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Boleite

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Formula:
KPb26Ag9Cu24(OH)48Cl62
Colour:
Deep prussian blue to indigo; bluish green in transmitted light
Lustre:
Vitreous, Pearly
Hardness:
3 - 3½
Specific Gravity:
5.054
Crystal System:
Isometric
Name:
For the type locality, Boleo, near Santa Rosalia, Baja California.
Closely related to pseudoboleite.

Visit gemdat.org for gemological information about Boleite.


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Classification of BoleiteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
3.DB.15

3 : HALIDES
D : Oxyhalides, hydroxyhalides and related double halides
B : With Pb, Cu, etc.
10.6.6.1

10 : OXYHALIDES AND HYDROXYHALIDES
6 : AmBn(O,OH)pXq
8.8.18

8 : Halides - Fluorides, Chlorides, Bromides and Iodides; also Fluoborates and Fluosilicates
8 : Halides of Pb

Pronounciation of BoleiteHide

Pronounciation:
PlayRecorded byCountry
Jolyon & Katya RalphUnited Kingdom

Physical Properties of BoleiteHide

Vitreous, Pearly
Transparency:
Translucent
Colour:
Deep prussian blue to indigo; bluish green in transmitted light
Streak:
Blue, with greenish tint
Hardness:
3 - 3½ on Mohs scale
Cleavage:
Perfect
on {001}; good on {101}; poor on {100}.
Density:
5.054 g/cm3 (Measured)    5.062 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of BoleiteHide

Type:
Isotropic
RI values:
n = 2.05
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.000 - Isotropic minerals have no birefringence
Surface Relief:
Very High
Pleochroism:
Non-pleochroic

Chemical Properties of BoleiteHide

Formula:
KPb26Ag9Cu24(OH)48Cl62
IMA Formula:
KAg9Pb26Cu24Cl62(OH)48

Crystallography of BoleiteHide

Crystal System:
Isometric
Class (H-M):
m3m (4/m 3 2/m) - Hexoctahedral
Space Group:
Pm3m
Cell Parameters:
a = 15.29 Å
Unit Cell V:
3,574.56 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
1
Morphology:
Crystals cubic, to 2 cm, rarely modified by {111} and {011}.

Epitaxial Relationships of BoleiteHide

Epitaxial Minerals:
PseudoboleitePb31Cu24Cl62(OH)48
CumengeitePb21Cu20Cl42(OH)40 · 6H2O
Epitaxy Comments:
commonly surficially layered with or overgrown by cumengite or pseudoboléite, mutually parallel to {001}.

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
4.415 (100)
3.821 (80)
3.505 (35)
2.702 (60)
2.547 (40)
2.330 (35)
1.990 (35)
Comments:
Recorded on a sample from Boleo, Mexico (ICDD 27-1206). The pattern may be totally obscured by the pattern of intergrown pseudoboléite.

Type Occurrence of BoleiteHide

Place of Conservation of Type Material:
National School of Mines, Paris, France
Geological Setting of Type Material:
In the oxidized zone of a Pb-Cu deposit, formed through reaction of chloride with primary sulphides
Associated Minerals at Type Locality:

Synonyms of BoleiteHide

Other Language Names for BoleiteHide

Russian:Болеит
Simplified Chinese:银铜氯铅矿
Traditional Chinese:銀銅氯鉛礦

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Pseudoboleite39 photos of Boleite associated with Pseudoboleite on mindat.org.
Leadhillite30 photos of Boleite associated with Leadhillite on mindat.org.
Anglesite26 photos of Boleite associated with Anglesite on mindat.org.
Cumengeite24 photos of Boleite associated with Cumengeite on mindat.org.
Chrysocolla23 photos of Boleite associated with Chrysocolla on mindat.org.
Cerussite20 photos of Boleite associated with Cerussite on mindat.org.
Atacamite19 photos of Boleite associated with Atacamite on mindat.org.
Paratacamite11 photos of Boleite associated with Paratacamite on mindat.org.
Gypsum9 photos of Boleite associated with Gypsum on mindat.org.
Penfieldite9 photos of Boleite associated with Penfieldite on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

3.DB.RickturneritePb7O4[Mg(OH)4](OH)Cl3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
3.DB.05DiaboleitePb2CuCl2(OH)4Tet. 4mm : P4mm
3.DB.10PseudoboleitePb31Cu24Cl62(OH)48Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I4/mmm
3.DB.20CumengeitePb21Cu20Cl42(OH)40 · 6H2OTet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I4/mmm
3.DB.25BideauxitePb2AgCl3(F,OH)2Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
3.DB.30ChloroxiphitePb3CuO2Cl2(OH)2Mon. 2/m : P21/m
3.DB.35HematophanitePb4Fe3O8(OH,Cl)Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m)
3.DB.40AsisitePb7SiO9Cl2 Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I4/mmm
3.DB.40ParkinsonitePb7MoO9Cl2 Tet.
3.DB.45MurdochitePbCu6O8-x(Cl,Br)2x where x<=0.5Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
3.DB.50YedlinitePb6Cr3+Cl6(O,OH,H2O)8Trig. 3 : R3

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

8.8.1AbhuriteSn21Cl16(OH)14O6Trig.
8.8.2MatlockitePbFClTet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P4/nmm
8.8.3LaurelitePb7F12Cl2Hex. 6 : P6
8.8.4CotunnitePbCl2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
8.8.5MendipitePb3Cl2O2Orth. 2 2 2 : P21 21 21
8.8.6DamaraitePb3Cl(OH)O2Orth. mm2 : Pmc21
8.8.7LaurionitePbCl(OH)Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
8.8.8ParalaurionitePbCl(OH)Mon. 2/m : B2/m
8.8.9PenfielditePb2Cl3(OH)Hex. 6 : P6
8.8.10FiedleritePb3FCl4(OH) · H2OMon. 2/m
8.8.11BlixitePb2(O,OH)2ClOrth.
8.8.12PseudocotunniteK2PbCl4Orth.
8.8.13DiaboleitePb2CuCl2(OH)4Tet. 4mm : P4mm
8.8.14PseudoboleitePb31Cu24Cl62(OH)48Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I4/mmm
8.8.15ChloroxiphitePb3CuO2Cl2(OH)2Mon. 2/m : P21/m
8.8.17BideauxitePb2AgCl3(F,OH)2Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
8.8.19AravaipaitePb3AlF9 · H2OTric.
8.8.20YedlinitePb6Cr3+Cl6(O,OH,H2O)8Trig. 3 : R3
8.8.21KolaritePbTeCl2Orth.
8.8.22HematophanitePb4Fe3O8(OH,Cl)Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m)

Other InformationHide

Notes:
Inert in water. Soluble in HNO3.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for BoleiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Mallard and Cumenge (1891) Comptes rendus de l’Académie des sciences de Paris: 113: 519.
Schultze (1892) Chemiker-Zeitung Cöthen: 16: 1953 (as Argentopercylite).
Carmichael and Armstrong in Liversidge (1894) Journal of the Royal Society of New South Wales: 94: 98.
Friedel (1894) Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 17: 6.
Friedel (1906) Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 29: 14.
Hadding (1919) Geologiska Föeningens I Stockholm. Förhandlinger, Stockholm: 41: 175.
Gossner and Arm (1929) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 72: 202.
Friedel (1930) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 73: 147.
Gossner (1930) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 75: 365.
Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: Halides, Nitrates, Borates, Carbonates, Sulfates, Phosphates, Arsenates, Tungstates, Molybdates, Etc. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 78-79.
Rouse, R. C. (1973): The crystal structure of boleite - a mineral containing silver atom clusters. Journal of Solid State Chemistry 6, 86-92. https://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/handle/2027.42/33968/0000240.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y
Winchell, R. E. and Rouse, R. C. (1974): The mineralogy of the boleite group. Mineralogical Record 5, 280-287.
ITE, M. I., & IPHITE, C. (1981). Chemical studies on the stabilities of boleite and pseudoboleite. Mineralogical Magazine, 44, 101-4. http://rruff.info/doclib/MinMag/Volume_44/44-333-101.pdf
Anthony, J.W., Bideaux, R.A., Bladh, K.W., and Nichols, M.C. (1997) Handbook of Mineralogy, Volume III. Halides, Hydroxides, Oxides. Mineral Data Publishing, Tucson, AZ, 628pp.: 72.
Cooper, M. A. and Hawthorne, F. C. (2000): Boleite: revision of the formula, KPb26Ag9Cu24Cl62(OH)48. Canadian Mineralogist 38, 801-808. http://rruff.info/rruff_1.0/uploads/CM38_801.pdf
Frost, R. L., Williams, P. A., & Martens, W. (2003). Raman spectroscopy of the minerals boleite, cumengeite, diaboleite and phosgenite–implications for the analysis of cosmetics of antiquity. Mineralogical Magazine, 67(1), 103-111. http://eprints.qut.edu.au/archive/00005411/01/5411.pdf

Internet Links for BoleiteHide

Localities for BoleiteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Australia
 
  • New South Wales
    • Yancowinna Co.
      • Broken Hill
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 79.
Australian Mineralogist (1997): 3: 1.
      • Northern Broken Hill Block
The Daydream Mine, G.D. Grose, Bungala Press 2002. The reference refers to minerals collected at the mine and identified by John Leach.
Chile
 
  • Antofagasta Region
    • Antofagasta Province
Econ Geol (1991) 86:1222-1237
Anthony, J. W. et al. (1997): Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3, 72
      • Santa Catalina
        • Guanaco (Huanaco)
Vincent Bourgoin collection
      • Sierra Gorda District
        • Caracoles
Brugger J, Meisser N, Ansermat S, Krivovichev S V, Kahlenberg V, Belton D, Ryan C G (2012) Leucostaurite, Pb2[B5O9]Cl·0.5H2O, from the Atacama Desert: The first Pb-dominant member of the hilgardite group, and micro-determination of boron minerals by PIGE. American Mineralogist 97, 1206-1212
Handbook of Mineralogy
V. Sapienza collection
Paar, W. H. & Burgstaller, J. (1980): Osarizawaite-beaverite intergrowths from Sierra Gorda, Chile. Mineralogical Record 1980, 101-104
Mr. Terry Szenics.
Collected by Arturo Molina and Maurizio Dini.
M.Dini & A.Molina collection
(M. Dini specimens)
  • Tarapacá Region
Handbook of Mineralogy
    • El Tamarugal Province
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 79.
Anthony, J. W. et al. (1997): Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3, 72
    • Iquique Province
      • Iquique
Anthony, J. W. et al. (1997): Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3, 55
      • Santa Rosa-Huantajaya District
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 22 & 79.
France
 
  • Brittany
    • Finistère
      • Poullaouen
Germain C., Leydet J-C., Saget Ph. (1990), Les minéraux de néoformation de Huelgoat (Finistère), Le Cahier des Micromonteurs, n°3, 3-16
  • Occitanie
    • Lozère
      • Pont-de-Montvert
        • Vialas
Georges FAVREAU collection
  • Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur
    • Var
      • Le Pradet
http://www.mine-capgaronne.fr/site/Mineraux/ListeMineraux.html
trouvaille et collection personnelle
Germany
 
  • Hesse
    • Richelsdorf District
      • Nentershausen
        • Süß
          • Richelsdorf Smelter
Schnorrer-Köhler, G. (1991): Mineralogische Notizen V. Aufschluss 42, 155-171.
  • Lower Saxony
    • Harz
      • Goslar
        • Astfeld
van den Berg, W. & van Loon, C. (1990): Slag Minerals from the Rammelsberg, Harz Mountains, Germany. UK Journal of Mines & Minerals, 8, 18-23.
  • Saxony-Anhalt
    • Mansfeld Basin
      • Hettstedt
        • Copper-Silver smelter (Gottesbelohnung smelter) slag locality
Mineralien Welt 15 Jg Heft 2-2004and 19 JgHeft 1 2008,Horst Knoll Erfurt
Greece
 
  • Attikí Prefecture (Attica; Attika)
    • Lavrion District (Laurion; Laurium)
      • Lavrion District Mines
        • Lavrion (Laurion; Laurium)
No reference listed
        • Sounion area
          • Sounion Mines
Lapis, 24, 7/8 (1999)
Grolig, H. & Grolig, E. (1978): Lavrion in Attika. Lapis, 3 (5), 16-25; 40 (in German).
        • Passa Limani area
Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet, and Rewitzer, Christian (1996) Laurion: The Minerals of the Ancient Slags, Janssen Print, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
        • Sounion area
Fritz Schreiber Collection
ko.jansen
Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet and Rewitzer, Christian, (1996) Laurion: The Minerals in the Ancient Slags, Janssen Print, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
        • Thorikos area
Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet and Rewitzer, Christian (1996) Laurion: The Minerals in the Ancient Slags, Janssen Print, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
        • Vrissaki area
Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet, and Rewitzer, Christian (1996) Laurion: The Minerals in the Ancient Slags, Janssen Print, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
Iran
 
  • Esfahan Province (Isfahan Province; Aspadana Province)
    • Nain County (Nayin County)
      • Anarak District
Italy
 
  • Tuscany
    • Livorno Province
      • Campigliese (Campiglia Mountains; Campiglia Ridge)
        • Campiglia Marittima
Marco Bonifazi Collection
http://www.comune.pisa.it/apsn/Articoli/Scorie/Capattoli.htm
      • Piombino
Muenchener Micromounter-Lithothek
Mexico (TL)
 
  • Baja California Sur (BC Sur)
    • Mun. de Mulegé
      • Santa Rosalía
Bull. Soc. fr. Min. Crist. (1891): 14, 283; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 79.
          • Arroyo de la Soledad
[www.johnbetts-fineminerals.com]; 2009 New Mexico Mineral Symposium abstracts
Panczner(1987):117.
          • Arroyo del Boleo
Panczner(1987):92-350.
  • Sonora
    • Mun. de Arizpe
      • Arizpe
Panczner(1987):83-359.
Russia
 
  • Eastern-Siberian Region
    • Sakha Republic (Saha Republic; Yakutia)
      • Verkhoyansk Fold Belt
        • Verkhoyansk Silver Province
          • Deputatsky ore cluster
Zhdanov Yu.Ya., Solov'ev L.I. (1998): Geology and mineralogical composition of the oxidized zone in the Deputatsk tin ore deposit. Otechestvennaya Geol. (6), 77-79 (in Russian).
Spain
 
  • Andalusia
    • Almería
      • Níjar
        • Rodalquilar
          • Cerro de los Guardias
Calvo, M. (2006): Minerales y Minas de España. Vol. III, Halogenuros. Museo de Ciencias Naturales de Álava, 267 pp.
  • Murcia
    • Cartagena
Joan Rosell
Turkmenistan
 
  • Balkan Province
    • Cheleken Peninsula
Handbook of Mineralogy
UK
 
  • England
    • Co. Durham
      • North Pennines
        • Derwent Valley
          • Castleside
R. S. W. Braithwaite, R. P. H. Lamb & A. L. Nattrass (2006): Heavy metals and their weathering products in residues from Castleside Smelting Mill, County Durham, including a new slag mineral, copper antimonate. Journal of the Russell Society, 9, 54-61. ; Norman Wilson collection
    • Cornwall
      • Mount's Bay District
        • Porthleven
George Eric Stanley Curtis discovery
G.Curtis collection
      • St Agnes District
        • Crantock
BMS Newsletter 79, March 2010 (http://britishmicromountsociety.homestead.com/Gannell-Smelter.html)
        • Newquay
Anthony, J. W. et al. (1997): Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3, 72
      • Wadebridge District
        • Padstow
          • Gunver Head
Goley, P. and Williams R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications
        • St Minver
          • Rock
Anthony, J. W. et al. (1997): Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3, 72
      • Wendron & Falmouth District
        • Falmouth
Anthony, J. W. et al. (1997): Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3, 72; Goley, P. and Williams R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications
USA
 
  • Arizona
    • Gila Co.
      • Globe-Miami District
        • Globe Hills District
          • Globe Hills
            • Burch area
              • Radium
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 141, 146, 291; Bideaux, R.A., et al (1960), Some new occurrences of minerals of Arizona, AZ Geol. Soc. Digest: 3: 53-56.
    • Maricopa Co.
      • Belmont Mts
        • Wickenburg area
In the collection of Brent Thorne.
      • Big Horn Mts
        • Osborn District
          • Tonopah
            • Belmont Mountain
American Mineralogist: 81: 244-248.
      • Painted Rock Mts
        • Painted Rock District
          • Theba
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 141, 425; Wilson, W.E. & D.K. Miller (1974), Minerals of the Rowley Mine, Min.Rec.: 5: 10-30.
    • Pinal Co.
      • Mammoth District
        • Tiger
          • St. Anthony deposit
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 141; Fahey, J.J., et al (1950), Wherryite, a new mineral from the Mammoth mine, AZ, Am.Min.: 35: 93-98; Bideaux, R.A. (1980), Tiger, AZ, Min.Rec.: 11: 155-181.
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 141, 202; Palache, C. (1941b), Diaboleite from Mammoth mine, Tiger, AZ, Am.Min.: 26: 605-612; Fahey, J.J., et al (1950), Wherryite, a new mineral from the Mammoth mine, AZ, Am.Min.: 35: 93-98; Galbraith, F.W. & D.J. Brennan (1959), Minerals of AZ: 45.
      • Tohono O'odham Indian Reservation
        • Vekol Mts
          • Vekol District
            • Kohatk
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 141.
  • California
    • San Bernardino Co.
      • Silver Lake District
        • Soda Mts
          • Baker
Robert housley collection (ID by PXRD and SEM-EDS by Anthony Kampf at Los Angeles County Natural History Museum)
Joe Marty specimens; Confirmed by XRD.
Rocks & Minerals 86:132-142
          • Zzyzx (Fort Soda; Soda; Soda Springs; Zzyzx Mineral Spring Resort)
Collected by Brent Thorne and EDS analyzed by Bob Housley; American Mineralogist, Volume 94, pages 1198–1204, 2009
  • Montana
    • Granite Co.
Encycolpedia of minerals, Roberts,Rapp,Weber, 1974
        • Philipsburg
Brent Thorne; Domenico Preite collection
  • Nevada
    • Esmeralda Co.
Rocks & Minerals, Nov. 1999
      • Rock Hill District
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
  • Washington
    • Pierce Co.
      • Tacoma
        • Ruston
Washington Geology, vol.25, no. 3, September 1997.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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