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Khmaralite

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About KhmaraliteHide

Formula:
(Mg,Al,Fe)16[(Al,Si,Be)12O36]O4
Colour:
dark greenish blue
Lustre:
Vitreous
Hardness:
7
Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Name:
For the locality, which was named in honor of Ivan Fedorovich Khmara (1936-1956), a tractor driver who perished in Antarctica.
This page provides mineralogical data about Khmaralite.


Classification of KhmaraliteHide

Approved
9.DH.50

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
D : Inosilicates
H : Inosilicates with 4-periodic single chains, Si4O12

Physical Properties of KhmaraliteHide

Vitreous
Colour:
dark greenish blue
Streak:
colourless
Hardness:

Optical Data of KhmaraliteHide

Type:
Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 1.725 nβ = 1.740 nγ = 1.741
2V:
Measured: 34° , Calculated: 28°
Birefringence:
0.016
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.016
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
High
Dispersion:
r > v strong
Comments:
very like sapphirine

Chemical Properties of KhmaraliteHide

Formula:
(Mg,Al,Fe)16[(Al,Si,Be)12O36]O4
IMA Formula:
Mg4(Mg3Al9)O4[Si5Be2Al5O36]

Crystallography of KhmaraliteHide

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:
P21/b
Cell Parameters:
a = 18.8 Å, b = 14.371 Å, c = 11.254 Å
β = 125.53°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 1.308 : 1 : 0.783
Unit Cell V:
2,474.43 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
4
Comment:
related to sapphirine-2M but with different cation ordering and doubled chain repeat

Type Occurrence of KhmaraliteHide

Synonyms of KhmaraliteHide

Other Language Names for KhmaraliteHide

Relationship of Khmaralite to other SpeciesHide

Other Members of this group:
AddibischoffiteCa2Al6Al6O20Tric. 1 : P1
SapphirineMg4(Mg3Al9)O4[Si3Al9O36]Mon. 2/m : P21/b
Unnamed (Al-analogue of Sapphirine)Mg4(Mg1.5Fe+20.3Fe+31.6Al8.5)O4[Si1.7Al10.3O36]
WarkiteCa2Sc6Al6O20Tric. 1 : P1

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Surinamite2 photos of Khmaralite associated with Surinamite on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

9.DH.05LeucophaniteNaCaBeSi2O6FOrth. 2 2 2 : P21 21 21
9.DH.10OhmiliteSr3(Ti,Fe3+)(Si4O12)(O,OH) · 2-3H2OMon.
9.DH.15HaradaiteSrVSi2O7Orth.
9.DH.15SuzukiiteBaVSi2O7Orth.
9.DH.20BatisiteBaNaNaTi2(Si4O12)O2Orth.
9.DH.20Shcherbakovite(K,Ba)KNa(Ti,Nb)2(Si4O12)O2Orth.
9.DH.25TaikaniteSr3BaMn2+2(Si4O12)O2Mon.
9.DH.30KrauskopfiteBaSi2O5 · 3H2OMon.
9.DH.35Balangeroite(Mg,Fe2+,Fe3+,Mn2+)42Si16O54(OH)40Mon.
9.DH.35GageiteMn21(Si4O12)2O3(OH)20Mon. 2/m
9.DH.40AenigmatiteNa4[Fe2+10Ti2]O4[Si12O36]Tric. 1 : P1
9.DH.40DorriteCa4(Mg3Fe3+9)O4(Si3Al8Fe3+O36)Tric.
9.DH.40HøgtuvaiteCa4[Fe2+6Fe3+6]O4[Si8Be2Al2O36]Tric. 1 : P1
9.DH.40KrinoviteNa2Mg4Cr3+2(Si6O18)O2Tric.
9.DH.40Makarochkinite(Ca,Na)2Fe2+4Fe3+Ti[O2|BeAlSi4O18]Tric. 1 : P1
9.DH.40RhöniteCa2(Mg,Fe2+,Fe3+,Ti)6[O2|(Si,Al)6O18]Tric. 1 : P1
9.DH.40SerendibiteCa4[Mg6Al6]O4[Si6B3Al3O36]Tric. 1 : P1
9.DH.40WelshiteCa4Mg9Sb3O4[Si6Be3AlFe2O36]Tric. 1 : P1
9.DH.40WilkinsoniteNa2Fe2+4Fe3+2(Si6O18)O2Tric. 1 : P1
9.DH.45SapphirineMg4(Mg3Al9)O4[Si3Al9O36]Mon. 2/m : P21/b
9.DH.55Surinamite(Mg,Fe)3Al4BeSi3O16Mon.
9.DH.60Deerite(Fe,Mn)6(Fe,Al)3[Si6O17]O3(OH)5Mon.
9.DH.65HowieiteNa(Fe,Mn)10(Fe,Al)2Si12O31(OH)13Tric.
9.DH.65Taneyamalite(Na,Ca)(Mn,Mg,Fe)12Si12(O,OH)44Tric.
9.DH.70JohninnesiteNa2Mn2+9Mg7(OH)8[AsO4]2[Si6O17]2Tric.
9.DH.75AgrelliteNaCa2Si4O10FTric.

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for KhmaraliteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Edward S Grew (1981) : Surinamite, taaffeite, and beryllian sapphirine from pegmatites in granulite-facies rocks of Casey Bay,Enderby Land, Antarctica, American Mineralogist, Volume 66, pages 1022_1033,
Barbier, J., Grew, E.S., Moore, P.B., and Su, S.-C. (1999) Khmaralite, a new beryllium-bearing mineral related to sapphirine: A superstructure resulting from partial ordering of Be, Al and Si on tetrahedral sites. American Mineralogist: 84: 1650-1660.
Christy, A.G., Tabira, Y., Hölscher, A., Grew, E.S., and Schreyer, W. (2002) Synthesis of beryllian sapphirine in the system MgO-BeO-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O and comparison with naturally occurring beryllian sapphirine and khmaralite. Part 1: Experiments, TEM and XRD. American Mineralogist: 87: 1104-1112.
Christy, A.G., and Grew, E.S. (2004) Synthesis of beryllian sapphirine in the system MgO-BeO-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O and comparison with naturally occurring beryllian sapphirine and khmaralite, Part 2: a chemographic study of Be content as a function of P, T, assemblage and FeMg-1 exchange. American Mineralogist: 89: 327-338.

Internet Links for KhmaraliteHide

Localities for KhmaraliteHide

ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Antarctica
 
  • Eastern Antarctica
    • Enderby Land
http://gsa.confex.com/gsa/2003AM/finalprogram/abstract_60995.
        • Casey Bay
          • Khmara Bay
Am. Mineral. (1999), 84, 1650-1660
Grew, E. S. (1981). Surinamite, taafeite and beryllian saphirine from pegmatites in graulite-facies rocks of Casey Bay, Enderby Land, Antarctica. American Mineralogist, 66, 1022-1033;Barbier, J., Grew, E.S., Moore, P.B., and Su, S.-C. (1999): Khmaralite, a new beryllium-bearing mineral related to sapphirine: A superstructure resulting from partial ordering of Be, Al and Si on tetrahedral sites. American Mineralogist: 84: 1650-1660.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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