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Akhtenskite

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About AkhtenskiteHide

Formula:
ε-Mn4+O2
Colour:
Light grey to black
Specific Gravity:
4.78 (Calculated)
Crystal System:
Hexagonal
Name:
Named after its discovery locality in Russia.
Polymorph of:
Synthetic akhtenskite coupled with goethite may be used in arsenic removal (Shih et al., 2015).


Classification of AkhtenskiteHide

Approved
Approval year:
1982
4.DB.15b

4 : OXIDES (Hydroxides, V[5,6] vanadates, arsenites, antimonites, bismuthites, sulfites, selenites, tellurites, iodates)
D : Metal: Oxygen = 1:2 and similar
B : With medium-sized cations; chains of edge-sharing octahedra
4.4.10.1

4 : SIMPLE OXIDES
4 : AX2
7.18.5

7 : Oxides and Hydroxides
18 : Oxides of Mn

Physical Properties of AkhtenskiteHide

Transparency:
Opaque
Colour:
Light grey to black
Streak:
black
Cleavage:
Distinct/Good
on {001}
Density:
4.78 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of AkhtenskiteHide

Type:
Uniaxial

Chemical Properties of AkhtenskiteHide

Formula:
ε-Mn4+O2
IMA Formula:
MnO2

Crystallography of AkhtenskiteHide

Crystal System:
Hexagonal
Class (H-M):
6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) - Dihexagonal Dipyramidal
Space Group:
P63/mmc
Cell Parameters:
a = 2.84 Å, c = 4.6 Å
Ratio:
a:c = 1 : 1.62
Unit Cell V:
32.13 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
1
Morphology:
as microscopic crystals, flaky to platy on {001}, in parallel aggregates, sometimes in rows at 120°, probably due to replacement of an earlier hexagonal mineral;
as flaky polycrystalline aggregates
Comment:
Handbook of Mineralogy gives range: a = 2.83–2.85, c = 4.47–4.88 Å.

Crystal StructureHide

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IDSpeciesReferenceLinkYearLocalityPressure (GPa)Temp (K)
0017794AkhtenskiteKondrashev Y D, Zaslavskii A I (1951) The structure of the modifications of manganese oxide Izvestiya Akademii Nauk SSSR 15 179-18619510293
CIF Raw Data - click here to close

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
1.42 Å(
1.65 Å(
2.15 Å(
2.45 Å(
Comments:
Material from Mount Zarod, Russia; XRD pattern calculated from an electron diffraction pattern

Type Occurrence of AkhtenskiteHide

Place of Conservation of Type Material:
Mining Institute, St Petersburg, Russia
Geological Setting of Type Material:
in "psilomelane" with other manganese oxides in an iron oxide deposit, probably bacterially altered from a previous mineral
Associated Minerals at Type Locality:

Synonyms of AkhtenskiteHide

Other Language Names for AkhtenskiteHide

Relationship of Akhtenskite to other SpeciesHide

Other Members of this group:
Nsutite(Mn4+,Mn2+)(O,OH)2Hex.
ParamontroseiteV4+O2Orth.
RamsdelliteMn4+O2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
2 photos of Akhtenskite associated with CryptomelaneK(Mn4+7Mn3+)O16
2 photos of Akhtenskite associated with Nsutite(Mn4+,Mn2+)(O,OH)2

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

4.DB.05ArgutiteGeO2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P42/mnm
4.DB.05CassiteriteSnO2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P42/mnm
4.DB.05PlattneritePbO2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P42/mnm
4.DB.05PyrolusiteMn4+O2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P42/mnm
4.DB.05RutileTiO2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P42/mnm
4.DB.05TripuhyiteFe3+Sb5+O4Tet.
4.DB.05TugarinoviteMoO2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
4.DB.05Varlamoffite(Sn,Fe)(O,OH)2
4.DB.10ByströmiteMgSb2O6Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P4/nmm
4.DB.10Tapiolite-(Fe)Fe2+Ta2O6Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P42/mnm
4.DB.10Tapiolite-(Mn)Mn2+Ta2O6Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P42/mnm
4.DB.10OrdoñeziteZnSb2O6Tet.
4.DB.15cNsutite(Mn4+,Mn2+)(O,OH)2Hex.
4.DB.15aParamontroseiteV4+O2Orth.
4.DB.15aRamsdelliteMn4+O2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
4.DB.20Scrutinyiteα-PbO2Orth.
4.DB.25IshikawaiteU4+Fe2+Nb2O8Mon.
4.DB.25Ixiolite(Ta,Nb,Sn,Fe,Mn)4O8Orth.
4.DB.25Samarskite-(Y)YFe3+Nb2O8Mon. 2/m : P2/b
4.DB.25SrilankiteZrTi2O6Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbcn
4.DB.25Yttrocolumbite-(Y)Y(U4+,Fe2+)Nb2O8
4.DB.25Calciosamarskite(Ca,Fe3+,Y)2(Nb,Ta,Ti)2O8Mon.
4.DB.25Samarskite-(Yb)(Yb,Y,U,Th,Ca,Fe)(Nb,Ta)2O8Mon. 2/m : P2/b
4.DB.30FerberiteFeWO4Mon. 2/m : P2/b
4.DB.30HübneriteMnWO4Mon. 2/m : P2/b
4.DB.30Sanmartinite(Zn,Fe)WO4Mon. 2/m : P21/b
4.DB.30KrasnoselskiteCoWO4Mon.
4.DB.30HeftetjerniteScTaO4Mon. 2/m
4.DB.30HuanzalaiteMgWO4Mon. 2/m : P2/b
4.DB.35Columbite-(Fe)Fe2+Nb2O6Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbcn
4.DB.35Tantalite-(Fe)Fe2+Ta2O6Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbcn
4.DB.35Columbite-(Mn)Mn2+Nb2O6Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbcn
4.DB.35Tantalite-(Mn)Mn2+Ta2O6Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbcn
4.DB.35Columbite-(Mg)(Mg,Fe,Mn)(Nb,Ta)2O6Orth.
4.DB.35Qitianlingite(Fe,Mn)2(Nb,Ta)2WO10Orth.
4.DB.35Magnocolumbite(Mg,Fe,Mn)(Nb,Ta)2O6
4.DB.35Tantalite-(Mg)(Mg,Fe2+)(Ta,Nb)2O6Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
4.DB.40FerrowodginiteFe2+Sn4+Ta2O8Mon.
4.DB.40LithiotantiteLiTa3O8Mon.
4.DB.40LithiowodginiteLiTa3O8Mon.
4.DB.40TitanowodginiteMn2+TiTa2O8Mon.
4.DB.40WodginiteMn2+Sn4+Ta2O8Mon.
4.DB.40FerrotitanowodginiteFe2+TiTa2O8Mon.
4.DB.40WolframowodginiteMn(Mn,Sn,Fe,Ta)(W,Ta,Nb)2O8
4.DB.45TivaniteV3+TiO3(OH)Mon.
4.DB.50Carmichaelite(Ti,Cr,Fe)[O2-x(OH)x]Mon. 2/m : P21/b
4.DB.55AlumotantiteAlTaO4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbcn
4.DB.60Biehlite((Sb,As)O)2[MoO4]Mon.

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

7.18.1ManganositeMnOIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
7.18.2HausmanniteMn2+Mn3+2O4Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/amd
7.18.3PyrolusiteMn4+O2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P42/mnm
7.18.4RamsdelliteMn4+O2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
7.18.6FeitknechtiteMn3+O(OH)Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1
7.18.7ManganiteMn3+O(OH)Mon. 2/m : P21/b
7.18.8GroutiteMn3+O(OH)Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
7.18.9Nsutite(Mn4+,Mn2+)(O,OH)2Hex.
7.18.10PyrochroiteMn(OH)2Trig. 3m (3 2/m)
7.18.11Birnessite(Na,Ca)0.5(Mn4+,Mn3+)2O4 · 1.5H2OMon. 2/m : B2/m
7.18.12AuroriteMn2+Mn4+3O7 · 3H2OTrig. 3 : R3
7.18.13CianciulliiteMn(Mg,Mn)2Zn2(OH)10 · 2-4H2OMon. 2/m : B2/m

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for AkhtenskiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Chukhrov, F.V., Gorshkov, A.I., Drits, V.S. (1987) Advances in the crystal chemistry of manganese oxides. Zapiski Vsesoyuznogo Mineralogicheskogo Obshchestva: 16: 210-221. [in Russian]
Chukhrov, F.V., Gorshkov, A.I., Drits, V.S. (1987) Advances in the crystal chemistry of manganese oxides. International Geology Review: 29: 435-444.
Chukhrov, F.V., Gorshkov, A.I., Sivtsov, A.V., Berezovskaya, V.V., Dikov, Y.P., Dubinina, G.A., Varinov, N.N. (1989) Akhtenskite - the natural analog of ε-MnO2. Izvestiya Akademii Nauk SSSR, Ser. Geol.: 9: 75-80. [in Russian]
Chukhrov, F.V., Gorshkov, A.I., Sivtsov, A.V., Berezovskaya, V.V., Dikov, Y.P., Dubinina, G.A., Varinov, N.N. (1989) Akhtenskite - the natural analog of ε-MnO2. International Geology Review: 31: 1068-1072.
Jambor, J.L., Grew, E.S. (1990) New mineral names. American Mineralogist: 75: 931. [Chukhrov et al. abstract]
Anthony, J.W. et al. (1997) Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3, 9.
Shih, Y.-J., Huang, R.-L. and Huang, Y.H. (2015): Adsorptive removal of arsenic using a novel akhtenskite coated wastegoethite. Journal of Cleaner Production: 87: 897-905

Internet Links for AkhtenskiteHide

Localities for AkhtenskiteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Hungary
 
  • Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén County
    • Miskolc District
      • Répáshuta
Németh et al (2014)
Japan
 
  • Tochigi Prefecture
    • Kanuma City
Akira Kato (undated manuscript): Country rock and Minerals of the Kaso mine, Kanuma City, Tochigi Prefecture. (in japanese)
Romania
 
  • Suceava
    • Suceava district
      • Ciocănești commune
        • Ciocănești
Udubașa, G., Ďud'a, R., Szakáll, S., Kvasnytsya, V., Koszowska, E., Novák, M. (2002): Minerals of the Carpathians (Szakáll, S., ed.). Granit, Prague, Czech Rep., 482 pp. Munteanu, M. (1993): A new occurrence of helvite in Romania–Oita, Bistritei Mountains (East Carpathians). Romanian Journal of Mineralogy 76, 127– 128 (Bucharest).
      • Iacobeni
http://minerals-of-the-carpathians.eu
        • Tolovanu
Udubașa, G., Ďud'a, R., Szakáll, S., Kvasnytsya, V., Koszowska, E., Novák, M. (2002): Minerals of the Carpathians (Szakáll, S., ed.). Granit, Prague, Czech Rep., 482 pp. Hîrtopanu, P. (1997): Tolovanu manganese mine. In: Nedelcu, L., Moga, C., Podasca, I., Hirtopanu, P. (Eds.), Crystalline zone of the East Carpathians (Northern Bistrița Mts.): Structure, lithostratigraphy, metamorphism and metallogeny. Valea Putnei-Valea Bistriței. Romanian Journal of Mineralogy: 78 (Suppl. 2): 25-34
Russia (TL)
 
  • Chelyabinsk Oblast
    • Kusinsky District
      • Magnitka
[Clark, 1993 - "Hey's Mineral Index, 3rd Edition"]; Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
  • Primorsky Krai
J. W. Anthony et al.: Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. III (1997)
 
Mineral and/or Locality  
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