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About ÅkermaniteHide

Anders Richard Åkerman (1837-1922)
Colorless, yellowish gray, green, brown
Vitreous, Resinous
5 - 6
Crystal System:
Member of:
First described from samples of slags from furnace iron production found at 3 furnace localities: Hofors, Löfsjöen and Mölnbo, Sweden (Vogt 1884).
Named by the Norwegian geologist, professor Johan Herman Lie Vogt (1858-1932) in honor of Anders Richard Åkerman(1837-1922), Swedish metallurgist. During his comprehensive study of the mineralogy of slag products, Vogt discovered a new Ca-Mg-silicate, and named the mineral Åkermanit. Åkerman had kindly given J.H.L.Vogt access to Stockholms Bergskolas large collection of slags. It was in samples from this collection Vogt discovered the mineral.

Classification of ÅkermaniteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
B : Sorosilicates
B : Si2O7 groups, without non-tetrahedral anions; cations in tetrahedral [4] and greater coordination

55 : SOROSILICATES Si2O7 Groups,Generally with no Additional Anions
4 : Si2O7 Groups, Generally with No Additional Anions with cations in [8] and lower coordination

14 : Silicates not Containing Aluminum
6 : Silicates of Ca with alkali or Mg or both

Physical Properties of ÅkermaniteHide

Vitreous, Resinous
Transparent, Translucent
Colorless, yellowish gray, green, brown
in thin section, colorless to yellow
5 - 6 on Mohs scale
Distinct on {001} , poor on {110}
Irregular/Uneven, Conchoidal

Optical Data of ÅkermaniteHide

Uniaxial (+)
RI values:
nω = 1.632 nε = 1.640
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.008
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:

Chemical Properties of ÅkermaniteHide

IMA Formula:

Crystallography of ÅkermaniteHide

Crystal System:
Class (H-M):
4 2m - Scalenohedral
Space Group:
P4 21m
Cell Parameters:
a = 7.8288(8) Å, c = 5.0052(2) Å
a:c = 1 : 0.639
Unit Cell V:
306.77 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Crystals short prismatic to thin tabular, which may resemble squashed, octahedrally-modified cubes; granular, massive.
On {100} and 001 , cruciform.
Synthetic material

Geological EnvironmentHide

Geological Setting:
A product of contact metamorphism of siliceous limestones and dolostones, and in rocks of the sanidinite facies. Also forms from alkalic magmas rich in calcium.

Synonyms of ÅkermaniteHide

Other Language Names for ÅkermaniteHide

Varieties of ÅkermaniteHide

Justite (of Hofmann-Degen)An artificial (anthropogenic) mineral found as crystals in lead furnaces in Clausthal, Harz, Germany. A ferroan zincian Åkermanite.

Relationship of Åkermanite to other SpeciesHide

Member of:
Other Members of this group:
Alumoåkermanite(Ca,Na)2(Al,Mg,Fe2+)(Si2O7)Tet. 4 2m : P4 21m
BennesheriteBa2Fe2+Si2O7Tet. 4 2m : P4 21m
GehleniteCa2Al(AlSiO7)Tet. 4 2m : P4 21m
HardystoniteCa2Zn(Si2O7)Tet. 4 2m : P4 21m
Hydroxylgugiaite(Ca,◻)2(Be,Si)[(Si,Be)2O5(OH)2]Tet. 4 2m : P4 21m
Forms a series with:

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
1 photo of Åkermanite associated with KalsiliteKAlSiO4
1 photo of Åkermanite associated with KottenheimiteCa 3Si(SO4)2(OH)6 · 12H2O

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

9.BB.10GehleniteCa2Al(AlSiO7)Tet. 4 2m : P4 21m
9.BB.10HardystoniteCa2Zn(Si2O7)Tet. 4 2m : P4 21m
9.BB.10Alumoåkermanite(Ca,Na)2(Al,Mg,Fe2+)(Si2O7)Tet. 4 2m : P4 21m
9.BB.15Barylite-1OBe2Ba(Si2O7)Mon. m : Pm

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide 4 2m : P4 21m,Mg,Fe)((Al,Si,B)SiO7)Tet.åkermanite(Ca,Na)2(Al,Mg,Fe2+)(Si2O7)Tet. 4 2m : P4 21m

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

14.6.1CombeiteNa4.5Ca3.5Si6O17.5(OH)0.5Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
14.6.2PectoliteNaCa2Si3O8(OH)Tric. 1 : P1
14.6.4DenisoviteK14+x(Ca,Na,Mn,Fe)48[Si60O162]F16(Ox,OH4-x) · 2H2OMon.
14.6.6MountainiteKNa2Ca2[Si8O19(OH)] · 6H2OMon. 2/m : P2/b
14.6.7RhodesiteKHCa2Si8O19 · 5H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
14.6.8MiseriteK1.5-x(Ca,Y,REE)5(Si6O15)(Si2O7)(OH,F)2 · yH2OTric.
14.6.11MerwiniteCa3Mg(SiO4)2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
14.6.12DiopsideCaMgSi2O6Mon. 2/m : B2/b
14.6.13Tremolite◻{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

Åkermanite in petrologyHide

An essential component of rock names highlighted in red, an accessory component in rock names highlighted in green.

References for ÅkermaniteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Vogt, I.H.L. (1884) Studier over slagger. I. Kongliga Svenska Vetenskaps-Akademiens Handlingar: 9: 3-302.
Vogt, I.H.L. (1890) Die Mineralien der Melilithgruppe - nämlich Gehlenit, Melilith und ein neues tetragonales, nicht Al2O3-führendes (Ca,Mg)O-Silikat (Åkermanit), nebst Zwischengliedern. Archiv for Mathematik og Naturvidenskab: 13: 310-402.
Schairer, J.F. and Bowen, N.L. (1942) The binary system CaSiO3-diopside, and the relations between CaSiO3 and akermanite. American Journal of Science, 240: 10: 725-742.
Christie, O.H.J. (1961) On sub-solidus relations of silicates; IV. The system åkermanite-sodium-gehlenite and gehlenite-sodium-gehlenite. Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift: 42: 31-44.
Valley, J.W., Essene, E.J. (1979) Vesuvianite, akermanite, monticellite and wollastonite equlibria and high X H2O/CO2 at Cascade slide, Mt Marcy Quad, Adirondack Mts. EOS: 60: 423.
Kimata, M., Ii, N. (1981) The crystal structure of synthetic akermanite, Ca2MgSi2O7. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Monatshefte: 1981: 1-10.
Hemingway, B.S., Evans, H.T., Nord, G.L., Haselton, H.T., Robie, R.A., McGee, J.J. (1986) Åkermanite: phase transitions in heat capacity and thermal expansion, and revised thermodynamic data. The Canadian Mineralogist: 24: 425-434.
Kusaka, K., Ohmasa, M., Hagiya, K., Iishi, K., Haga, N. (1998) On variety of the Ca coordination in the incommensurate structure of synthetic iron-bearing åkermanite, Ca2(Mg0.55Fe0.45)Si2O7. Mineralogical Journal: 20: 47-58.
Courtial, P., Téqui, C., Richet, P. (2000) Thermodynamics of diopside, anorthite, pseudowollastonite, CaMgGeO4 olivine, and åkermanite up to near the melting point. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals: 27: 242-250.
Gemmi, M., Merlini, M., Cruciani, G., Artioli, G. (2007) Non-ideality and defectivity of the åkermanite-gehlenite solid solution: An X-ray diffraction and TEM study. American Mineralogist: 92: 1685-1694.
Merlini, M., Gemmi, M., Cruciani, G., Artioli, G. (2008) High-temperature behaviour of melilite: in situ X-ray diffraction study of gehlenite-åkermanite-Na melilite solid solution. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals: 35: 147-155.
Merlini, M., Gemmi, M., Hanfland, M., Crichton, W. (2009) High-pressure behavior of akermanite and gehlenite and phase stability of the normal structures in melelites. American Mineralogist: 94: 704-709.

Internet Links for ÅkermaniteHide

Localities for ÅkermaniteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Atlantic Ocean
  • Mid-Atlantic Ridge complex
Gablina, I. F., Dobretzova, I. G., Laiba, A. A., Narkevsky, E. V., Maksimov, F. E., & Kuznetsov, V. Y. (2018). Specific Features of Sulfide Ores in the Pobeda Hydrothermal Cluster, Mid-Atlantic Rise 17° 07′–17° 08′ N. Lithology and Mineral Resources, 53(6), 431-454.
Gablina, I. F., Dobretzova, I. G., Laiba, A. A., Narkevsky, E. V., Maksimov, F. E., & Kuznetsov, V. Y. (2018). Specific Features of Sulfide Ores in the Pobeda Hydrothermal Cluster, Mid-Atlantic Rise 17° 07′–17° 08′ N. Lithology and Mineral Resources, 53(6), 431-454.
  • Tyrol
    • Kufstein District
      • Brixlegg
Kolitsch, U. (2013): 1799) Anglesit, Brochantit, Calcit, Callaghanit, Connellit, Cuprit, Diopsid, Elyit, Forsterit, Kupfer, Lithargit, Magnesiochromit, Malachit, Monohydrocalcit, Phoenicochroit, Rouait und Willemit in Schlacken der Montanwerke Brixlegg, Tirol. Pp. 111-114 in Niedermayr, G. et al. (2013): Neue Mineralfunde aus Österreich LXII. Carinthia II, 203./123., 91-146.
  • Newfoundland and Labrador
    • Labrador
OWENS, B.E. & KREMSER, P.T. (2010) Åkermanite breakdown to cuspidine-bearing sympectite in a calc-silicate xenolith, Kiglapait intrusion, Labrador, Canada. Canadian Mineralogist 48, 809-819.
Am Min 85:1595–1605, (2000)
  • Québec
    • Laurentides
      • Deux-Montagnes RCM
        • Oka
          • Oka complex
Sabina (1968)
Handbook of Mineralogy
        • Saint-Joseph-du-Lac
          • Oka complex
Sabina (1968)
  • Shaanxi
    • Hanzhong
      • Ningqiang County
Xiyue Wang, Huimin Zhang, Sichao Wang, and Yuezhen Wu (1987): Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica 6(4), 296-306
Czech Republic
  • Central Bohemian Region
    • Kutná Hora District
      • Poličany
        • Vrchlice river valley
Pauliš P. Mineralogické lokality okolí Kutné Hory. Kuttna, Kutná Hora 1999. ISBN 80-902719-0-1.
  • Ústí nad Labem Region
    • Teplice District
      • Duchcov
Žáček V., Skála R., Chlupáčová M., Dvořák Z. 2005: Ca-Fe3+-rich, Si-undersaturated buchite from Želénky, North-Bohemian Brown Coal Basin, Czech Republic. Eur. J. Mineral., 17, 623-633
DR Congo
  • North Kivu
    • Nyiragongo Territory
Andersen, T., Elburg, M. A., & Erambert, M. (2014). Extreme peralkalinity in delhayelite-and andremeyerite-bearing nephelinite from Nyiragongo volcano, East African Rift. Lithos, 206, 164-178.
  • Occitanie
    • Aveyron
      • Rodez
        • Sévérac-d'Aveyron
Kruszewski, Ł., Gatel, P., Thiéry, V., Moszumańska, I., and Kusy, D. (2018) Crystallochemical Behavior of Slag Minerals and the Occurrence of Potentially New Mineral Species from Lapanouse-de-Sévérac, France. In: Stracher, G.B. (Ed.) Coal and Peat Fires: A Global Perspective, Vol. 5: Case Studies - Advances in Field and Laboratory Research, xx-xx (in press; publication date: November 2018).
  • Baden-Württemberg
    • Freiburg Region
      • Breisgau-Hochschwarzwald
        • Vogtsburg im Kaiserstuhl
          • Schelingen
            • Orberg - Badberg area
Keller, J., Williams T. (1995): Niocalite and Wöhlerite from the alkaline and carbonatite rocks at Kaiserstuhl, Germany, Mineralogical Magazine, Vol.: 59, 561-566
  • Lower Saxony
    • Goslar District
      • Langelsheim
        • Astfeld
No reference listed
  • North Rhine-Westphalia
    • Arnsberg
      • Märkischer Kreis
        • Iserlohn
          • Letmathe
Bender, D. and Krimmelbein, W. (1994) Aktuelle Übersicht: Mineralien der Zinkhütte Genna/Sauerland. Stand Juni 1994. Mineralien-Welt, 4/94, 10.; Blaß, G. & Graf, H.W. (1995) Neufunde von bekannten Fundstellen (13). Mineralien-Welt 6 (3), 47-51.
    • Cologne
      • Aachen
        • Stolberg
Blaß, G. & Graf, H. W. (1995): Neufunde von Schlackenhalden in der nördlichen Eifel (II). Mineralien-Welt, 6 (3), 28-31.
Rolf Luetcke specimen; Blaß, G. & Graf, H. W. (1995): Neufunde von Schlackenhalden in der nördlichen Eifel (II). Mineralien-Welt, 6 (3), 28-31.
      • Euskirchen
        • Mechernich
          • Kall
Peter Neschen Collection
  • Rhineland-Palatinate
    • Mayen-Koblenz District
      • Mayen
Christof Schäfer
      • Vordereifel
        • Ettringen
[Blass, G., Graf, H.W., Neue Mineralienfunde aus der Eifel und dem Siegerland, Mineralien-Welt 10/3, 23, 1999] [A. Wittern: Mineralfundorte in Deutschland, Schweizerbart (Stuttgart), 2001]
    • Vulkaneifel District
      • Gerolstein
        • Gerolstein
          • Roth
Aksenov, S. M., Rastsvetaeva, R. K., & Chukanov, N. V. (2014). The crystal structure of emmerichite Ва 2Na 3Fe 3+ Ti 2 (Si 2O 7) 2O 2F 2, a new lamprophyllite-group mineral. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie–Crystalline Materials, 229(1), 1-7.
        • Hillesheim
in the collection of Christof Schäfer; Chukanov, N. V., Zubkova, N. V., Pekov, I. V., Belakovskiy, D. I., Schüller, W., Ternes, B., ... & Pushcharovsky, D. Y. (2013). Hillesheimite,(K, Ca,□) 2 (Mg, Fe, Ca,□) 2 [(Si, Al) 13O23 (OH) 6](OH)· 8H2O, a new phyllosilicate mineral of the Günterblassite group. Geology of Ore Deposits, 55(7), 549-557.
  • Sulaymaniyah Governorate
    • Qala-Diz (Qala-Dizeh; Qala-Diza)
      • Hero
  • Campania
    • Naples
      • Somma-Vesuvius Complex
[Lapis 1994:5 p.13-23,58]
  • Lazio
    • Metropolitan City of Rome Capital
      • Campagnano di Roma
      • Sacrofano
Vik Vanrusselt Collection
  • Umbria
    • Perugia Province
      • Spoleto
Stoppa F., Sharygin V.V., 2009. Melilitolite intrusion and pelite digestion by high temperature kamafugitic magma at Colle Fabbri, Spoleto, Italy. Lithos, 112, 306-320.
    • Terni Province
      • San Venanzo
Joel Dyer Collection
  • Shimane Prefecture
    • Hamada City
The Mineral Species of Japan (5th ed) Matsubara
Middle East
Gross, S. (1977): The Mineralogy of the Hatrurim Formation, Israel. Geological Survey of Israel, Bulletin no. 70, 80 pp.
  • Drâa-Tafilalet Region
    • Zagora Province
Berger, J., Ennih, N., Mercier, J. C., Liégeois, J. P., & Demaiffe, D. (2009). The role of fractional crystallization and late-stage peralkaline melt segregation in the mineralogical evolution of Cenozoic nephelinites/phonolites from Saghro (SE Morocco). Mineralogical magazine, 73(1), 59-82.
  • Oshikoto Region
    • Tsumeb
Ettler, V., Johan, Z., Kříbek, B., Šebek, O. & Mihaljevič, M. (2009): Mineralogy and environmental stability of slags from the Tsumeb smelter, Namibia. Applied Geochemistry 24, 1-15.
  • Vestfold og Telemark
    • Skien
Jamtveit B., Dahlgren S. and Austrheim H. (1997): High-grade contact metamorphism of calcareous rocks from the Oslo Rift, Southern Norway. American Mineralogist. 82 : 1241 - 1254
  • Brașov
    • Racoş
Szakáll, S., Kristály, F., 2010. Mineralogy of Székelyland, Eastern Transylvania, Romania. Sfântu Gheorghe-Miercurea Ciuc-Târgu Mureş. 2010.
  • Harghita
    • Odorheiu Secuiesc (Székelyudvarhely; Oderhellen)
      • Racoş (Racoşu de Jos)
Szakáll, S. & Kristály, F., Eds. (2010): Mineralogy of Székelyland, Eastern Transylvania, Romania. Csík County Nature and Conservation Society, Miercurea-Ciuc, Romania, 321 pp.
  • Krasnoyarsk Krai
    • Maimecha and Kotui Rivers Basin
Pavel M. Kartashov data
  • Murmansk Oblast
Arzamastsev, A.A. [Арзамасцев, А.А.] (1990): Alkaline ultramafites in the Khibiny massif: new data and petrological implications [Щелочные ультрамафиты в Хибинском массиве: новые данные и петрологические следствия]. In: Alkaline magmatism of the north-eastern sector of the Baltic Shield [Щелочной магматизм северо-восточной части Балтийского щита]. Kola Scientific Centre, USSR Academy of Science Press [Издательство Кольского НЦ АН СССР], Apatity, pages 4-19 (in Russian); Arzamastsev, A.A., Arzamastseva, L.V., Glaznev, V.N., Raevskiy, A.B. [Арзамасцев, А.А., Арзамасцева, Л.В., Глазнев, В.Н., Раевский, А.Б.] (1998): Deep structure and composition of the bottom horizons of the Khibiny and Lovozero complexes, Kola Peninsula: petrological-geophysical model [Глубинное строение и состав нижних горизонтов Хибинского и Ловозерского комплексов, Кольский полуостров: петролого-геофизическая модель]. Petrology [Петрология], 6, 5, 478-496 (in Russian); Yakovenchuk, V.N., Ivanyuk, G.Yu., Pakhomovsky, Ya.A., Men'shikov, Yu.P. (2005): Khibiny. Laplandia Minerals Ltd. (in association with the Mineralogical Society of Great Britain and Ireland), Apatity, 468 pp.
Kalinkina, E. V., Kalinkin, A. M., Forsling, W., & Makarov, V. N. (2001). Sorption of atmospheric carbon dioxide and structural changes of Ca and Mg silicate minerals during grinding: II. Enstatite, åkermanite and wollastonite. International journal of mineral processing, 61(4), 289-299.
  • Prešov Region
    • Prešov District
      • Tulčík
Martin Števko-unpublished, PXRD and EMPA-WDS confirmed
South Africa
  • Limpopo
    • Sekhukhune District
      • Steelpoort
Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa pg 181
  • Northern Cape
    • Kalahari manganese field
      • Hotazel
Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) The Kalahari manganese field: An Update, Mineralogical Record 22(4) 279-302;
  • Västernorrland County
    • Timrå
Sandström, F., Binett, T., Wiklund, C. & Vikström, J. (2010): Alnöområdets geologi och mineralogi. Litiofilen. 27 (2) :14-42
  • Northern Ireland
    • Co. Antrim
      • Glenoe
P. A. Sabine, M. T. Styles and B. R. Young (1985) The Nature and Paragenesis of Natural Bredigite and Associated Minerals from Carneal and Scawt Hill, Co. Antrim. Mineralogical Magazine 49:663-670.
      • Larne
Tilley, C.E., Harwood, H.F. (1931) The Dolerite-Chalk Contact of Scawt Hill, Co. Antrim. The Production of Basic Alkali-Rocks by the Assimilation of Limestone by Basaltic Magma. Mineralogical Magazine: 22(132): 439-468.
Tindle, A.G. (2008) Minerals of Britian and Ireland
    • Highland
      • Fort William and Ardnamurchan
        • Ardnamurchan
Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, & Nichols, Handbook of Mineralogy.; Agrell, S.O. (1965) Polythermal metamorphism of limestones at Kilchoan, Ardnamurchan. Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 34, n° 268, p. 1-15.; Embrey, P.G. (1978) Fourth supplementary list of British Minerals. Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 42, n° 322, p. 169-177.
  • California
    • Riverside Co.
Handbook of Mineralogy
  • Colorado
    • Gunnison Co.
      • White Earth Mining District (Powderhorn Mining District)
"Minerals of Colorado, updated & revised", p. 17, by Eckel, Edwin B., 1997
  • New Mexico
    • Luna Co.
      • Tres Hermanas Mountains
Handbook of Mineralogy
  • New York
    • Essex Co.
Handbook of Mineralogy
      • Keene Township
        • Cascade Mountain
EOS: 60: 423.; Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 74, 143-152 (1980)
  • Texas
    • Culberson Co.
      • Apache Peak area
Rocks & Minerals: 66(3): 196-224.
Outer Space
Posch, Th., Baier, A., Mutschke, H., Henning, Th. (2007): Carbonates in Space: The Challenge of Low-Temperature Data. Astrophysical Journal: 668: 993-1000
Mineral and/or Locality  
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