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Iddingsite

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About IddingsiteHide

Joseph Paxson Iddings
Formula:
MgO · Fe2O3 · 3SiO2·4H2O
Formula gives the approximate bulk composition. Later studies (Smith et al 1987) found progressive changes of the bulk composition during alteration, with final stages approaching the composition of pure goethite (FeOOH).
Hardness:
3
Crystal System:
Orthorhombic
Name:
Named by Andrew Cowper Lawson in 1893 for Joseph Paxson Iddings [January 21, 1857 Baltimore, Maryland - September 8, 1920]. He was with the United States Geological Survey and later professor at the University of Chicago. He was one of the great petrologists of his era.
A common alteration product of Olivine, often observed in thin sections.

A mixture of clay minerals (chlorite group, smectite group), iron oxides and ferrihydrides.


Physical Properties of IddingsiteHide

Hardness:

Optical Data of IddingsiteHide

Type:
Biaxial
RI values:
nα = 1.670 - 1.730 nβ = 1.700 - 1.760 nγ = 1.720 - 1.770
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.050
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
High
Dispersion:
relatively strong

Chemical Properties of IddingsiteHide

Formula:
MgO · Fe2O3 · 3SiO2·4H2O

Formula gives the approximate bulk composition. Later studies (Smith et al 1987) found progressive changes of the bulk composition during alteration, with final stages approaching the composition of pure goethite (FeOOH).

Crystallography of IddingsiteHide

Crystal System:
Orthorhombic

Synonyms of IddingsiteHide

Other Language Names for IddingsiteHide

Simplified Chinese:伊丁石

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Olivine2 photos of Iddingsite associated with Olivine on mindat.org.
Olivine Group1 photo of Iddingsite associated with Olivine Group on mindat.org.

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

Iddingsite in petrologyHide

An essential component of rock names highlighted in red, an accessory component in rock names highlighted in green.

References for IddingsiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Sun, M. (1957) The nature of iddingsite in some basaltic rocks of New Mexico. American Mineralogist, 42, 525-533.
Eggleton, R.A. (1984) Formation of Iddingsite Rims on Olivine: A Transmission Electron Microscope Study. Clays and Clay Minerals, 32(1) 1-11.
Smith, K.L., Milnes, A.R., Eggleton, R.A. (1987) Weathering of basalt: formation of iddingsite. Clays and Clay Minerals, 35(6), 418-428.

Internet Links for IddingsiteHide

Localities for IddingsiteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Antarctica
AmMin 36:361-367
  • Eastern Antarctica
    • Queen Maud Land
      • Queen Fabiola Mts (Yamato Mts)
http://curator.jsc.nasa.gov/antmet/mmc/Y000593.pdf
Riley, T.R., Curtis, M.L., Leat, P.T., Millar, I.L. (2009): The geochemistry of Middle Jurassic dykes associated with the Straumsvola-Tvora alkaline plutons, Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica and their association with the Karoo large igneous province. Mineralogical Magazine, 73, 2, 205-226.
Riley, T.R., Curtis, M.L., Leat, P.T., Millar, I.L. (2009): The geochemistry of Middle Jurassic dykes associated with the Straumsvola-Tvora alkaline plutons, Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica and their association with the Karoo large igneous province. Mineralogical Magazine, 73, 2, 205-226.
    • Transantarctic Mts
      • Miller Range
Anand, M., Williams, C.T., Russell, S.S., Jones, G., James, S., and Grady, M.M. (2005) Petrology and geochemistry of nakhlite MIL 03346: A new Martian meteorite from Antarctica. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXVI.
    • Victoria Land
      • Allan Hills
Kuebler, K. E. (2013) A comparison of the iddingsite alteration products in two terrestrial basalts and the Allan Hills 77005 martian meteorite using Raman spectroscopy and electron microprobe analyses: Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets 118 (4): 803-830. (Apr 2013).
      • Elephant Moraine
Guan, Y. & Crozaz, G. (2001) Microdistributions and petrogenetic implications of rare earth elements in polymict ureilites: Meteoritics & Planetary Science 36( 8): 1039-1056. (Aug 2001).
Australia
 
  • New South Wales
    • Cumberland Co.
Crawford, E.A. (1973) Igneous Rock Deposits, Central Sydney Basin. Geological Survey of New South Wales Department of Mines Report GS1973/441.
Austria
 
  • Burgenland
    • Oberpullendorf
      • Kobersdorf
        • Pauliberg
R. Exel: Die Mineralien und Erzlagerstätten Österreichs (1993)
  • Styria
    • Bad Gleichenberg
      • Kapfenstein
R. Exel: Die Mineralien und Erzlagerstätten Österreichs (1993)
Brazil
 
  • Minas Gerais
    • Governador Valadares
Berkley, J. L., Keil, K., & Prinz, M. (1980) Comparative petrology and origin of Governador Valadares and other nakhlites. In: Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, 11th, Houston, TX, March 17-21, 1980, Proceedings. Volume 2. (A82-22296 09-91) New York, Pergamon Press, 1980, p. 1089-1102.; http://curator.jsc.nasa.gov/antmet/mmc/GovVal.pdf
  • Paraná
    • Foz do Iguaçu
Geological Survey Professional Paper 327 (U.S. Department of the Interior, 1959)
Canada
 
  • New Brunswick
    • Queens Co.
Martin, R F, Payette, C (1988) The Welsford Anorogenic Igneous Complex, southern New Brunswick: Rift-Related Acadian Magmatism. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File Issue: 1727
  • Ontario
    • Nipissing District
Bennett G. (1978) Geology of the Northeast Temagami Area, Ontario Geological Survey, Report 163, p.77.
    • Thunder Bay District
      • Seagull Lake Area
        • Seagull Lake complex
Wilson, G., & Harper, G. (2013). Nipigon Reefs Project: A New Look at the PGE-bearing Seagull Mafic-Ultramafic Complex. Field Guide to the Copper-Nickel-Platinum Group Element Deposits of the Lake Superior Region, Precambrian Research Center Guidebook, 13-01.
  • Yukon
    • Whitehorse mining district
      • Carcross
        • Tagish Lake
Lunar and Planetary Science XXXII (2001)
China
 
  • Gansu Province
    • Jiuquan Prefecture
      • Subei Co.
Jianguo Yang, Lei Wang, Xiaohong Wang, Xie Xie, and Zhengguang Qie (2012): Geological Bulletin of China 31(2/3), 448-454
  • Heilongjiang Province (Manchuria; Dongbei Region)
    • Daxing'anling Prefecture
      • Songling District
Jian Shao, Wenlan Zhang, Xinhua Zhou, and Cong Zhang (2009): Acta Petrologica Sinica 25(10), 2642-2650
    • Jixi Prefecture
      • Jidong Co.
USGS Open-File Report 03-220
  • Shandong Province
    • Jiaodong Peninsula (Jiaodong Gold Province)
      • Yantai Prefecture
        • Qixia Co.
Letian Du and Wenguang Wang (2012): Geological Review 58(6), 1017-1022
    • Laiwu Prefecture
      • Gangcheng District
Yaxiong Zhong (1980): Geology and Prospecting 16(5), 31-36
    • Linyi Prefecture
      • Fei Co.
Weiguo Zhong, Dengshi Zhou, Jitai Liu, Xiaoping Cheng, and Lihua Xie (2003): Shandong Geology 19(1), 43-49
  • Sichuan Province
    • Liangshan Autonomous Prefecture
      • Huili Co.
        • Lalachang Cu deposit (Lala Cu deposit)
Zhimin Zhu, Lingxi Zeng, Jiayun Zhou, Liping Luo, Jiabiao Chen, and Bing Shen (2009): Geological Journal of China Universities 15(4), 485-495
  • Xinjiang Autonomous Region
    • Bayin'gholin Autonomous Prefecture (Bayingolin Autonomous Prefecture; Bayinguoleng Autonomous Prefecture)
      • Ruoqiang Co. (Qakilik Co.; Chaqiliq Co.)
        • Pobei ore district
Jianmin Yang, Yujun Zhang, Fojun Yao, Hua Wu, Gang Deng, and Jiang Chen (2007): Acta Petrologica Sinica 23(10), 2647-2652
    • Hami Prefecture (Kumul Prefecture; Qumul Prefecture)
      • Hami Co. (Kumul Co.; Qumul Co.)
        • Baishiquan ore district
Linshan Song, Lijin Wang, Gang Deng, Jun Li, and Fengmei Chai (2008): Metal Mine 381(3), 114-117
        • Huangshan-Jing'erquan ore belt
Zhifu Wang, Fei Wu, Kebing Tang, Shanshan Li, Xiaojie Shi, Liang Zhang, Zhixuong Tan, Fang Wang (2012): Xinjiang Geology 30(3), 307-311
  • Yunnan Province
    • Baoshan Prefecture
      • Tengchong Co.
Dahlkamp, F.J., Ed. (2009): Uranium Deposits of the World. Springer (Berlin, Heidelberg), pp. 31-156
  • Zhejiang Province
    • Quzhou Prefecture
      • Qujiang District
Letian Du and Wenguang Wang (2012): Geological Review 58(6), 1017-1022
Czech Republic
 
  • Liberec Region
    • Kozákov (Kosakow)
Pauliš, P.: Nejzajímavější mineralogická naleziště Čech. Kutná Hora: Kuttna, 2000, s. 57-58.
  • Ústí Region
    • Ústí nad Labem (Aussig)
      • Sebuzin (Sebusein)
Hibsch and Seemann (1913)
Denmark
 
  • Greenland
    • Sermersooq
      • Arsuk Fjord
Hodson, M.E., and Finch, A.A. (1997): Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 127, 46-56.
Ecuador
 
  • Guayas Province
    • Daule Canton
Alejandro Félix collection.
Egypt
 
  • Al Iskandanyah Governorate (Alexandria Governorate)
    • Abu Hommos
      • Nakhla
Treiman, A. H. & Gooding, J. L. (1991) Iddingsite in the Nakhla meteorite: TEM study of mineralogy and texture of pre-terrestrial (Martian?) alterations. Meteoritics, vol. 26, p. 402.
El Salvador
 
  • Usulután Department
Torio-Henríquez, E. (2007) Petrography and mineral alteration in Berlin geothermal field. Proceedings, Thirty-Second Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering. Stanford University, Stanford, California, January 22-24.
Finland
 
  • Lapland Region
    • Savukoski
      • Tulppio
Vartiainen, H. 1980 The petrography, mineralogy and petrochemistry of the Sokli carbonative massif, northern Finland. Geological Survey of Finland, Bulletin, 313
    • Sodankylä
      • Kevitsansarvi (Keivitsansarvi)
Le Vaillant, M., Barnes, S. J., Fiorentini, M. L., Santaguida, F., & Törmänen, T. (2016). Effects of hydrous alteration on the distribution of base metals and platinum group elements within the Kevitsa magmatic nickel sulphide deposit. Ore Geology Reviews, 72, 128-148.
  • Northern Finland Region
    • Pudasjärvi
http://www.geologinenseura.fi/bulletin/Volume69/sgs_bt_069_pages_005_030.pdf
  • Southern Finland Region
    • Orimattila
C. Lemanski, Jr. (re-entry of lost Mindat data).
France
 
  • Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes
    • Ardèche
      • Privas
        • Alissas
Bull. Soc. Franç. Minéralo. Cristallo. , 1974, 97, pp. 450-464.
  • French Polynesia
    • Marquesas Islands
Legendre C., Maury R.C., Caroff M., Guillou H., Cotten J., Chauvel C., Bollinger C., Hémond C., Guille G., Blais S., Rossi P., Savanier D. (2005): Origin of exceptionally abundant phonolites on Ua Pou island (Marquesas, French Polynesia): Partial melting of basanites followed by crustal contamination. Journal of Petrology, 46, (9), 1925-1962.
  • Occitanie
    • Aveyron
      • Pont-de-Salars
G. Trolliard et al. , Bull. Minéral; , 1987, 110, pp. 439-448.
Italy
 
  • Apulia
    • Foggia Province
      • Gargano Promontory
        • Apricena
Piccarreta, G. (2011): Basalti picritici di Masseria San Giovanni in Pane. In: Moretti, M., Pieri, P., Ricchetti, G., Spalluto, L., with contributions of Festa, V., Maggiore, M., Maiorano, P., Piccarreta, G., Ronchitelli, A., Walsh, N., Note illustrative della Carta geologica d’Italia alla scala 1:50.000, foglio 396, San Severo. Ispra, Servizio geologico d’Italia, Regione Puglia, Litografia Artistica Cartografica S.r.l., pages 50-51.
  • Campania
    • Naples Province
      • Somma-Vesuvius Complex
        • Monte Somma
          • Pollena - Trocchia area
Carati M., 1982. Guida alla mineralogia vesuviana. Guide Calderini, Bologna.
M. Carati - Guida alla mineralogia vesuviana - Calderini, Bologna, 1982
  • Liguria
    • Genova Province
      • Rossiglione
Antofilli, Borgo, Palenzona, 1985. I nostri minerali. Geologia e mineralogia in Liguria. Edizioni Melita, La Spezia.
  • Sardinia
    • Sassari Province
Guarino V., Fedele L., Franciosi L., Lonis R., Lustrino Michele, Marrazzo M., Melluso L., Morra V., Rocco I., Ronga F. (2011): Mineral compositions and magmatic evolution of the calcalkaline rocks of nortwestern Sardinia, Italy. Per. Mineral., 80, 3 (Spec. Issue), 517-545.
  • Tuscany
    • Livorno Province
      • Piombino
Franzini, M., Perchiazzi, N. (1992): I minerali delle scorie ferrifere etrusche di Baratti (Livorno). Atti della Società Toscana di Scienze Naturali, Memorie, Serie A, 99, 43-77.
Japan
 
  • Honshu Island
    • Chugoku region
      • Shimane Prefecture
        • Hamada City
Masaru Yamaguchi (1964) Petrogenic Significance of Ultrabasic Inclusions in Basaltic Rocks from Southwest Japan. Memoirs of the Faculty of Science, Kyushu University, Series D, Geology, 15, #1, 163-219.
New Zealand
 
  • North Island
    • Auckland Region
E. J. Searle (1961): The petrology of the Auckland Basalts, New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics, 4:2, 165-204
    • Waikato Region
      • Waikato District
Spratt, P.R., Rodgers, K.A. (1975) The Ngatutura Volcanics, Southwest Auckland. Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand, 5:2, 163-178.
Norway
 
  • Finnmark
    • Loppa
      • Øksfjord
Elvevold, S. & Reginiussen, H. (1996): Reaction textures in contact metamorphosed xenoliths; implications for the tectonothermal evolution of the Seiland Igneous Province, Norwegian Caledonides. European Journal of Mineralogy, 8, 777-789
  • Vest-Agder
    • Flekkefjord
Barton, M. & Van Bergen, M. J. (1984): Secondary Ilvaite in a dolerite dyke from Rogaland SW Norway. Mineralogical Magazine 48: 449-456
  • Vestfold
    • Holmestrand
Knut Edvard Larsen collection
Pacific Ocean
 
  • South California Borderland
Hein, J.R., Reid, J.A., Conrad, T.A., Dunham, R.E., Clague, D.A., Schulz, M.S., and Davis, A.S. (2010): USGS Open-File Report 10-1069
Papua New Guinea
 
  • West New Britain Province
Lowder, G.G. (1970): Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 26, 324-340.
Paraguay
 
  • Paraguarí Department
Woolley, A.R. (1987) Alkaline rocks and carbonatites of the world. p 207. (British Museum of Natural History, London)
Poland
 
  • Lower Silesia (Dolnośląskie)
    • Strzegom-Sobótka Massif
      • Wrocław District
        • Sobótka (Zobten; Zobten am Berge)
Spangenberg, K. (1949): Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 1(5/6), 529-535.
    • Ząbkowice Slaskie District
      • Ząbkowice (Frankenstein)
Spangenberg, K., and Müller, M. (1949): Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 1(5/6), 560-572.
Spangenberg, K., and Müller, M. (1949): Die lateritische Zersetzung des Peridotits bei der Bildung der Nickelerzlagerstätte von Frankenstein in Schlesien. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 1(5/6), 560-572
  • Opolskie
    • Opole District
      • Niemodlin commune
        • Gracze
W. Szeliga, Mineralogical Society of Poland, Special Papers, 2003, V 23, pp. 166-168.
Russia
 
  • Northern Region
    • Murmanskaya Oblast'
Kogarko, L.N. et al (1995) Alkaline Rocks and Carbonatites of the World Vol 2.
Saint Lucia
 
  • Choc
M. Le Guen de Kerneizon et al. , Bull. Minéral. , 1982, 105, pp. 203-211.; Le-Guen de Kerneizon, M., Carron, J.P., Maury, R.C., Bellon, H., Dupuy, C. (1982) Les rhyolites a fayalite et ferroaugite de Sainte-Lucie (arc insulaire des Petites Antilles). Bulletin de Minéralogie, 105, 203-211.
Slovakia
 
  • Banská Bystrica Region
    • Lučenec Co.
Koděra, M. et al., 1986 a 1990 : Topografická mineralógia Slovenska, diel 1- 3, Veda – Vydavateľstvo SAV, Bratislava, 1990, 1 – 1590
South Korea
 
  • Gyeongsangbuk-do (Kyongsang-bukto; Gyeongsangbugdo)
    • Ulleung-gun
Atsuo Harumoto (1970) Volcanic Rocks and Associated Rocks of Utsuryoto Island, (Japan Sea). (39pp + geological map)
Spain
 
  • Canary Islands
    • Santa Cruz de Tenerife Province
      • Tenerife
        • Santa Cruz de Tenerife
          • Anaga Mts.
            • Igueste de San Andres
Col. Agustin Agudo Espinosa.
Sweden
 
  • Småland
    • Jönköping
      • Månsarp
  • Västerbotten
    • Norsjö
Mikael Jansson () Platinagruppens mineral vid nickeloch kopparmineraliseringarna kring Njuggträskliden
UK
 
  • Scotland
    • Argyll and Bute
      • Isle of Mull
http://jncc.defra.gov.uk/pdf/gcrdb/GCRsiteaccount21.pdf
    • Highland
      • Isle of Rum
Power, M.R., Pirrie, D., Andersen, J.C.O., and Butcher, A.R. (2000): Mineralium Deposita 35, 762-775.
USA
 
  • Alaska
    • Prince of Wales-Outer Ketchikan Borough
      • Ketchikan District
Thakurta, J. (2008). Isotopic and mineralogical studies of sulfide mineralization and hydrothermal alteration in the Duke Island ultramafic complex, southeastern Alaska. PhD thesis Indiana University.
  • Arizona
    • Cochise Co.
      • Tombstone Hills
Galbraith, F.W. & D.J. Brennan (1959), Minerals of AZ: 107.
    • Gila Co.
Galbraith, F.W. & D.J. Brennan (1959), Minerals of AZ: 90, 95, 107.
    • Pinal Co.
Galbraith, F.W. & D.J. Brennan (1959), Minerals of AZ: 107.
  • California
    • Alpine Co.
      • Dardanelles Cone
Ransome, Frederick Leslie (1898), Some lava flows of the western slope of the Sierra Nevada, California: USGS Bulletin 89: 52; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 223.
    • Inyo Co.
      • Amargosa Range
        • Black Mts
Foshag, William Frederick (1924a), Famous mineral localities: Furnace Creek, Death Valley, California: American Mineralogist: 9: 8-10; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 277.
      • Panamint Mts (Panamint Range)
        • Cottonwood Mts
McAllister, James Franklin (1955), Geology of mineral deposits in the Ubehebe Peak quadrangle, Inyo County, California. California Division Mines, Special Report 42, 63 pp.: 57, 59; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 224.
    • Kern Co.
      • El Paso Mts
        • El Paso Mountains District
          • Ricardo
Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 224.
      • Greenhorn Mts
        • Greenhorn District (Greenhorn Mountains District)
Webb, R.W. (1941), Quartz xenocrysts in olivine basalt, from the southern Sierra Nevada of California: American Mineralogist: 26: 324; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 224.
    • Los Angeles Co.
Larsen, Esper Signius (1921), The microscopic determination of nonopaque minerals: USGS Bulletin 679, 294 pp.: 91; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 224.
Lawson, Andrew Cowper (1893), The geology of Carmelo Bay: University of California, Department of Geologic Science Bulletin: 1: 31; Ross, Clarence Samuel & Earl V. Shannon (1926), The origin, occurrence, composition, and physical properties of the mineral iddingsite: US National Museum Proceedings 2579, vol. 67, Art. 7: 1-19; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 224.
    • Riverside Co.
      • Riverside
        • Mount Rubidoux
Banks, Philip O. & Leon T. Silver (1962), Petrological and geochronological observations on the Roubidoux Mountain leucogranites, Riverside County, California (abstract): Geological Society of America Special Paper 68: 5-6; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 181; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 458.
    • San Bernardino Co.
      • Pisgah
        • Pisgah Crater
Wikipedia.org article on Pisgah Crater.
    • Siskiyou Co.
      • Klamath Mts
        • Moffett Creek-Soap Creek area
Bradley, W.W. (1941), Thirty-seventh report of the State Mineralogist: California Division Mines Report 37: 128; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 224.
Bradley, W.W. (1940), Thirty-sixth report of the State Mineralogist: California Division Mines Report 36: 106; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 224.
  • Colorado
    • Conejos Co.
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.
    • Rio Grande Co.
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.
Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckel
  • Indiana
    • Tippecanoe Co.
      • Lafayette
www-curator.jsc.nasa.gov/antmet/mmc/Lafay.pdf.; Bunch, T. E. & Reid, A. M. (1975) The Nakhlites. I - Petrography and mineral chemistry. Meteoritics 10: 303-315, 317-324. (Dec 1975); http://curator.jsc.nasa.gov/antmet/mmc/Lafayette.pdf
  • Maine
    • Aroostook Co.
King & Foord, 1994. Mineralogy of Maine, V.1.
    • Washington Co.
      • Perry
Morrill & Hinckley, 1959. Maine Mines & Mineral Localities, Vol. 2.
  • Massachusetts
    • Middlesex Co.
Emerson, B.K. Geology of Massachusetts and Rhode Island, 1917. (USGS Bulletin 597), p.206.
  • Michigan
www.deq.state.mi.us/documents/deq-glm-rcim-geology-Minerals_Found_In_Michigan.Pdf.
  • Minnesota
    • Lake Co.
      • Beaver Bay
        • Beaver Bay Complex
Chusi Li, Ripley, E.M., Oberthür, T., Miller, Jr., J.D., and Joslin, G.D. (2008): Mineralium Deposita 43, 97-110.
      • Ely-Hoyt Lakes Area
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
  • New Mexico
    • Catron Co.
      • Datil Mts
Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
    • Colfax Co.
Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
Northrop, Minerals of New Mexico, 3rd rev. ed., 1996
    • Luna Co.
Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
    • Otero Co.
Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
    • Rio Arriba Co.
Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
    • Sandoval Co.
Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
    • Santa Fe Co.
Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
  • North Carolina
    • Carteret Co.
      • Beaufort
Callahan,John E,Miller,J.William and Craig,James R.(2001) Ballast Stone Studies From North Carolina Shipwreck 0003 BUI,The Queen Annes Revenge Hand Specimen,X-Ray,Petrographic,Chemical,Paramagnetic,and 40K-40AR Age Results:SouthEastern Geology Vol.40 No.1,Feb.2001,p 49-57
  • Oregon
    • Jefferson Co.
USGS Bull 969
    • Lake Co.
Stewart, Walker, Wright and Fahey (1966), Physical Properties of Calcic Labradorite from Lake County Oregon, American Mineralogist, Vol. 51, 177-197.
  • Utah
    • Tooele Co.
      • Oquirrh Mts
UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
  • Virginia
    • Amherst Co.
Minerals of Virginia, 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
Minerals of Virginia, 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
    • Campbell Co.
Minerals of Virginia, 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
Minerals of Virginia, 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
  • Wisconsin
    • Forest Co.
      • Little Sand Lake
Lambe, R. N. & R. G. Rowe, (1987), Volcanic history, mineralization, and alteration of the Crandon massive sulfide deposit, Wisconsin: Economic Geology and the Bulletin of the Society of Economic Geologists: 82 (5) :1204-1238
Mineral and/or Locality  
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