class (H-M):
m3 (2/m 3) - Diploidal
Space Group:
Ia3
Cell Parameters:
a = 9.411 Å
Unit Cell V:
833.50 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
16
Morphology:
Cubes, rarely modified by {112} or {111}, commonly striated and occasionally deeply pitted, to 6 cm; also massive.
Twinning:
On {111}, as penetration twins.

Crystallographic forms of BixbyiteHide

Crystal Atlas:
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Bixbyite no.1 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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IDSpeciesReferenceLinkYearLocalityPressure (GPa)Temp (K)
0009391BixbyiteGeller S (1971) Structures of alpha-Mn203, (MnO.983Fe0.017)203 and (Mn0.37Fe0.63)2O3 and relation to magnetic ordering Acta Crystallographica B27 821-82819710293
0009392BixbyiteGeller S (1971) Structures of alpha-Mn203, (MnO.983Fe0.017)203 and (Mn0.37Fe0.63)2O3 and relation to magnetic ordering Acta Crystallographica B27 821-82819710293
0018124BixbyiteZachariasen W (1928) Ueber die Kristallstruktur von Bixbyit, sowie vom kuenstlichen Mn2 O3. _cod_database_code 1011264 Zeitschrift fur Kristallographie 67 455-46419280293
0018126BixbyitePauling L, Shappell M (1930) The Crystal Structure of Bixbyite and the C-Modification of the Sesquioxides _cod_database_code 1011266 Zeitschrift fur Kristallographie 75 128-14219300293
0010577BixbyiteDachs H (1956) Die kristallstruktur des bixbyits (Fe,Mn)2O3 Zeitschrift fur Kristallographie 107 370-39519560293
0017467BixbyiteZachariasen W (1928) Untersuchungen ueber die Kristallstruktur von Sesquioxyden und Verbindungen ABO3 _cod_database_code 1010586 Skrifter utgitt av det Norske Videnskaps-Akademi i Oslo 1 1-16519280293
CIF Raw Data - click here to close

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
2.72 Å(100)
1.664 Å(30)
3.84 Å(25)
2.01 Å(14)
1.845 Å(14)
1.4191 Å(14)
2.35 Å(12)
Comments:
Recorded on synthetic Mn2O3

Geological EnvironmentHide

Geological Setting:
In rhyolites; in metamorphosed manganese ores

Type Occurrence of BixbyiteHide

Place of Conservation of Type Material:
Yale University, New haven, Connecticut, USA: 1.6369.
Geological Setting of Type Material:
In lithophysal cavities in rhyolite
Associated Minerals at Type Locality:

Synonyms of BixbyiteHide

Other Language Names for BixbyiteHide

Common AssociatesHide

BrauniteMn2+Mn3+6(SiO4)O8
Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
221 photos of Bixbyite associated with TopazAl2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
29 photos of Bixbyite associated with PseudobrookiteFe2TiO5
12 photos of Bixbyite associated with HematiteFe2O3
7 photos of Bixbyite associated with FluoriteCaF2
6 photos of Bixbyite associated with Mangan-diasporeAlO(OH)
5 photos of Bixbyite associated with Red BerylBe3Al2Si6O18
5 photos of Bixbyite associated with BrauniteMn2+Mn3+6(SiO4)O8
5 photos of Bixbyite associated with ManganiteMn3+O(OH)
4 photos of Bixbyite associated with QuartzSiO2
4 photos of Bixbyite associated with BaryteBaSO4

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

4.CB.05BrizziiteNaSb5+O3Trig. 3 : R3
4.CB.05CorundumAl2O3Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3c
4.CB.05Ecandrewsite(Zn,Fe2+,Mn2+)TiO3Trig. 3 : R3
4.CB.05EskolaiteCr2O3Trig.
4.CB.05GeikieliteMgTiO3Trig. 3 : R3
4.CB.05HematiteFe2O3Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3c
4.CB.05IlmeniteFe2+TiO3Trig. 3 : R3
4.CB.05KarelianiteV3+2O3Trig.
4.CB.05MelanostibiteMn2+(Sb5+,Fe3+)O3Trig.
4.CB.05PyrophaniteMn2+TiO3Trig. 3 : R3
4.CB.05Akimotoite(Mg,Fe2+)SiO3Trig.
4.CB.05Unnamed (Auroantimonate)AuSbO3
4.CB.05UM1998-11-O-AuHSbAu+2Sb3+O2(OH)
4.CB.05TistariteTi3+2O3Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3c
4.CB.10AvicenniteTl2O3Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Ia3
4.CB.15Armalcolite(Mg,Fe2+)Ti2O5Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
4.CB.15PseudobrookiteFe2TiO5Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
4.CB.20Zincohögbomite-2N2S[(Zn,Al,Fe2+)3(Al,Fe3+,Ti)8O15(OH)]2Hex. 6mm : P63mc
4.CB.20Zincohögbomite-2N6S[(Zn,Mg)7(Al,Fe3+,Ti)16O31(OH)]2Hex. 6mm : P63mc
4.CB.20Magnesiohögbomite-6N6S[(Mg,Fe2+)3(Al,Ti,Fe3+)8O15(OH)]6Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
4.CB.20Magnesiohögbomite-2N3S[(Mg,Fe2+,Zn)4(Al,Ti,Fe3+)10O19(OH)]2Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3 1m
4.CB.20Magnesiohögbomite-2N2S[(Mg,Fe2+)3[Al7(Ti,Fe3+)]O15(OH)]2Hex. 6mm : P63mc
4.CB.20Ferrohögbomite-6N12S[(Fe2+,Mg,Zn)5(Al,Ti,Fe3+)12O23(OH)]6Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
4.CB.25PseudorutileFe2Ti3O9Hex.
4.CB.25KleberiteFeTi6O11(OH)5Mon. 2/m : P21/b
4.CB.30BerdesinskiiteV3+2TiO5Mon.
4.CB.30OxyvaniteV3+2V4+O5Mon. 2/m : B2/b
4.CB.35Olkhonskite(Cr,V)2Ti3O9Mon.
4.CB.35SchreyeriteV3+2Ti3O9Mon.
4.CB.40KamiokiteFe2Mo3O8Hex.
4.CB.40NolaniteV3+8Fe3+2O14(OH)2Hex.
4.CB.40RinmaniteZn2Sb2Mg2Fe4O14(OH)2Hex. 6 : P63
4.CB.40IseiteMn2Mo3O8Hex. 6mm : P63mc
4.CB.40MajindeiteMg2Mo3O8Hex. 6mm : P63mc
4.CB.45ClaudetiteAs2O3Mon. 2/m
4.CB.45StibioclaudetiteAsSbO3Mon. 2/m : P21/m
4.CB.50ArsenoliteAs2O3Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
4.CB.50SenarmontiteSb2O3Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
4.CB.55ValentiniteSb2O3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pccn
4.CB.60BismiteBi2O3Mon. 2/m : P21/b
4.CB.65SphaerobismoiteBi2O3Tet.
4.CB.70SilléniteBi12SiO20Iso. 2 3 : I2 3
4.CB.75KyzylkumiteV3+Ti2O5(OH)Mon. 2/m : P21/b
4.CB.80TietaiyangiteFe3+4Fe2+TiO9Hex.

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

4.3.7.1Maghemite(Fe3+0.670.33)Fe3+2O4Iso. 4 3 2 : P41 3 2

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

7.19.2JangguniteMn5-x(Mn,Fe)1+xO8(OH)6Orth.
7.19.3JacobsiteMn2+Fe3+2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
7.19.4Vernadite(Mn4+,Fe3+,Ca,Na)(O,OH)2 · nH2OHex.
7.19.5GalaxiteMn2+Al2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
7.19.6Filipstadite(Fe3+0.5Sb5+0.5)Mn2O4Iso.
7.19.7ManganochromiteMn2+Cr2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
7.19.8ZenzénitePb3Fe3+4Mn4+3O15Hex.

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for BixbyiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Penfield, S.L. and Foote, H.W. (1897) On bixbyite, a new mineral, and notes on the associated topaz. American Journal of Science: 4: 105-108.
Fermor, L.L. (1909) Geological Survey of India, Rec.: 37: 199.
Fermor, L.L. (1909) The manganese ore depsoits of India. Geological Survey of India, Memoir: 37: 49.
Pauling and Shappell (1930) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie: 75: 128.
Orcel and Pavlovitch (1932), Bull. soc. min.: 54: 108.
Cortelezzi, Himmel, and Schroeder (1934) Centralblatt für Mineralogie, 129.
Montgomery, A. (1934) A recent find of bixbyite and associated minerals in the Thomas Range, Utah. American Mineralogist: 19: 82-87.
Mason, B. (1942) Bixbyite from Långban. Geologiska Föreningens i Stockholm Förhandlingar. 64, 117-125.
de Villiers, J.E. (1943) A preliminary description. of, the new mineral partridgeite. American Mineralogist: 28: 336-338. (as partridgeite)
de Villiers, J.E., Fleischer, M. (1943) A discussion: Bixbyite-sitaparite-partridgeite. American Mineralogist: 28: 468-469.
Mason, B. (1944) The system Fe2O3-Mn2O3: some comments on the names bixbyite, sitaparite, partridgeite. AMerican Mineralogist: 29: 66-69.
Palache, C., Berman, H., Frondel, C. (1944) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc. (New York), 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 550-551.
Dachs, H. (1956) Die Kristallstruktur des Bixbyits (Fe,Mn)2O3. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie 107, 370-395.
NBS Circ. 539 (1959), 9, 37.
Zeitschrift für Kristallographie (1962): 107: 370-395.
Ramdohr, Paul (1969) The Ore Minerals and their Intergrowths, Pergamon Press, pp. 1174.
Geller, S. (1971) Structures of alpha-Mn2O3, (Mn0.983Fe0.017)2O3 and (Mn0.37Fe0.63)2O3 and relation to magnetic ordering. Acta Crystallographica: 27: 821-828.
Moore, P.B., Araki, T. (1976) Braunite: its structure and relationship to bixbyite, and some insights on the genealogy of fluorite derivative structures. American Mineralogist: 61: 1226-1240.
Mitchell, R.S. (1987) Who's who in mineral names: John George Cowles and Maynard Bixby. Rocks & Minerals: 62: 120-123.
de Villiers, J.P., Buseck, P.R. (1989) Stacking variations and nonstoichiometry in the bixbyite-braunite polysomatic mineral group. American Mineralogist: 74: 1325-1336.
Anthony, J.W., Bideaux, R.A., Bladh, K.W., Nichols, M.C. (1997) Handbook of Mineralogy, Volume III. Halides, Hydroxides, Oxides. Mineral Data Publishing, Tucson, AZ, 628pp.: 66.
Bevan, D.J.M., Martin, R.L. (2008) The role of the coordination defect: A new structural description of four fluorite-related sesquioxide minerals, bixbyite, braunite, braunite II, parwelite, and their structural relationships. Journal of Solid State Chemistry: 181: 2250-2259.

Internet Links for BixbyiteHide

Localities for BixbyiteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Argentina
 
  • Chubut Province
    • Paso de Indios Department
      • Valle de las Plumas
Schiller, W., Abstr. La Existencia de la Bixbyita en la Patagonia, by Sarah Cottelezzi de Muzzo, 20 handwritten pages: NeuesJahrb. Min., Referate f , 133-135 (1931); a Corti, Hercules, Datos sobre una nueva variedad de bixbyita hallada en el Chubut: Anal. Asoc. Quim. Argentina, 19, 109-716 (1931); S Cortelezzi, Juana, Himmel, Hans, and Schroeder, Robert: Bixbyit von Patagonien: Centralbl. Mineral., GeoI., u. Paleon., Ab. A, 129-135 (1934).
Australia
 
  • Queensland
    • Cloncurry Shire
      • Rosebud Station
        • Mary Kathleen district
T.Kwak & P.Abeysinghe: "Rare earth and uranium minera;s present as daughter crystals in fluid inclusions, Mary Kathleen U-REE skarn, Queensland, Australia: Mineralogical Magazine 51,665-670(1987)
  • Western Australia
    • East Pilbara Shire
      • Gregory Ranges District
Jones, S., McNaughton, N.J., Grguric, B. (2013) Structural controls and timing of fault-hosted manganese at Woodie Woodie, East Pilbara, Western Australia. Ore Geology Reviews, 50, 52-82.
      • Ripon Hills District
The Australian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy (1977), Investigation of the Ferruginous Manganese Deposits at Ripon Hills. Pilbara Manganese Province, WA, 1977
Austria
 
  • Carinthia
    • Spittal an der Drau District
      • Heiligenblut am Großglockner
        • Zirmsee area
Bergbau in Westkärnten
R. Exel: Die Mineralien und Erzlagerstätten Österreichs (1993)
  • Salzburg
    • Zell am See District
      • Rauris
        • Alteck - Hoher Sonnblick area
A. Strasser: Die Minerale Salzburgs (1989)
  • Tyrol
    • Innsbruck-Land District
      • Navis
BRANDSTÄTTER, F., GRILL, J., NIEDERMAYR, G. & WALTER, F. (2015): 1927) Bementit, Bixbyit, Kutnohorit, Manganberzeliit, Tilasit, Tiragalloit, Todorokit und andere Mineralien von Navis, Tirol. Pp. 232-234 in NIEDERMAYR, G. et al. (2015): Neue Mineralfunde aus Österreich LIX. Carinthia II, 205./125., 207-280.
    • Lienz District
      • Prägraten am Großvenediger
        • Dorferbach valley
Kolitsch, U. (2017): 2028) Braunit, Cerianit-(Ce), Kryptomelan und weitere Mineralien in einer metamorphen Manganerzprobe von der Dorfer Alpe bei Prägraten, Osttirol. Pp. 248-249 in Walter, F. et al. (2017): Neue Mineralfunde aus Österreich LXVI. Carinthia II, 207./127., 217-284.
Bolivia
 
  • Potosí
    • Sud Chichas Province
      • Chocaya-Animas (Animas-Chocaya)
www.mineralmundi.com
Brazil
 
  • Bahia
    • Urandi
Varentsov, I.M. (1996): Manganese ores of supergene zone: Geochemistry of formation. Springer (Berlin, Heidelberg, New York), 342 pp.
China
 
  • Guangdong
    • Yunfu
      • Luoding Co.
Guicheng Huang, Xiongwu Wang, Shiyi Yang, Longqing Chen, and Jingsheng Ling (2001): Mineral Deposits 20(3), 243-250
  • Hubei
    • Wuhan
      • Huangpi District
Jingqu Yao (1992): Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica 11(3), 257-266
  • Hunan
    • Yiyang
      • Heshan District
Hunan Metallurgical Geology Research Team 236 (1977): Geology and Prospecting 13(8), 20-25, 28
  • Jiangxi
    • Jingdezhen
      • Leping Co.
Guilin Institute of Metallurgical Geology, Rocks & Minerals Department, Manganese Thematic Group (1976): Geology and Prospecting 12(5), 47-52; Hunan Metallurgical Geology Research Team 236 (1977): Geology and Prospecting 13(8), 20-25, 28
  • Liaoning
    • Chaoyang
      • Chaoyang County
Fan, D., Ye, J., and Li, J. (1999): Ore Geology Reviews 15(1), 31-53.
  • Shanxi
    • Datong
      • Lingqiu County
Shaozhi Zhou (1999): Geology and Prospecting 35(3), 6-8, 23
Qingrong Zheng, Xinjun Zhang, and Erhu Sun (2012): Resources & Industries 14(2), 106-111
Egypt
 
  • South Sinai Governorate
    • Abu Zeneima (Abu Zenima)
Ibrahim, E. (2000) Sedimentary Origin of the Mn-Fe Ore of Um Bogma, Southwest Sinai: Geochemical and Paleomagnetic Evidence. Economic Geology 95:607-620
France
 
  • Bourgogne-Franche-Comté
    • Haute-Saône
      • Lure
        • Esmoulières
          • Saphoz
Wittern, Journée: "Mineralien finden in den Vogesen", von Loga (Cologne), 1997
  • Grand Est
    • Vosges
      • Saint-Dié-des-Vosges
        • Gérardmer
Weil, R. & Siat, A. (1958): Characteristics of the Haut-Poirot manganese deposit. Compt. rend. 247, 937-940 (in French).
  • Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur
    • Alpes-de-Haute-Provence
      • Barcelonnette
        • Saint-Paul-sur-Ubaye
          • Maljasset
Bourbon M., Fonteilles M. (1972): Présence de pyrosmaltite et de rhodonite dans un horizon manganésifère oxydé du Crétacé supérieur briançonnais. Bull. Soc. fr. Minéral. cristallogr., 95, 623-624.
Germany
 
  • Baden-Württemberg
    • Freiburg Region
      • Breisgau-Hochschwarzwald
        • Eisenbach
Walenta, K. (1992) Die Mineralien des Schwarzwaldes und ihre Fundstellan. Christian Weise Verlag, München, 336 pages [in German].
      • Schwarzwald-Baar-Kreis
        • Unterkirnach
Walenta, K. (1992) Die Mineralien des Schwarzwaldes und ihre Fundstellan. Christian Weise Verlag, München, 336 pages [in German].
  • Rhineland-Palatinate
    • Mayen-Koblenz District
      • Mendig
        • Bell
Schüller, W. (2013): Der Rothenberg bei Bell, Eifel. Lapis 38 (1), 18-26, 39; Blaß, G. & Kruijen, F. (2013): Die Mineralogischen Neuigkeiten aus der Vulkaneifel. Mineralien-Welt 24 (3), 33-41.
      • Vordereifel
        • Ettringen
[Hentschel, G., Weitere bemerkenswerte Mineralfunde aus quartären Vulkanvorkommen der Eifel, Mainzer geowiss. Mitt. 8, 169-172, 1980] [Lapis, 15 (5), 9-36]
    • Vulkaneifel District
      • Gerolstein
        • Hohenfels-Essingen
Blass, G., Graf , HW., Neue Mineralienfunde aus der Vulkaneifel, MW 1/2001
      • Kelberg
        • Drees
Schüller, W., Die Mineralien des Niveligsberges bei Drees in der Eifel, Der Aufschluß SB 33, 1990
  • Thuringia
    • Gotha District
      • Friedrichroda
        • Gottlob Hill
Marcus Voigt Collection (analysed by Dr. Massanek, Bergakademie Freiberg); http://www.mineralienatlas.de/forum/index.php?topic=36727.msg271053;topicseen#new
India
 
  • Andhra Pradesh
    • Vizianagaram District
Econ Geol (1980) 75:1083-1104
Econ Geol (1980) 75:1083-1104
Econ Geol (1980) 75:1083-1104
  • Karnataka
    • Ballari District
      • Bellary-Hospet iron belt
        • Sandur
Rao, J. S. R. K., Naidu, B. V. & Rao, K. V. (1979): Ore microscopic, x-ray and trace elemental data on manganese ores from Sandur, Karnataka, India. Acta Mineralogica-Petrographica 24, 91-97.
  • Madhya Pradesh
    • Chhindwara District (Chindawara District; Chindwara District)
Roy, S., and Purkait, P.K. (1968): Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 20, 86-114.
Anthony, J. W. et al. (1997): Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3, 66; Chemical abstracts, Volume 6, Issue 1 By American Chemical Society. Chemical Abstracts Service
    • Jabalpur division
      • Balaghat District
Sarkar, S.K. (2015) Manganese ore deposit of Balaghat Mine, Central India: Evolution model and its implication for exploration. PhD thesis (Applied Geology), Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad, India.
    • Jhabua District
Nayak, V. K. (1966): Mineralogy and genesis of the manganese ores of Kajlidongri mine, district Jhabua, Madhya Pradesh, India. Economic Geology 61, 1280-1282.
  • Maharashtra
    • Bhandara District
MINERALOGICAL MAGAZINE, DECEMBER 1984, VOL. 48, PP. 558-60
S.P. Deshpande (1959) Ore-Microscopic Studies of the Manganese Ore-Minerals of Old M.P. I. Dongribuzurg, Bhandara District - Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences, Section A, 49, #3, 165-173.
S.P. Deshpande (1959) Ore-Microscopic Studies of the Manganese Ore-Minerals of Old M.P. I. Dongribuzurg, Bhandara District - Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences, Section A, 49, #3, 165-173.
  • Odisha
    • Sundargarh District (Sundergarh District)
Nicholson, K., Nayak, V. K., Nanda, J. K. (1997): Manganese ores of the Ghoriajhor-Monmunda area, Sundergarh District, Orissa, India: geochemical evidence for a mixed Mn source. Geological Society Special Publication 119 (Manganese Mineralization: Geochemistry and Mineralogy of Terrestrial and Marine Deposits), 117-121.
Iran
 
  • Sistan and Baluchestan Province
    • Zahedan County
      • Dehoo
Lotfi, M., Kahrazehi, M., Ghaderi, M. (2017): Geochemistry and origin of Dehoo manganese deposit, south Zahedan, southeastern Iran. Arabian Journal of Geosciences 10 (6), 1-17.
Italy
 
  • Liguria
    • La Spezia Province
      • Casella-Quaratica
Di Lisi S., Natucci A., Passarino G., 2004. Cristalli di braunite nelle ricerche minerarie di Riccò del Golfo. Riv. Mineral. Ital., 28, 4: 204-211
  • Lombardy
    • Sondrio Province
      • Lanzada
        • Scerscen Valley
Bedognè, F., Montrasio, A., Sciesa, E. (1993) I minerali della provincia di Sondrio: Valmalenco. Bettini, Sondrio, 275 pp.; Oberti R, Boiocchi M, Hawthorne F C, Ciriotti M E, Revheim O, Bracco R (2018) Clino-suenoite, a newly approved magnesium-iron-manganese amphibole from Valmalenco, Sondrio, Italy. Mineralogical Magazine 82, 189-198
AA. VV., 1996. Collezionare minerali. Hobby & Work.
Japan
 
  • Nagasaki Prefecture
    • Nishisonogi District
Miyahisa (1957) Ehime Daigaku Kiyo, section II, 4, 91-105.
Mexico
 
  • Chihuahua
    • Guachochi Municipality
Anthony, J. W. et al. (1997): Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3, 66
  • Durango
    • Durango Municipality
      • Victoria de Durango
No reference listed
  • Michoacan
    • Coalcomám Municipality
Ref.: Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Geológicas, volumen 17, número 2, p.143-153 (2000)
  • San Luis Potosí
    • Villa de Arriaga Municipality
Anthony, J. W. et al. (1997): Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3, 66
Namibia
 
  • Erongo Region
    • Karibib Constituency
      • Spitzkopje Area
Cairncross, B. (2005) Famous Mineral Localities: Klein Spitzkoppe, Namibia. Mineralogical Record 36(4) 317-335
- Bezing, L. von, Bode, R. & Jahn, S. (2007): Namibia. Mineralien und Fundstellen. Edition Schloss Freudenstein, Bode Verlag, Haltern, p. 288-290 (in German)
  • Otjozondjupa Region
    • Omatako
Bezing, L. von, Bode, R. & Jahn, S. (2007): Namibia. Minerals and Localities. Edition Schloss Freudenstein, Bode Verlag, Haltern, 368 pp. (in English); Cabral, A. R., Moore, J. M., Mapani, B. S., Koubová, M., & Sattler, C. D. (2011). Geochemical and mineralogical constraints on the genesis of the Otjosondu ferromanganese deposit, Namibia: hydrothermal exhalative versus hydrogenetic (including snowball-earth) origins. South African Journal of Geology, 114(1), 57-76.
Anthony, J. W. et al. (1997): Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3, 66
Romania
 
  • Caraş-Severin
Hârtopanu, P., Hârtopanu, I. (1996): NEW DATA ON MN-FE DELINEŞTI DEPOSIT, SEMENIC MOUNTAINS. Rom. Mineral.: 77: 35-47
Russia
 
  • Khabarovsk Krai
    • Taikan Ridge
      • Ir-Nimi manganese deposit
V.V. Kalinin data
  • Khakassia
    • Askizsky Rayon
      • Askiz ore district
Kassandrov, E. G., & Mazurov, M. P. (2009). Magmatogenic manganese ores of the South Minusa Intermontane Trough. Geology of Ore Deposits, 51(5), 356.
Kassandrov, E. G., & Mazurov, M. P. (2009). Magmatogenic manganese ores of the South Minusa Intermontane Trough. Geology of Ore Deposits, 51(5), 356.
South Africa
 
  • North West
    • Ngaka Modiri Molema District Municipality
Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.; Econ Geol (1990) 85:1172-1185
  • Northern Cape
Gutzmer, J. (1996). Genesis and alteration of the Kalahari and Postmasburg manganese deposits, Griqualand West, South Africa (Doctoral dissertation, Rand Afrikaans University).
Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
    • Gloucester Farm
de Villiers, J. E. (1943): Gamagarite, a new vanadium mineral from the Postmasburg manganese deposits. American Mineralogist: 28, 329-335.
Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa 182.
    • Kalahari manganese field
      • Black Rock
South African Micromount Society, Kalahari Manganese Fields - KMF, by Dixon, R., and Bezing, L. Von., (1989) Locality datasheet ML 02
      • Hotazel
Wilson, W.E. & Dunn, P.J., (1978) Famous localities: The Kalahari manganese field. Mineralogical Record 9(3) 137-153;
South African Micromount Society, Kalahari Manganese Fields - KMF, by Dixon, R., and Bezing, L. Von., (1989) Locality datasheet ML 02; Beukes, N. J., Burger, A. M., & Gutzmer, J. (1995). Fault-controlled hydrothermal alteration of Palaeoproterozoic manganese ore in Wessels Mine, Kalahari manganese field. South African Journal of Geology, 98(4), 430-451; Mineralogical Record (2001) 32:252
      • Kuruman
        • N'Chwaning Mines
Von Bezing, K.L., Dixon, R.D., Pohl, D., Cavallo, G. (1991) The Kalahari (Afrique du Sud) manganese field: an update. The Mineralogical Record: 22(3): 279-302.
South African Micromount Society, Kalahari Manganese Fields - KMF, by Dixon, R., and Bezing, L. Von., (1989) Locality datasheet ML 02; Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa
Van King
Preston, P. C. C. R. (2009). Physical and chemical characterization of the manganese ore bed at the Mamatwan mine, Kalahari manganese field (Doctoral dissertation).
Gutzmer, J. (1996). Genesis and alteration of the Kalahari and Postmasburg manganese deposits, Griqualand West, South Africa (Doctoral dissertation, Rand Afrikaans University).
Gaines (1991) Dana's New Mineralogy: The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana
Gutzmer, J. (1996). Genesis and alteration of the Kalahari and Postmasburg manganese deposits, Griqualand West, South Africa (Doctoral dissertation, Rand Afrikaans University).
Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa; Gutzmer, J. (1996) Genesis and alteration of the Kalahari and Postmasburg manganese deposits, Griqualand West, South Africa (Doctoral dissertation, Rand Afrikaans University).
Mineralogical Magazine (1997): 61: 213-231; Gutzmer, J. (1996). Genesis and alteration of the Kalahari and Postmasburg manganese deposits, Griqualand West, South Africa (Doctoral dissertation, Rand Afrikaans University).
Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.; Gutzmer, J. (1996). Genesis and alteration of the Kalahari and Postmasburg manganese deposits, Griqualand West, South Africa (Doctoral dissertation, Rand Afrikaans University).
Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.; Gutzmer, J. (1996). Genesis and alteration of the Kalahari and Postmasburg manganese deposits, Griqualand West, South Africa (Doctoral dissertation, Rand Afrikaans University).
    • ZF Mgcawu
      • Tsantsabane
Gutzmer, J. (1996). Genesis and alteration of the Kalahari and Postmasburg manganese deposits, Griqualand West, South Africa (Doctoral dissertation, Rand Afrikaans University).
Spain
 
  • Catalonia
    • Girona
Anthony, J. W. et al. (1997): Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3, 66
Sweden
 
  • Norrbotten County
    • Jokkmokk
Mason, B. (1943): Mineralogical aspects of the system FeO-Fe₂O₂-MnO-Mn₂0₂,.Geologiska föreningens i Stockholm förhandlingar. 65, 180p. (p.134);
Roy, S. (1972). Metamorphism of sedimentary manganese deposits. Acta Mineralogica-Petrographica, 20(2), 325-336.
Ödman, O.H. (1950): Manganese mineralization in the Ultevis district, Jokkmokk, North Sweden. Part 2: Mineralogical notes. Sveriges Geologiska Undersökning. Serie C 516. 1-27
Ödman, O.H. (1950): Manganese mineralization in the Ultevis district, Jokkmokk, North Sweden. Part 2: Mineralogical notes. Sveriges Geologiska Undersökning. Serie C 516. 1-27
Ödman, O.H. (1950): Manganese mineralization in the Ultevis district, Jokkmokk, North Sweden. Part 2: Mineralogical notes. Sveriges Geologiska Undersökning. Serie C 516. 1-27
Ödman, O.H. (1950): Manganese mineralization in the Ultevis district, Jokkmokk, North Sweden. Part 2: Mineralogical notes. Sveriges Geologiska Undersökning. Serie C 516. 1-27
  • Värmland County
    • Filipstad
      • Långban Ore District
Mason, B. (1942): Bixbyite from Långban. Geologiska Föreningens i Stockholm Förhandlingar 64: 117-125; Nysten, P., Holtstam, D. and Jonsson, E. (1999) The Långban minerals. In Långban - The mines,their minerals, geology and explorers (D. Holtstam and J. Langhof, eds.), Swedish Museum of Natural History and Raster Förlag, Stockholm & Chr. Weise Verlag, Munich, pp. 89-183.
Mason, B. (1942): Bixbyite from Långban. Geologiska Föreningens i Stockholm Förhandlingar 64: 117-125
Tanzania
 
  • Dodoma Region
    • Kongwa District
      • Kongwa
www.min.uni-kiel.de/petrographie/schenk/projekte/tansania/mautia/dmg_mautia.pdf.
Turkey
 
  • Adana Province
    • Ceyhan District
Öztürk, H. (1997): Ore Geology Reviews 12, 187-203.
Öztürk, H. (1997): Ore Geology Reviews 12, 187-203.
  • Denizli Province
    • Kale
Öztürk, H. (1997): Ore Geology Reviews 12, 187-203.
UK
 
  • Wales
    • Gwynedd
      • Aberdaron
        • Rhiw
No reference listed
USA
 
  • Arizona
    • Cochise County
Graeme, R. (1981) Famous mineral localities: Bisbee, Arizona. The Mineralogical Record: 12: 258-319.
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995) Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd. ed.: 140.; Graeme, R. (1981) Famous mineral localities: Bisbee, Arizona. The Mineralogical Record: 12: 258-319.
    • Pinal Co.
      • Dripping Spring Mountains
        • Saddle Mountain Mining District
          • Winkelman area
            • Saddle Mountain area
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 140, 336, 399; White, Jr., J.S. (1992), An occurrence of bixbyite, spessartine, topaz and pseudobrookite from Ash Creek near Hayden, AZ, Min.Rec.: 23: 487-492.
      • Hayden
Mineralogical Record 23:487-492
    • Yavapai Co.
      • Bradshaw Mts (Bradshaw Range)
        • Peck Mining District
Brian Beck Collected, Attard Minerals XRF and Microprobe
    • Yuma Co.
      • Kofa Mts (S.H. Mts)
        • Kofa Mining District
          • Kofa Game Range
            • King of Arizona Mine (King of Arizona property; King of Arizona group of claims; King of Arizona vein; Kofa Mine; Gleason Mine; Homestake claim)
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 140.
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 140, 339.
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 240, 339, 398.
  • Arkansas
Howard, 1987. Mineral Species of Arkansas
  • Nevada
    • Mineral Co.
      • Candelaria Mining District
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
  • New Mexico
    • Catron Co.
      • Taylor Creek Mining District
Min Rec 16:2 p145
        • Sawmill Creek
NMGS 37th Field Conference
    • Sierra Co.
Field collected by Ted French
Gibbs, R. (2013) Microminerals near San Juan Peak in the San Mateo Mountains, Socorro County, New Mexico. 34th Annual New Mexico Mineral Symposium, November 9-10, Socorro, New Mexico, Program with Abstracts: 34(14): 27.
      • Paramount Canyon
Min Rec 16:2 p145
Northrup, Minerals of New Mexico, 3rd Rev. Ed., 1996
  • Texas
    • Presidio Co.
      • Shafter Mining District
GSA Conference (2001) Paper No. 173-0 THE RED HILLS INTRUSIVE SYSTEM, PRESIDIO COUNTY, TEXAS: THE EASTERNMOST LARAMIDE PORPHYRY COPPER-MOLYBDENUM DEPOSIT IN SOUTHWESTERN NORTH AMERICA
  • Utah
    • Beaver Co.
Min Rec 10:5 pp261-278
    • Juab Co.
UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
      • Thomas Range
Mineralogical Record, March/April 1995, page 126
Am Min 74 (1989), 1325; Lapis 5 (1986), 5; Bowling, R. (2011) Topaz from Utsh's Maynard Mine Extra Lapis English 14:22-25
Schwab, P.-N.(1998): Bourse de Sainte-Marie-aux-Mines du 25 au 28 juin 1998. Le Règne Minéral. 22, 24-30 (p.29); Grüll, M. (2014): Weltklasse: Bixbyite aus Utah/USA. Lapis 39 (9), 40-45.
        • Starvation Canyon (Searles Canyon)
Min Rec (2006) 37:311-317
UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
J. Holfert, W. Mroch, J. Fuller (1996) A Field Guide to Topaz and Associated Minerals of the Thomas Range, Utah (Topaz Mountain) Vol I HM Publishing 103pp
    • Piute Co.
      • Marysvale area
Stanley C. Hatfield. Bixbyite, Rutile, and Amethyst Crystals near Marysvale, Piute County. UGS website
    • Tooele Co.
      • Dugway Range
UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
Zimbabwe
 
  • Mashonaland West
Anthony, J. W. et al. (1997): Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3, 66
 
Mineral and/or Locality  
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