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Anders Richard Åkerman (1837-1922)
Colorless, yellowish ...
Vitreous, Resinous
5 - 6
Member of:
First described from samples of slags from furnace iron production found at 3 furnace localities: Hofors, Löfsjöen and Mölnbo, Sweden (Vogt 1884).
Named by the Norwegian geologist, professor Johan Herman Lie Vogt (1858-1932) in honor of Anders Richard Åkerman(1837-1922), Swedish metallurgist. During his comprehensive study of the mineralogy of slag products, Vogt discovered a new Ca-Mg-silicate, and named the mineral Åkermanit. Åkerman had kindly given J.H.L.Vogt access to Stockholms Bergskolas large collection of slags. It was in samples from this collection Vogt discovered the mineral.

Classification of Åkermanite

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
B : Sorosilicates
B : Si2O7 groups, without non-tetrahedral anions; cations in tetrahedral [4] and greater coordination

55 : SOROSILICATES Si2O7 Groups,Generally with no Additional Anions
4 : Si2O7 Groups, Generally with No Additional Anions with cations in [8] and lower coordination

14 : Silicates not Containing Aluminum
6 : Silicates of Ca with alkali or Mg or both

Physical Properties of Åkermanite

Vitreous, Resinous
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Transparent, Translucent
Colorless, yellowish gray, green, brown
in thin section, colorless to yellow
Hardness (Mohs):
5 - 6
Distinct on {001} , poor on {110}
Irregular/Uneven, Conchoidal

Optical Data of Åkermanite

Uniaxial (+)
RI values:
nω = 1.632 nε = 1.640
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.008
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:

Chemical Properties of Åkermanite

IMA Formula:
Elements listed in formula:

Crystallography of Åkermanite

Crystal System:
Class (H-M):
4 2m - Scalenohedral
Space Group:
P4 21m
Cell Parameters:
a = 7.8288(8) Å, c = 5.0052(2) Å
a:c = 1 : 0.639
Unit Cell Volume:
V 306.77 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Crystals short prismatic to thin tabular, which may resemble squashed, octahedrally-modified cubes; granular, massive.
On {100} and 001 , cruciform.
Synthetic material

Occurrences of Åkermanite

Relationship of Åkermanite to other Species

Forms a series with Gehlenite (see here)
Member of:
Other Members of Group:
14.6.6MountainiteKNa2Ca2[Si8O19(OH)] · 6H2O
14.6.7RhodesiteK2Ca2Si8O19 · 5H2O

Other Names for Åkermanite

Name in Other Languages:

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

Åkermanite in petrology

Common component of (items highlighted in red)

References for Åkermanite

Reference List:
Vogt, I.H.L. (1884) Studier over slagger. I. Kongliga Svenska Vetenskaps-Akademiens Handlingar: 9: 3-302.

Vogt, I.H.L. (1890) Die Mineralien der Melilithgruppe - nämlich Gehlenit, Melilith und ein neues tetragonales, nicht Al2O3-führendes (Ca,Mg)O-Silikat (Åkermanit), nebst Zwischengliedern. Archiv for Mathematik og Naturvidenskab: 13: 310-402.

Christie, O.H.J. (1961) On sub-solidus relations of silicates; IV. The system åkermanite-sodium-gehlenite and gehlenite-sodium-gehlenite. Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift: 42: 31-44.

Valley, J.W., Essene, E.J. (1979) Vesuvianite, akermanite, monticellite and wollastonite equlibria and high X H2O/CO2 at Cascade slide, Mt Marcy Quad, Adirondack Mts. EOS: 60: 423.

Kimata, M., Ii, N. (1981) The crystal structure of synthetic akermanite, Ca2MgSi2O7. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Monatshefte: 1981: 1-10.

Hemingway, B.S., Evans, H.T., Nord, G.L., Haselton, H.T., Robie, R.A., McGee, J.J. (1986) Åkermanite: phase transitions in heat capacity and thermal expansion, and revised thermodynamic data. The Canadian Mineralogist: 24: 425-434.

Kusaka, K., Ohmasa, M., Hagiya, K., Iishi, K., Haga, N. (1998) On variety of the Ca coordination in the incommensurate structure of synthetic iron-bearing åkermanite, Ca2(Mg0.55Fe0.45)Si2O7. Mineralogical Journal: 20: 47-58.

Courtial, P., Téqui, C., Richet, P. (2000) Thermodynamics of diopside, anorthite, pseudowollastonite, CaMgGeO4 olivine, and åkermanite up to near the melting point. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals: 27: 242-250.

Gemmi, M., Merlini, M., Cruciani, G., Artioli, G. (2007) Non-ideality and defectivity of the åkermanite-gehlenite solid solution: An X-ray diffraction and TEM study. American Mineralogist: 92: 1685-1694.

Merlini, M., Gemmi, M., Cruciani, G., Artioli, G. (2008) High-temperature behaviour of melilite: in situ X-ray diffraction study of gehlenite-åkermanite-Na melilite solid solution. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals: 35: 147-155.

Merlini, M., Gemmi, M., Hanfland, M., Crichton, W. (2009) High-pressure behavior of akermanite and gehlenite and phase stability of the normal structures in melelites. American Mineralogist: 94: 704-709.

Internet Links for Åkermanite URL:
Please feel free to link to this page.

Localities for Åkermanite

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
(TL) indicates type locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) indicates first recorded locality for everything else. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
  • Tyrol
    • North Tyrol
      • Inn valley
        • Brixlegg - Schwaz area
Kolitsch, U. (2013): 1799) Anglesit, Brochantit, Calcit, Callaghanit, Connellit, Cuprit, Diopsid, Elyit, Forsterit, Kupfer, Lithargit, Magnesiochromit, Malachit, Monohydrocalcit, Phoenicochroit, Rouait und Willemit in Schlacken der Montanwerke Brixlegg, Tirol. Pp. 111-114 in Niedermayr, G. et al. (2013): Neue Mineralfunde aus Österreich LXII. Carinthia II, 203./123., 91-146.
  • Newfoundland and Labrador
    • Labrador
OWENS, B.E. & KREMSER, P.T. (2010) Åkermanite breakdown to cuspidine-bearing sympectite in a calc-silicate xenolith, Kiglapait intrusion, Labrador, Canada. Canadian Mineralogist 48, 809-819.
Am Min 85:1595–1605, (2000)
  • Québec
    • Laurentides
      • Deux-Montagnes RCM
        • Oka
          • Oka complex
Sabina (1968)
Handbook of Mineralogy
        • Saint-Joseph-du-Lac
          • Oka complex
Sabina (1968)
  • Shaanxi Province
    • Hanzhong Prefecture
      • Ningqiang Co.
Xiyue Wang, Huimin Zhang, Sichao Wang, and Yuezhen Wu (1987): Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica 6(4), 296-306
Czech Republic
  • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
    • Central Bohemia Region
      • Kutná Hora (Kuttenberg)
        • Poličany
          • Vrchlice river valley
Pauliš P. Mineralogické lokality okolí Kutné Hory. Kuttna, Kutná Hora 1999. ISBN 80-902719-0-1.
    • Ústí Region
      • Duchcov (Dux)
Žáček V., Skála R., Chlupáčová M., Dvořák Z. 2005: Ca-Fe3+-rich, Si-undersaturated buchite from Želénky, North-Bohemian Brown Coal Basin, Czech Republic. Eur. J. Mineral., 17, 623-633
Democratic Republic of Congo (Zaïre)
  • Kivu
    • Goma
Andersen, T., Elburg, M. A., & Erambert, M. (2014). Extreme peralkalinity in delhayelite-and andremeyerite-bearing nephelinite from Nyiragongo volcano, East African Rift. Lithos, 206, 164-178.
  • Baden-Württemberg
    • Kaiserstuhl
      • Schelingen
        • Orberg - Badberg area
Keller, J., Williams T. (1995): Niocalite and Wöhlerite from the alkaline and carbonatite rocks at Kaiserstuhl, Germany, Mineralogical Magazine, Vol.: 59, 561-566
  • Lower Saxony
    • Harz
      • Goslar
        • Astfeld
No reference listed
  • North Rhine-Westphalia
    • Aachen
      • Stolberg
Blaß, G. & Graf, H. W. (1995): Neufunde von Schlackenhalden in der nördlichen Eifel (II). Mineralien-Welt, 6 (3), 28-31.
Rolf Luetcke specimen; Blaß, G. & Graf, H. W. (1995): Neufunde von Schlackenhalden in der nördlichen Eifel (II). Mineralien-Welt, 6 (3), 28-31.
    • Sauerland
      • Iserlohn
        • Letmathe
BLAß, G. & GRAF, H. W. (1995): Neufunde von bekannten Fundstellen (13). Mineralien-Welt 6 (3), 47-51.
  • Rhineland-Palatinate
    • Eifel
      • Gerolstein
        • Roth
Aksenov, S. M., Rastsvetaeva, R. K., & Chukanov, N. V. (2014). The crystal structure of emmerichite Ва 2Na 3Fe 3+ Ti 2 (Si 2O 7) 2O 2F 2, a new lamprophyllite-group mineral. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie–Crystalline Materials, 229(1), 1-7.
      • Hillesheim
in the collection of Christof Schäfer; Chukanov, N. V., Zubkova, N. V., Pekov, I. V., Belakovskiy, D. I., Schüller, W., Ternes, B., ... & Pushcharovsky, D. Y. (2013). Hillesheimite,(K, Ca,□) 2 (Mg, Fe, Ca,□) 2 [(Si, Al) 13O23 (OH) 6](OH)· 8H2O, a new phyllosilicate mineral of the Günterblassite group. Geology of Ore Deposits, 55(7), 549-557.
      • Mayen
        • Ettringen
          • Bellerberg volcano
[Blass, G., Graf, H.W., Neue Mineralienfunde aus der Eifel und dem Siegerland, Mineralien-Welt 10/3, 23, 1999] [A. Wittern: Mineralfundorte in Deutschland, Schweizerbart (Stuttgart), 2001]
            • Southern lava flow
              • Mayener Feld
Christof Schäfer
  • Iraqi Kurdistan
    • Sulaymaniyah province
      • Qala-Diz (Qala-Dizeh; Qala-Diza)
        • Hero
  • Negev
Gross, S. (1977): The Mineralogy of the Hatrurim Formation, Israel. Geological Survey of Israel, Bulletin no. 70, 80 pp.
  • Campania
    • Naples Province
      • Somma-Vesuvius Complex
[Lapis 1994:5 p.13-23,58]
  • Latium
    • Rome Province
      • Sacrofano Caldera
        • Campagnano di Roma
        • Sacrofano
Vik Vanrusselt Collection
  • Umbria
    • Perugia Province
      • Spoleto
Stoppa F., Sharygin V.V., 2009. Melilitolite intrusion and pelite digestion by high temperature kamafugitic magma at Colle Fabbri, Spoleto, Italy. Lithos, 112, 306-320.
  • Honshu Island
    • Chugoku region
      • Shimane Prefecture
        • Hamada City
The Mineral Species of Japan (5th ed) Matsubara
  • Drâa-Tafilalet Region
    • Ouarzazate Province
Berger, J., Ennih, N., Mercier, J. C., Liégeois, J. P., & Demaiffe, D. (2009). The role of fractional crystallization and late-stage peralkaline melt segregation in the mineralogical evolution of Cenozoic nephelinites/phonolites from Saghro (SE Morocco). Mineralogical magazine, 73(1), 59-82.
  • Otjikoto Region (Oshikoto)
    • Tsumeb
Ettler, V., Johan, Z., Kříbek, B., Šebek, O. & Mihaljevič, M. (2009): Mineralogy and environmental stability of slags from the Tsumeb smelter, Namibia. Applied Geochemistry 24, 1-15.
  • Telemark
    • Skien
Jamtveit B., Dahlgren S. and Austrheim H. (1997): High-grade contact metamorphism of calcareous rocks from the Oslo Rift, Southern Norway. American Mineralogist. 82 : 1241 - 1254
  • Brașov Co.
    • Racoş Commune
Szakáll, S., Kristály, F., 2010. Mineralogy of Székelyland, Eastern Transylvania, Romania. Sfântu Gheorghe-Miercurea Ciuc-Târgu Mureş. 2010.
  • Harghita Co.
    • Odorheiu Secuiesc (Székelyudvarhely; Oderhellen)
      • Racoş (Racoşu de Jos)
Szakáll, S. & Kristály, F., Eds. (2010): Mineralogy of Székelyland, Eastern Transylvania, Romania. Csík County Nature and Conservation Society, Miercurea-Ciuc, Romania, 321 pp.
  • Eastern-Siberian Region
    • Krasnoyarsk Territory (Krasnoyarsk Kray; Krasnoyarskii Krai)
      • Maimecha and Kotui Rivers Basin
Pavel M. Kartashov data
  • Northern Region
    • Murmanskaja Oblast'
      • Kola Peninsula
Kalinkina, E. V., Kalinkin, A. M., Forsling, W., & Makarov, V. N. (2001). Sorption of atmospheric carbon dioxide and structural changes of Ca and Mg silicate minerals during grinding: II. Enstatite, åkermanite and wollastonite. International journal of mineral processing, 61(4), 289-299.
South Africa
  • Mpumalanga Province
    • Eastern Bushveld Complex
      • Lydenburg
Minerals of South Africa
  • Northern Cape Province
    • Kalahari manganese field
      • Hotazel
Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) The Kalahari manganese field: An Update, Mineralogical Record 22(4) 279-302;
  • Medelpad
    • Timrå
Sandström, F., Binett, T., Wiklund, C. & Vikström, J. (2010): Alnöområdets geologi och mineralogi. Litiofilen. 27 (2) :14-42
  • Northern Ireland
    • Co. Antrim
      • Glenoe
P. A. Sabine, M. T. Styles and B. R. Young (1985) The Nature and Paragenesis of Natural Bredigite and Associated Minerals from Carneal and Scawt Hill, Co. Antrim. Mineralogical Magazine 49:663-670.
      • Larne
Handbook of Mineralogy
Tindle, A.G. (2008) Minerals of Britian and Ireland
    • North West Highlands
      • Ardnamurchan
Handbook of Mineralogy - Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols. Agrell, S.O. (1965) Mineralogical Magazine, 34: 1-15. Embrey, P.G. (1978) Fourth supplementary list of British Minerals. Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 42, n° 322, p. 169-177.
  • California
    • Riverside Co.
Handbook of Mineralogy
  • Colorado
    • Gunnison Co.
      • White Earth District (Powderhorn District)
"Minerals of Colorado, updated & revised", p. 17, by Eckel, Edwin B., 1997
  • New Mexico
    • Luna Co.
      • Tres Hermanas Mts
Handbook of Mineralogy
  • New York
    • Essex Co.
Handbook of Mineralogy
      • Keene
        • Cascade Mountain
EOS: 60: 423.; Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 74, 143-152 (1980)
  • Texas
    • Culberson Co.
      • Apache Peak area
Rocks & Minerals: 66(3): 196-224.
Outer Space
Posch, Th., Baier, A., Mutschke, H., Henning, Th. (2007): Carbonates in Space: The Challenge of Low-Temperature Data. Astrophysical Journal: 668: 993-1000
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