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About BotallackiteHide

Mountain-green, bluish green to green; pale bluish green in transmitted light
Specific Gravity:
Crystal System:
Member of:
For the type locality, the Botallack Mine, St. Just, Cornwall.
A secondary copper mineral.

NOTE: May be confused with Kapellasite, which has a similar X-ray powder diffraction pattern. Some botallackites contain minor Zn, but the Zn:Cu ratio never approaches that of kapellasite (1:3).

Classification of BotallackiteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)

D : Oxyhalides, hydroxyhalides and related double halides
A : With Cu, etc., without Pb

1 : A2(O,OH)3Xq

8 : Halides - Fluorides, Chlorides, Bromides and Iodides; also Fluoborates and Fluosilicates
2 : Halides of Cu

Pronounciation of BotallackiteHide

PlayRecorded byCountry
Jolyon & Katya RalphUnited Kingdom

Physical Properties of BotallackiteHide

Transparent, Translucent
Mountain-green, bluish green to green; pale bluish green in transmitted light
In one direction perpendicular to Z axis
3.6 g/cm3 (Measured)    3.6 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of BotallackiteHide

Biaxial (+)
RI values:
nα = 1.775 nβ = 1.800 nγ = 1.846
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.071
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Very High
r > v, strong
in shades of bluish green

Chemical Properties of BotallackiteHide

IMA Formula:

Crystallography of BotallackiteHide

Crystal System:
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:
Cell Parameters:
a = 5.717 Å, b = 6.126 Å, c = 5.636 Å
β = 93.07°
a:b:c = 0.933 : 1 : 0.92
Unit Cell V:
197.10 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Elongate tabular indistinct crystals; also blocky-prismatic crystals.
Krause (2006) gives a 5.7155(5), b 6.1255(6), c 5.6336(4) A, beta 93.090(8)°.

Crystal StructureHide

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IDSpeciesReferenceLinkYearLocalityPressure (GPa)Temp (K)
0014479BotallackiteHawthorne F C (1985) Refinement of the crystal structure of botallackite Mineralogical Magazine 49 87-891985Botallack mine, Cornwall, England0293
0019937BotallackiteZheng X G, Mori T, Nishiyama K, Higemoto W, Yamada H, Nishikubo K, Xu C N (2005) Antiferromagnetic transitions in polymorphous minerals of the natural cuprates atacamite and botallackite Cu2Cl(OH)3 Physical Review B - Condensed Matter 71 174404-82005synthetic0293
CIF Raw Data - click here to close

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Powder Diffraction Data:
5.66 Å(10)
2.84 Å(4)
2.68 Å(3)
2.57 Å(7)
2.40 Å(8)
1.93 Å(3)
1.53 Å(4)
Recorded on material from the Botallack Mine, Cornwall, England

Geological EnvironmentHide

Geological Setting:
In copper-bearing deposits, in areas with high chloride concentrations or weathered while exposed to sea water; a reaction product of slags immersed in sea water; a weathering product of sulphides in subsea black smoker deposits.

Type Occurrence of BotallackiteHide

General Appearance of Type Material:
Crusts of minute platy interlaced crystals.
Place of Conservation of Type Material:
The Natural History Museum, London, England (No. 36528)
Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA (No. 100805)
Geological Setting of Type Material:
In a copper deposit, in areas weathered while exposed to sea water.
Associated Minerals at Type Locality:

Other Language Names for BotallackiteHide

Simplified Chinese:羟氯铜矿
Traditional Chinese:羥氯銅礦

Varieties of BotallackiteHide

BrombotallackiteArtificial bromine analogue of Botallackite

Relationship of Botallackite to other SpeciesHide

Member of:
Other Members of this group:
AtacamiteCu2(OH)3ClOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
ClinoatacamiteCu2(OH)3ClMon. 2/m
GillarditeCu3Ni(OH)6Cl2Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
HaydeeiteCu3Mg(OH)6Cl2Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1
HerbertsmithiteCu3Zn(OH)6Cl2Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
IyoiteMnCuCl(OH)3Mon. 2/m : P21/m
KapellasiteCu3Zn(OH)6Cl2Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1
KempiteMn2+2(OH)3ClOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
LeverettiteCu3Co(OH)6Cl2Trig. 3 : R3
MisakiiteCu3Mn(OH)6Cl2Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1
ParatacamiteCu3(Cu,Zn)(OH)6Cl2Trig. 3m (3 2/m)
Paratacamite-(Mg)Cu3(Mg,Cu)(OH)6Cl2Trig. 3 : R3
Paratacamite-(Ni)Cu3(Ni,Cu)(OH)6Cl2Trig. 3 : R3
TondiiteCu3Mg(OH)6Cl2Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
Unnamed (Cu-Zn Chloride Hydroxide)CuZnCl(OH)3Mon. 2/m : P21/m

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
11 photos of Botallackite associated with AtacamiteCu2(OH)3Cl
9 photos of Botallackite associated with ParatacamiteCu3(Cu,Zn)(OH)6Cl2
6 photos of Botallackite associated with GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
5 photos of Botallackite associated with ConnelliteCu19(SO4)(OH)32Cl4 · 3H2O
3 photos of Botallackite associated with CalciteCaCO3
2 photos of Botallackite associated with LaurionitePbCl(OH)
2 photos of Botallackite associated with ParalaurionitePbCl(OH)
1 photo of Botallackite associated with DiaboleitePb2CuCl2(OH)4
1 photo of Botallackite associated with LinaritePbCu(SO4)(OH)2
1 photo of Botallackite associated with QuartzSiO2

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

3.DA.CentennialiteCaCu3Cl2(OH)6 · nH2O (n ~ 0.7)Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1
3.DA.10aAtacamiteCu2(OH)3ClOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
3.DA.10bClinoatacamiteCu2(OH)3ClMon. 2/m
3.DA.10aKempiteMn2+2(OH)3ClOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
3.DA.10cParatacamiteCu3(Cu,Zn)(OH)6Cl2Trig. 3m (3 2/m)
3.DA.10bBelloiteCu(OH)ClMon. 2/m : P21/b
3.DA.10cHerbertsmithiteCu3Zn(OH)6Cl2Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
3.DA.10cKapellasiteCu3Zn(OH)6Cl2Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1
3.DA.10cGillarditeCu3Ni(OH)6Cl2Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
3.DA.10cHaydeeiteCu3Mg(OH)6Cl2Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1
3.DA.15ClaringbulliteCu4ClF(OH)6Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
3.DA.15BarlowiteCu4BrF(OH)6Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
3.DA.20SimonkolleiteZn5Cl2(OH)8 · H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1
3.DA.25ButtgenbachiteCu19(NO3)2(OH)32Cl4 · 2H2OHex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
3.DA.25ConnelliteCu19(SO4)(OH)32Cl4 · 3H2OHex. 6 m2 : P62c
3.DA.40AnthonyiteCu(OH,Cl)2 · 3H2OMon. 2/m
3.DA.40CalumetiteCaCu4(OH)8Cl2 · 3.5H2OOrth.
3.DA.45KhaidarkaniteNa0.34Cu4Al3(OH)14F3 · 2H2OMon.
3.DA.50BobkingiteCu5Cl2(OH)8 · 2H2OMon. 2/m : B2/m
3.DA.55AvdoniniteK2Cu5(OH)4Cl8 · H2OMon. 2/m
3.DA.60DroninoiteNi6Fe2+3(OH)16Cl2 · 4H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

8.2.1NantokiteCuClIso. 4 3m : F4 3m
8.2.3EriochalciteCuCl2 · 2H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
8.2.4AtacamiteCu2(OH)3ClOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
8.2.5ParatacamiteCu3(Cu,Zn)(OH)6Cl2Trig. 3m (3 2/m)
8.2.8CalumetiteCaCu4(OH)8Cl2 · 3.5H2OOrth.
8.2.9AnthonyiteCu(OH,Cl)2 · 3H2OMon. 2/m
8.2.10ClaringbulliteCu4ClF(OH)6Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
8.2.11MarshiteCuIIso. 4 3m : F4 3m
8.2.12MitscherlichiteK2CuCl4 · 2H2OTet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m)

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for BotallackiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Church (1865) Journal of the Chemical Society, London: 18: 212.
Maskelyne (1865) Royal Society of London Proceedings: 14: 399.
Zepharovich (1873) Konigliche Akademie der Wissenschaften, Vienna, Sitzber.: 68: 130.
Frondel, C. (1950) Mineralogical Magazine: 29: 34.
(1951) American Mineralogist: 36: 384.
Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: Halides, Nitrates, Borates, Carbonates, Sulfates, Phosphates, Arsenates, Tungstates, Molybdates, Etc. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 76-77.
Frondel, C. (1965): On paratacamite and some related copper chlorides. Mineralogical Magazine: 29: 34-35.
Hawthorne, F.C. (1985) Refinement of the crystal structure of botallackite. Mineralogical Magazine: 49: 87-89.
Pollard, A.M., Thomas, R.G., Williams, P.A. (1989) Synthesis and stabilities of the basic copper(II) chlorides atacamite, paratacamite and botallackite. Mineralogical Magazine: 53: 557-563.
Anthony, J. W. et al. (1997) Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3, 73.
Krause, W. (2006) X-ray powder diffraction data for botallackite. Powder Diffraction: 21: 59-62.
Krivovichev, S.V., Hawthorne, F.C., Williams, P.A. (2017): Structural complexity and crystallization: the Ostwald sequence of phases in the Cu2(OH)3Cl system (botallackite–atacamite–clinoatacamite). Struct. Chem. 28, 153-159.

Internet Links for BotallackiteHide

Localities for BotallackiteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Atlantic Ocean
  • Mid-Atlantic Ridge complex
Anthony, J. W. et al. (1997): Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3, 73
  • Tasmania
    • Circular Head municipality
      • Balfour-Temma district
        • Temma
Bottrill, R.S., Baker, W.E. (2008) A Catalogue of the Minerals of Tasmania. Geological Survey Tasmania Bulletin 73, 254 pages.
  • Tyrol
    • Kufstein District
      • Brixlegg
Schnorrer, G. & Poeverlein, R. (2008): Schwaz-Brixlegger Fundstellen. 6. Die Minerale des Gratlspitz bei Brixlegg in Tirol. Aufschluss 59, 7-28.
  • Newfoundland and Labrador
    • Newfoundland
      • Baie Verte Peninsula
        • Tilt Cove
Norman Wilson Personal Collection
  • Nova Scotia
    • Colchester Co.
      • Five Islands
Ronnie Van Dommelen Collection
  • Antofagasta
    • Tocopilla Province
      • Gatico District
maurizio Dini & Arturo Molina collctions- analysed by EDX & PDF (by dr. Jochen Scluter)
  • Brittany
    • Finistère
      • Châteaulin
        • Crozon
Chauris, L. (2014): Minéraux de Bretagne, Les Editions du Piat, 89.
        • Poullaouen
P Le Roch collection
  • Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur
    • Var
      • Le Pradet
  • Bavaria
    • Upper Franconia
      • Wunsiedel im Fichtelgebirge
        • Weißenstadt
          • Rudolfstein
Meier, S. & Dünkel, B. (2010): Das Zinn- und Uranbergwerk am Rudolfstein bei Weißenstadt, Fichtelgebirge. Lapis 35 (2), 29-37; 54.
  • Hesse
    • Kassel Region
      • Hersfeld-Rotenburg
        • Nentershausen
          • Süß
            • Richelsdorf Smelter
S. Weiß: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
      • Werra-Meißner
        • Sontra
          • Hessen smelter (Sontra smelter)
Schnorrer-Köhler, G. (1988) Mineralogische Notizen IV. Der Aufschluss, 39, 153-168.
  • Lower Saxony
    • Goslar District
      • Langelsheim
        • Astfeld
van den Berg, W. & van Loon, C. (1990): Slag Minerals from the Rammelsberg, Harz Mountains, Germany. UK Journal of Mines & Minerals, 8, 18-23.
  • North Rhine-Westphalia
    • Arnsberg
      • Märkischer Kreis
        • Iserlohn
          • Letmathe
Bender, D. and Krimmelbein, W. (1994) Aktuelle Übersicht: Mineralien der Zinkhütte Genna/Sauerland. Stand Juni 1994. Mineralien-Welt, 4/94, 10.
  • Saxony-Anhalt
    • Mansfeld-Südharz
  • Attica
    • East Attica
      • Lavreotiki
        • Lavrion Mining District
          • Km 3
            • Kaminiza mines
No reference listed
          • Sounion
            • Cato Sounio mines
J. Gröbner und U. Kolitsch (2002): Neufunde von Laurion aus den Jahren 2001 und 2002. Aufschluss 53 (5-6), 363-371.
Schnorrer-Köhler, G., Standfuss, K. & Standfuss, L. (1982a): Connellit, Botallackit, Paratacamit und Leadhillit in den antiken Bleischlacken Laurions. Der Aufschluss 33, 3-6.
  • Munster
    • Cork County
      • Castletown-Bearhaven Copper Mines
        • Allihies
[R.Tayler Minerals catalogue 70 p.2]. Moreton, S. & Aspen, P. (1993) J. Russell Soc., 5(1), 31-2. Braithwaite, R.S.W. & Wilson, J.I. (2001) J. Russell Soc., 7(2), 96.
      • Mizen Peninsula
        • Schull
          • Coosheen
Dr Richard Unitt collection
    • Waterford County
      • Bonmahon (Bunmahon)
        • Knockmahon
Braithwaite, R.S.W. & Wilson, J.I. (2001) J. Russell Soc., 7(2), p.96.
Isle of Man
  • Rushen
    • Malew
      • Langness
Adam Stephens Collection
  • Liguria
    • Genoa
      • Genoa
        • Varenna Valley
Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 2 (Avril/Juin), 175-188.
  • Tuscany
    • Livorno Province
      • Piombino
Muenchener Micromounter-Lithothek
  • Fukui Prefecture
    • Obama City
Okamoto, Yasushi; Ito, Tsuyoshi; Inaba, Sachio; Minakawa, Testsuo (1993): Botallackite from Uchitomi Mine, Fukui Prefecture. Chigaku Kenkyu 42, 130-134.
  • Karaganda Region
Evseev, A. A. (1995) Kazaknstan and Middle Asia. A brief Mineralogical Guide. World of Stone 8:24-30
  • Lower Silesian Voivodeship
    • Polkowice County
      • Gmina Polkowice
Łukasz Kruszewski PXRD & EPMA data (2019) (coll. Mateusz Świerk, Rafał Siuda, Jarosław Skupniewski)
South Africa
  • Mpumalanga
    • Nkangala District
      • Delmas
Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
  • England
    • Cornwall
      • Padstow
        • Gunver Head
Goley, P. and Williams R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications
      • Penzance
        • Newlyn
Paul De Bondt collection
      • Perranzabuloe
        • Perranporth
Michael Merry, collected 2007
UKJMM Vol.29 p.5
          • Perran St George and Droskyn Mines
Paul De Bondt collection
      • St Agnes
Richard De Nul specimens; Goley, P. and Williams R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications
      • St Just
        • Botallack
          • Botallack Mine
Reid, C., Flett, J.S., Wilkinson, B.S.N., Dixon, E.E.L., Pollard, W., and MacAlister, D.A. (1907): The Geology of the Land's End District. HMSO Publications (London), p. 102.
J.Chem.Soc. London (1865) ser. 2, vol. 3, 212-214
Steve Rust collection
          • Cliff outcrops
Golley, P. & Williams, R. (1995): Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications (Truro), 104 pp.
Journal of the Russell Society, 6(1), 17-26 (1995)
Golley, P. & Williams, R. (1995): Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications (Truro), 104 pp.
        • Pendeen
Peter Haas; Goley, P. and Williams R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications
        • Trewellard
Anthony, J. W. et al. (1997): Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3, 73; Goley, P. and Williams R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications
Tindle, A.G. (2008) Minerals of Britian and Ireland
    • Argyll and Bute
      • Lochgilphead
[J.Russell Soc. 1998:38]
    • Dumfries and Galloway
Braithwaite, R.S.W. and Knight, J.R. (1990) Rare Minerals, Including Several New to Britain, in Supergene Alteration of U-Cu-As-Bi-Co Mineralisation Near Dalbeattie, South Scotland. Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 54, n° 374: 129-131.
Anthony, J. W. et al. (1997): Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3, 73
      • Needle's Eye
BMS Database
  • Wales
    • Ceredigion
      • Ceulanymaesmawr
        • Talybont
          • Nant-y-Moch Reservoir area
NHM London, and Steve Rust Collection
    • Gwynedd
      • Llanengan
        • Abersoch
Dossett, I. & Green, D.I., 1998. Atacamite, botallackite and cumengeite from Abersoch, Gwynedd, Wales. Journal of the Russell Society 7(1), 37-38.
    • Neath Port Talbot
David Evans specimen
Dave Evans collection
  • Arizona
    • Cochise County
      • Bisbee
        • Hendricks Gulch
Graeme, R. (1993) Bisbee revisited. The Mineralogical Record: 24: 421-436.
Rob Bowell, lab tested
    • Maricopa Co.
      • Osborn Mining District
        • Tonopah
          • Belmont Mountain
Analyzed by the University of Arizona.
  • Michigan
    • Keweenaw Co.
      • Allouez
        • Allouez Mine
Tom Rosemeyer collection
  • New York
    • St. Lawrence Co.
      • Balmat-Edwards Zinc Mining District
No reference listed
  • Oklahoma
    • Jackson Co.
      • Creta
Rocks & Min. vol. 72 (1997)
  • Washington
    • Pierce Co.
      • Tacoma
        • Ruston
Washington Geology, vol.25, no. 3, September 1997.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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