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George R. Rossman
Pale-pink to colorless.
Crystal System:
Named after George R. Rossman (b. August 3, 1944), California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California, USA, in recognition for his work on the spectroscopy of the tourmaline-group minerals (and many other mineral species).
Tourmaline Group.

Vacancy-dominant member; identification only possible with quantitative chemical analysis and/or crystal-structure refinement.

Visit for gemological information about Rossmanite.

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Classification of RossmaniteHide


9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
C : Cyclosilicates
K : [Si6O18]12- 6-membered single rings, with insular complex anions
Dana 7th ed.:

Pronounciation of RossmaniteHide

PlayRecorded byCountry
Jolyon & Katya RalphUnited Kingdom

Physical Properties of RossmaniteHide

Pale-pink to colorless.

Optical Data of RossmaniteHide

Uniaxial (-)
RI values:
nω = 1.645 nε = 1.624
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.021
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:

Chemical Properties of RossmaniteHide

IMA Formula:

Crystallography of RossmaniteHide

Crystal System:
Class (H-M):
3m - Ditrigonal Pyramidal
Space Group:
Cell Parameters:
a = 15.802 Å, c = 7.088 Å
a:c = 1 : 0.449
Unit Cell V:
1,532.78 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Sample from Czech Republic has: a = 15.770(2), c = 7.085(1) Å.

Type Occurrence of RossmaniteHide

Synonyms of RossmaniteHide

Other Language Names for RossmaniteHide

Relationship of Rossmanite to other SpeciesHide

Other Members of this group:
AdachiiteCaFe3Al6(Si5AlO18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
BosiiteNaFe3+3(Al4Mg2)(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OTrig. 3m : R3m
Chromo-alumino-povondraiteNa(Cr3)(Al4Mg2)(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OTrig. 3m : R3m
DarrellhenryiteNa(LiAl2)Al6(BO3)3Si6O18(OH)3O Trig. 3m : R3m
DraviteNa(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
FeruviteCa(Fe2+)3MgAl5(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
Fluor-buergeriteNa(Fe3+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3O3FTrig. 3m : R3m
Fluor-draviteNa(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3FTrig. 3m : R3m
Fluor-elbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3FTrig. 3m : R3m
Fluor-liddicoatiteCa(Li2Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3FTrig. 3m : R3m
Fluor-schorlNa(Fe2+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3FTrig. 3m : R3m
Fluor-tsilaisiteNa(Mn2+)3Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3FTrig. 3m : R3m
Fluor-uviteCa(Mg3)MgAl5(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3FTrig. 3m : R3m
Foitite(□,Na)(Fe2+2Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OHTrig. 3m : R3m
LiddicoatiteCa(Li2Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
LucchesiiteCaFe2+3 Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OTrig. 3m : R3m
Luinaite-(OH)Na(Fe2+)3Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Mon. m : Bm
MaruyamaiteK(MgAl2)(Al5Mg)(BO3)3(Si6O18)(OH)3OTrig. 3m : R3m
Oxy-chromium-draviteNa(Cr)3(Cr4Mg2)(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3O Trig. 3m : R3m
Oxy-draviteNa(MgAl2)MgAl5(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OTrig. 3m : R3m
Oxy-foitite□(Fe2+Al2)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
Oxy-schorlNa(Fe2+2Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OTrig. 3m : R3m
Oxy-vanadium-draviteNa(V)3(V4Mg2)Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)3OTrig. 3m : R3m
SchorlNa(Fe2+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
TsilaisiteNa(Mn2+)3Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
UM2000-64-SiO:BFeHKMgK, Mg, Fe, Si, B, O, H
Unnamed (Pb-dominant Tourmaline)(Pb,Na)(Li,Al)3Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(F,OH)
Uvite SeriesCa(Mg3)MgAl5(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(F/OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
Vanadio-oxy-chromium-draviteNa(V)3(Cr4Mg2)(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3O Trig. 3m : R3m
Vanadio-oxy-draviteNaV3(Al4Mg2)(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OTrig. 3m

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Elbaite2 photos of Rossmanite associated with Elbaite on
Quartz2 photos of Rossmanite associated with Quartz on
Foitite1 photo of Rossmanite associated with Foitite on

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

9.CK.Fluor-schorlNa(Fe2+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3FTrig. 3m : R3m
9.CK.DarrellhenryiteNa(LiAl2)Al6(BO3)3Si6O18(OH)3O Trig. 3m : R3m
9.CK.AdachiiteCaFe3Al6(Si5AlO18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
9.CK.05Fluor-buergeriteNa(Fe3+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3O3FTrig. 3m : R3m
9.CK.05DraviteNa(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
9.CK.05ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
9.CK.05FeruviteCa(Fe2+)3MgAl5(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
9.CK.05Foitite(□,Na)(Fe2+2Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OHTrig. 3m : R3m
9.CK.05LiddicoatiteCa(Li2Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
9.CK.05SchorlNa(Fe2+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
9.CK.05Oxy-vanadium-draviteNa(V)3(V4Mg2)Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)3OTrig. 3m : R3m
9.CK.05Oxy-draviteNa(MgAl2)MgAl5(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OTrig. 3m : R3m
9.CK.05Chromo-alumino-povondraiteNa(Cr3)(Al4Mg2)(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OTrig. 3m : R3m
9.CK.05Fluor-draviteNa(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3FTrig. 3m : R3m
9.CK.05Fluor-uviteCa(Mg3)MgAl5(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3FTrig. 3m : R3m
9.CK.10Abenakiite-(Ce)Na26Ce6(Si6O18)(PO4)6(CO3)6(SO2)OTrig. 3 : R3
9.CK.15ScawtiteCa7(Si3O9)2CO3 · 2H2OMon. 2/m
9.CK.20Steenstrupine-(Ce)Na14Mn2+2(Fe3+,Mn3+)2Ce6(Zr,Th)(Si6O18)2(PO4)6(HPO4)(OH)2 · 2H2OTrig.
9.CK.20Thorosteenstrupine(Ca,Th,Mn)3Si4O11F · 6H2O

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for RossmaniteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Selway, J.B., Novák, M., Hawthorne, F.C., Cerny, P., Ottolini, L., and Kyser, T.K. (1998) Rossmanite, ◻(LiAl2)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)4, a new alkali-deficient tourmaline: Description and crystal structure. American Mineralogist 83, 896–900.
Grew, E.S., and Anovitz, L.M. (1996) BORON: Mineralogy, Petrology and Geochemistry, second edition, as revised (2002).

Internet Links for RossmaniteHide

Localities for RossmaniteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
  • San Luis
    • Coronel Pringles department
      • El Trapiche
        • Las Águilas deposit
Miguel Á. Galliski, María Florencia Márquez-Zavalía, Raúl Lira, Jan Cempírek and Radek Škoda (2012) Mineralogy and Origin of the Dumortierite-Bearing Pegmatites of Virorco, San Luis, Argentina. Canadian Mineralogist 50:873-894.
  • Minas Gerais
    • Conselheiro Pena
Wilson, W E (2012) Famous Mimeral localities: The Jonas Mine, Itatiaia, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Mineralogical Record 43:289-317.
  • British Columbia
    • Revelstoke Mining Division
      • Revelstoke
Dixon, A. (2014, October). Mount Begbie Pegmatite Group, British Columbia, Canada–evolution from Barren to Complex Rare-element Pegmatites. In 2014 GSA Annual Meeting in Vancouver, British Columbia.
  • Manitoba
    • Lac-du-Bonnet area
      • Bernic Lake
Can Min.38:877-891; Selway, J. B.; Cerny, P.; Hawthorne, F. C.; Novak, M. (2000): The Tanco pegmatite at Bernic lake, Manitoba. XIV. Internal tourmaline. Canadian Mineralogist 38, 877-891.
    • Red Cross Lake
Selway JB, Novák M, Cerný P, Hawthorne FC. (2000) Compositional evolution of tourmaline in lepidolite-subtype pegmatites. European Journal of Mineralogy, 11, 569-584.; Černý, O., Teertstra, D.K., Chapman, R., Selway, J.B., Hawthorne, F.C., Ferreira, K., Chackowsky, L.E., Wang, X.J. & and Meintzer, R.E. (2012); Černý, P., Teertstra, D. K., Chapman, R., Selway, J. B., Hawthorne, F. C., Ferreira, K., ... & Meintzer, R. E. (2012). Extreme Fractionation And Deformation Of The Leucogranite–Pegmatite Suite At Red Cross Lake, Manitoba, Canada. Iv. Mineralogy. The Canadian Mineralogist, 50(6), 1839-1875.
  • Xinjiang Autonomous Region
    • Yili Hasake Autonomous Prefecture (Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture)
      • Aletai Prefecture (Altay Prefecture)
        • Fuyun Co. (Koktokay Co.)
          • Koktokay pegmatite field (Keketuohai pegmatite field)
            • Altay Mine
Zhang AC, Wang Ru, Hu H, Chen XM (2004) Occurrences of foitite and rossmanite from the Koktokay No. 3 pegmatite dyke, Altai, Northwestern China: A record of hydrothermal fluids. Canadian Mineralogist, 42, 873-883.
Czech Republic
  • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
    • South Bohemia Region
      • Písek
Historic mineral collection National museum of Czech Republic
  • Moravia (Mähren; Maehren)
    • Vysočina Region
Selway J. B., Novák M., Cerný P., Hawthorne F. C., 1999, Compositional evolution of tourmaline in lepidolite-subtype pegmatites. European Journal of Mineralogy, 11:569-584.
      • Třebíč District
        • Hrotovice
Bull. Minéral. , 1984, 107, pp. 369-384. /
      • Žďár nad Sázavou
        • Rožná pegmatite (Rozna; Roschna)
P. Pauliš (2001): Nejzajímavější naleziště Moravy a Slezska. Kuttna, Kutná Hora.
      • Žďár nad Sázavou District
        • Bystřice nad Pernštejnem
Am. Mineral. (1998) 83, 896–900; Novak, M., & Cerny, P. (2001). Distinctive compositional trends in columbite-tantalite from two segments of the lepidolite pegmatite at Rozna Western Moravia, Czech Republic. Journal of GEOsciences, 46(1-2), 1-8.
        • Křižanov
Novák, M., Staněk, J.: Lepidolitový pegmatit od Dobré Vody u Velkého Meziříčí, západní Morava. Acta Musei Moraviae, Scientiae geologicae, 1999, roč. 84, s. 3 - 44.
  • Saxony
    • Limbach-Oberfrohna
      • Pegmatite occurrences
A. Ertl, U. Kolitsch, H.-P. Meyer, T. Ludwig, C. L. Lengauer, L. Nasdala and E. Tillmanns (2009): Substitution mechanism in tourmalines of the “fluor-elbaite”-rossmanite series from Wolkenburg, Saxony, Germany. N. Jahrb. Mineral. Abh. 185, 51-61.
  • Tuscany
    • Livorno Province
      • Elba Island
        • Campo nell'Elba
          • San Piero in Campo
Barsotti, G., & Nannoni, R. (2006). Rocce, minerali e miniere delle isole dell'Arcipelago Toscano. Pacini editore, 152 pp.
F. Pezzotta, A. Guastoni, C. Aurisicchio (1998) - La rossmanite di Roznà e dell'Elba. - Riv. Mineral. It., 22 2: 46-50.
          • Sant'Ilario in Campo
Riv. Mineral. Ital. 22(2):46-50 (1998)
  • Kyushu Region
    • Fukuoka Prefecture
Yohei Shirose, Seiichiro Uehara (2013) Li tourmaline from Nagatare, Fukuoka Prefecture, Japan. Journal of Mineralogical and Petrological Sciences Vol. 108 (2013) No. 4 August p. 238-243
  • Antananarivo Province
    • Vakinankaratra Region
      • Sahatany Pegmatite Field (Mt Ibity area)
        • Sahatany Valley
Buřival, Z. & Novàk, M. (2015): Hydrothermal replacement of garnet by tourmaline in elbaite subtype LCT pegmatites. In PEG 2015: 7th International Symposium on Granitic Pegmatites. 2015.
  • Tuléar Province (Toliara)
    • Anosy Region (Fort Dauphin Region)
      • Amboasary District
        • Tranomaro Commune Pezzotta, F.(2004): Der Pegmatit von Anjahamiary bei Fort Dauphin, Madagaskar. LAPIS 29 (2): 24-28
  • Zambezia Province
    • Alto Ligonha District
      • Muva
Yellow tourmaline from Muva, Simmons, W.B., Falster A.U. & Laurs, B.M. (2011): A survey of Mn-rich yellow tourmaline from worldwide localities and implications for the petrogenesis of granitic pegmatites. Canadian Mineralogist. 49: 301-319
  • Erongo Region
    • Omaruru District
      • Omaruru
Giller BS (2003) An overview of tourmaline mineralogy from gem tourmaline producing pegmatite districts in Africa. Master of Science Thesis, University of New Orleans, LA.
  • Oyo State
Giller BS (2003) An overview of tourmaline mineralogy from gem tourmaline producing pegmatite districts in Africa. Master of Science Thesis, University of New Orleans, LA.
  • Nordland
    • Meløy
      • Holandsfjord
Kolitsch, U., Andresen, P., Husdal, T. A., Ertl, A., Haugen, A., Ellingsen, H. V. and Larsen, A. O. (2013): Tourmaline-group minerals from Norway, part II: Occurrences of luinaite-(OH) in Tvedalen, Larvik and Porsgrunn, and fluor-liddicoatite, fluor-elbaite and fluor-schorl at Ågskardet, Nordland. Norsk Bergverksmuseet Skrift 50, 23-41.
  • Lower Silesia (Dolnośląskie)
    • Dzierżoniów District
      • Piława Górna (Ober Peilau; Gnadenfrei)
        • DSS Piława Górna Quarry
Pieczka, A., Hawthorne, F.C., Ma, C., Rossman, G.R., Szełęg, E., Szuszkiewicz, A., Turniak, K., Nejbert, K., Ilnicki, S.S., Buffat, P., Rutkowski, B. (2016): Żabińskiite, ideally Ca(Al0.5Ta0.5)(SiO4)O, a new mineral of the titanite group from the Piława Górna pegmatite, the Góry Sowie Block, southwestern Poland, Mineralogical Magazine: 80: (in press
Republic of Congo (Brazzaville)
Simmons W., Falster A. (2004) Gem Tourmaline from Congo. Gems & Gemology 40, 263-265.
  • Far-Eastern Region
    • Primorskiy Kray
  • Urals Region
    • Middle Urals
      • Sverdlovskaya Oblast'
        • Rezh District
          • Lipovka pegmatite field
Memetova L.R., Pekov I.V., Bryzgalov I.A., Kononkova N.N. (2005): Chemistry and zoning of tourmaline from the granitic pegmatites of the Lipovka, Middle Urals, Russia. (Abstract) Materials of 5th International Symposium “Mineralogical Museums”. Saint-Petersburg, Russia, pp. 151-153.; Igor.V. Pekov, Lyudmila R. Memetova (2008) Minerals of the Lipovka Granite Pegmatites, Central Urals, Russia. Mineralogical Almanac 13:6-45
  • Södermanland
    • Haninge
      • Utö
        • Utö Mines
Selway, J. B.; Smeds, S.-A.; Černý, P.; Hawthorne, F. C. (2002): Compositional evolution of tourmaline in the petalite-subtype Nykopingsgruvan pegmatites, Utö, Stockholm Archipelago, Sweden. GFF 124, 93-102
Selway, J. B.; Smeds, S.-A.; Černý, P.; Hawthorne, F. C. (2002): Compositional evolution of tourmaline in the petalite-subtype Nyköpingsgruvan pegmatites, Utö, Stockholm Archipelago, Sweden. GFF 124, 93-102
  • Morogoro Region
Giller BS (2003) An overview of tourmaline mineralogy from gem tourmaline producing pegmatite districts in Africa. Master of Science Thesis, University of New Orleans, LA.
  • England
    • Cornwall
      • St Austell District
        • St Stephen-in-Brannel
          • Whitemoor
Tindle, A.G. (2008) Minerals of Britain and Ireland. Terra Publishing, Hemel Hempstead, Hertfordshire. 624pp.
  • Maine
    • Androscoggin Co.
      • Poland
Pedro-Pablo Gil-Crespo, Uxue Ostaikoetxea, Encarnación Roda-Robles, William Simmons, James Nizamoff (2012): Caracterización por XRD y Espectroscopía NIR de Turmalinas de la Serie Chorlo-Elbaita-Rossmanita de la Pegmatita de Berry-Havey (Maine, USA). Macla 16, p. 222-223.; Roda-Robles, E., Simmons, W., Pesquera, A., Gil-Crespo, P. P., Nizamoff, J., & Torres-Ruiz, J. (2015). Tourmaline as a petrogenetic monitor of the origin and evolution of the Berry-Havey pegmatite (Maine, USA). American Mineralogist, 100(1), 95-109.
    • Oxford Co.
      • Paris
      • Rumford
Dyar MD, Taylor ME, Lutz TM, Francis CA, Guidotti CV, Wise M (1998) Inclusive chemical characterization of tourmaline: Mössbauer study of Fe valence and site occupancy. American Mineralogist 83, 848-864. [samples 45 and 46, labeled olenite, are actually rossmanite].
  • New York
    • Essex Co.
Lupulescu, M. & Rakovan, J. (2008) The 35th Rochester Mineralogical Symposium, Contributed Papers in Specimen Mineralogy, 10.
  • Yenbai Province (Yen Bai Province)
    • Luc Yen
Min Rec 2007 38:453-457
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