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Botallackite

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Formula:
Cu2(OH)3Cl
Colour:
Mountain-green, bluish green to green; pale bluish green in transmitted light
Specific Gravity:
3.6
Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Member of:
Name:
For the type locality, the Botallack Mine, St. Just, Cornwall.
A secondary copper mineral.

NOTE: May be confused with Kapellasite, which has a similar X-ray powder diffraction pattern. Some botallackites contain minor Zn, but the Zn:Cu ratio never approaches that of kapellasite (1:3).


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Classification of BotallackiteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
3.DA.10b

3 : HALIDES
D : Oxyhalides, hydroxyhalides and related double halides
A : With Cu, etc., without Pb
10.1.3.1

10 : OXYHALIDES AND HYDROXYHALIDES
1 : A2(O,OH)3Xq
8.2.6

8 : Halides - Fluorides, Chlorides, Bromides and Iodides; also Fluoborates and Fluosilicates
2 : Halides of Cu

Pronounciation of BotallackiteHide

Pronounciation:
PlayRecorded byCountry
Jolyon & Katya RalphUnited Kingdom

Physical Properties of BotallackiteHide

Transparency:
Transparent, Translucent
Colour:
Mountain-green, bluish green to green; pale bluish green in transmitted light
Comment:
Soft
Cleavage:
Distinct/Good
In one direction perpendicular to Z axis
Density:
3.6 g/cm3 (Measured)    3.6 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of BotallackiteHide

Type:
Biaxial (+)
RI values:
nα = 1.775 nβ = 1.800 nγ = 1.846
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.071
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Very High
Dispersion:
r > v, strong
Pleochroism:
Weak
Comments:
in shades of bluish green

Chemical Properties of BotallackiteHide

Formula:
Cu2(OH)3Cl
IMA Formula:
Cu2Cl(OH)3

Crystallography of BotallackiteHide

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:
P21/m
Cell Parameters:
a = 5.717 Å, b = 6.126 Å, c = 5.636 Å
β = 93.07°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.933 : 1 : 0.92
Unit Cell V:
197.10 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
2
Morphology:
Elongate tabular indistinct crystals; also blocky-prismatic crystals.
Comment:
Krause (2006) gives a 5.7155(5), b 6.1255(6), c 5.6336(4) A, beta 93.090(8)°.

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
5.66 (10)
2.84 (4)
2.68 (3)
2.57 (7)
2.40 (8)
1.93 (3)
1.53 (4)
Comments:
Recorded on material from the Botallack Mine, Cornwall, England

Type Occurrence of BotallackiteHide

General Appearance of Type Material:
Crusts of minute platy interlaced crystals.
Place of Conservation of Type Material:
The Natural History Museum, London, England (No. 36528)
Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA (No. 100805)
Geological Setting of Type Material:
In a copper deposit, in areas weathered while exposed to sea water.
Associated Minerals at Type Locality:

Other Language Names for BotallackiteHide

Simplified Chinese:羟氯铜矿
Spanish:Botallackita
Traditional Chinese:羥氯銅礦

Varieties of BotallackiteHide

BrombotallackiteArtificial bromine analogue of Botallackite

Relationship of Botallackite to other SpeciesHide

Member of:
Other Members of this group:
AtacamiteCu2(OH)3ClOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
ClinoatacamiteCu2(OH)3ClMon. 2/m
GillarditeCu3Ni(OH)6Cl2Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
HaydeeiteCu3Mg(OH)6Cl2Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1
HerbertsmithiteCu3Zn(OH)6Cl2Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
IyoiteMnCuCl(OH)3Mon. 2/m : P21/m
KapellasiteCu3Zn(OH)6Cl2Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1
LeverettiteCu3Co(OH)6Cl2Trig. 3 : R3
MisakiiteCu3Mn(OH)6Cl2Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1
ParatacamiteCu3(Cu,Zn)(OH)6Cl2Trig. 3m (3 2/m)
Paratacamite-(Mg)Cu3(Mg,Cu)(OH)6Cl2Trig. 3 : R3
Paratacamite-(Ni)Cu3(Ni,Cu)(OH)6Cl2Trig. 3 : R3
TondiiteCu3Mg(OH)6Cl2Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
Unnamed (Cu-Zn Chloride Hydroxide)CuZnCl(OH)3Mon. 2/m : P21/m

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Atacamite11 photos of Botallackite associated with Atacamite on mindat.org.
Paratacamite9 photos of Botallackite associated with Paratacamite on mindat.org.
Gypsum6 photos of Botallackite associated with Gypsum on mindat.org.
Connellite5 photos of Botallackite associated with Connellite on mindat.org.
Calcite3 photos of Botallackite associated with Calcite on mindat.org.
Laurionite2 photos of Botallackite associated with Laurionite on mindat.org.
Paralaurionite2 photos of Botallackite associated with Paralaurionite on mindat.org.
Diaboleite1 photo of Botallackite associated with Diaboleite on mindat.org.
Linarite1 photo of Botallackite associated with Linarite on mindat.org.
Quartz1 photo of Botallackite associated with Quartz on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

3.DA.05MelanothalliteCu2Cl2OOrth.
3.DA.10aAtacamiteCu2(OH)3ClOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
3.DA.10bClinoatacamiteCu2(OH)3ClMon. 2/m
3.DA.10aHibbingiteFe2+2(OH)3ClOrth.
3.DA.10aKempiteMn2+2(OH)3ClOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
3.DA.10cParatacamiteCu3(Cu,Zn)(OH)6Cl2Trig. 3m (3 2/m)
3.DA.10bBelloiteCu(OH)ClMon. 2/m : P21/b
3.DA.10cHerbertsmithiteCu3Zn(OH)6Cl2Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
3.DA.10cKapellasiteCu3Zn(OH)6Cl2Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1
3.DA.10cGillarditeCu3Ni(OH)6Cl2Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
3.DA.10cHaydeeiteCu3Mg(OH)6Cl2Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1
3.DA.15ClaringbulliteCu4ClF(OH)6Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
3.DA.15BarlowiteCu4BrF(OH)6Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
3.DA.20SimonkolleiteZn5Cl2(OH)8 · H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1
3.DA.25ButtgenbachiteCu19(NO3)2(OH)32Cl4 · 2H2OHex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
3.DA.25ConnelliteCu19(SO4)(OH)32Cl4 · 3H2OHex. 6 m2 : P62c
3.DA.30AbhuriteSn21Cl16(OH)14O6Trig.
3.DA.35PonomareviteK4Cu4Cl10OMon.
3.DA.40AnthonyiteCu(OH,Cl)2 · 3H2OMon. 2/m
3.DA.40CalumetiteCu(OH,Cl)2 · 2H2OOrth.
3.DA.45KhaidarkaniteNa0.34Cu4Al3(OH)14F3 · 2H2OMon.
3.DA.50BobkingiteCu5Cl2(OH)8 · 2H2OMon. 2/m : B2/m
3.DA.55AvdoniniteK2Cu5(OH)4Cl8 · H2OMon. 2/m
3.DA.60DroninoiteNi6Fe2+3(OH)16Cl2 · 4H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

8.2.1NantokiteCuClIso. 4 3m : F4 3m
8.2.2TolbachiteCuCl2Mon.
8.2.3EriochalciteCuCl2 · 2H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
8.2.4AtacamiteCu2(OH)3ClOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
8.2.5ParatacamiteCu3(Cu,Zn)(OH)6Cl2Trig. 3m (3 2/m)
8.2.7MelanothalliteCu2Cl2OOrth.
8.2.8CalumetiteCu(OH,Cl)2 · 2H2OOrth.
8.2.9AnthonyiteCu(OH,Cl)2 · 3H2OMon. 2/m
8.2.10ClaringbulliteCu4ClF(OH)6Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
8.2.11MarshiteCuIIso. 4 3m : F4 3m
8.2.12MitscherlichiteK2CuCl4 · 2H2OTet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m)
8.2.13PonomareviteK4Cu4Cl10OMon.

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for BotallackiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Church (1865) Journal of the Chemical Society, London: 18: 212.
Maskelyne (1865) Royal Society of London Proceedings: 14: 399.
Zepharovich (1873) Konigliche Akademie der Wissenschaften, Vienna, Sitzber.: 68: 130.
Frondel, C. (1950) Mineralogical Magazine: 29: 34.
(1951) American Mineralogist: 36: 384.
Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: Halides, Nitrates, Borates, Carbonates, Sulfates, Phosphates, Arsenates, Tungstates, Molybdates, Etc. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 76-77.
Frondel, C. (1965): On paratacamite and some related copper chlorides. Mineralogical Magazine: 29: 34-35.
Hawthorne, F.C. (1985) Refinement of the crystal structure of botallackite. Mineralogical Magazine: 49: 87-89.
Pollard, A.M., Thomas, R.G., Williams, P.A. (1989) Synthesis and stabilities of the basic copper(II) chlorides atacamite, paratacamite and botallackite. Mineralogical Magazine: 53: 557-563.
Anthony, J. W. et al. (1997) Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3, 73.
Krause, W. (2006) X-ray powder diffraction data for botallackite. Powder Diffraction: 21: 59-62.
Krivovichev, S.V., Hawthorne, F.C., Williams, P.A. (2017): Structural complexity and crystallization: the Ostwald sequence of phases in the Cu2(OH)3Cl system (botallackite–atacamite–clinoatacamite). Struct. Chem. 28, 153-159.

Internet Links for BotallackiteHide

Localities for BotallackiteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Atlantic Ocean
 
  • Mid-Atlantic Ridge complex
Anthony, J. W. et al. (1997): Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3, 73
Australia
 
  • Tasmania
    • Circular Head municipality
      • Balfour-Temma district
        • Temma
Bottrill & Baker (in prep) Catalogue of minerals of Tasmania
Austria
 
  • Tyrol
    • North Tyrol
      • Inn valley
        • Brixlegg - Schwaz area
          • Brixlegg - Rattenberg
Schnorrer, G. & Poeverlein, R. (2008): Schwaz-Brixlegger Fundstellen. 6. Die Minerale des Gratlspitz bei Brixlegg in Tirol. Aufschluss 59, 7-28.
Canada
 
  • Nova Scotia
    • Colchester Co.
      • Five Islands
Ronnie Van Dommelen Collection
Chile
 
  • Antofagasta Region
    • Tocopilla Province
      • Gatico District
maurizio Dini & Arturo Molina collctions- analysed by EDX & PDF (by dr. Jochen Scluter)
France
 
  • Brittany
    • Finistère
      • Crozon Peninsula
        • Telgruc-sur-Mer
Chauris, L. (2014): Minéraux de Bretagne, Les Editions du Piat, 89.
      • Poullaouen
P Le Roch collection
  • Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur
    • Var
      • Le Pradet
http://www.mine-capgaronne.fr/site/Mineraux/ListeMineraux.html
Germany
 
  • Bavaria
    • Franconia
      • Fichtelgebirge
        • Weißenstadt
          • Rudolfstein
Meier, S. & Dünkel, B. (2010): Das Zinn- und Uranbergwerk am Rudolfstein bei Weißenstadt, Fichtelgebirge. Lapis 35 (2), 29-37; 54.
  • Hesse
    • Richelsdorf District
      • Nentershausen
        • Süß
          • Richelsdorf Smelter
S. Weiß: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
  • Lower Saxony
    • Harz
      • Goslar
        • Astfeld
van den Berg, W. & van Loon, C. (1990): Slag Minerals from the Rammelsberg, Harz Mountains, Germany. UK Journal of Mines & Minerals, 8, 18-23.
  • North Rhine-Westphalia
    • Sauerland
      • Iserlohn
        • Letmathe
Bender/Marl, D. & Krimmelbein/Altena, W. (1994) Aktuelle Übersicht: Mineralien der Zinkhütte Genna/Sauerland. Stand Juni 1994. Mineralien-Welt, 4/94, 10.
  • Saxony-Anhalt
    • Mansfeld Basin
Greece
 
  • Attikí Prefecture (Attica; Attika)
    • Lavrion District (Laurion; Laurium)
      • Lavrion District Mines
        • Lavrion (Laurion; Laurium)
No reference listed
        • Sounion area
          • Sounion Mines
J. Gröbner und U. Kolitsch (2002): Neufunde von Laurion aus den Jahren 2001 und 2002. Aufschluss 53 (5-6), 363-371.
Schnorrer-Köhler, G., Standfuss, K. & Standfuss, L. (1982a): Connellit, Botallackit, Paratacamit und Leadhillit in den antiken Bleischlacken Laurions. Der Aufschluss 33, 3-6.
Ireland
 
  • Co. Cork
    • Beara Peninsula
      • Castletown-Bearhaven Copper Mines
        • Allihies
[R.Tayler Minerals catalogue 70 p.2]. Moreton, S. & Aspen, P. (1993) J. Russell Soc., 5(1), 31-2. Braithwaite, R.S.W. & Wilson, J.I. (2001) J. Russell Soc., 7(2), 96.
    • Mizen Peninsula
      • Schull
        • Coosheen
Dr Richard Unitt collection
  • Co. Waterford
    • Bonmahon (Bunmahon)
      • Knockmahon
Braithwaite, R.S.W. & Wilson, J.I. (2001) J. Russell Soc., 7(2), p.96.
Isle of Man
 
  • Langness
Adam Stephens Collection
Italy
 
  • Liguria
    • Genova Province
      • Genova
        • Varenna Valley
Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 2 (Avril/Juin), 175-188.
  • Tuscany
    • Livorno Province
      • Piombino
Muenchener Micromounter-Lithothek
Japan
 
  • Honshu Island
    • Chubu Region
      • Fukui Prefecture
        • Obama City
Okamoto, Yasushi; Ito, Tsuyoshi; Inaba, Sachio; Minakawa, Testsuo (1993): Botallackite from Uchitomi Mine, Fukui Prefecture. Chigaku Kenkyu 42, 130-134.
Kazakhstan
 
  • Karagandy Province (Qaragandy Oblysy; Karaganda Oblast')
    • Chu-Sarysu basin
      • Dzhezkazgan (Zhezqazghan)
Evseev, A. A. (1995) Kazaknstan and Middle Asia. A brief Mineralogical Guide. World of Stone 8:24-30
South Africa
 
  • Mpumalanga Province
    • Nkangala District
      • Delmas
Minerals of South Africa
UK
 
  • England
    • Cornwall
      • Mount's Bay District
        • Penzance
          • Newlyn
Paul De Bondt collection
      • St Agnes District
        • Perranzabuloe
          • Perranporth
Michael Merry, collected 2007
UKJMM Vol.29 p.5
            • Perran St George and Droskyn Mines
Paul De Bondt collection
        • St Agnes
Richard De Nul specimens; Goley, P. and Williams R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications
      • St Just
        • Botallack
          • Botallack Mine
Reid, C., Flett, J.S., Wilkinson, B.S.N., Dixon, E.E.L., Pollard, W., and MacAlister, D.A. (1907): The Geology of the Land's End District. HMSO Publications (London), p. 102.
J.Chem.Soc. London (1865) ser. 2, vol. 3, 212-214
Steve Rust collection
          • Cliff outcrops
Golley, P. & Williams, R. (1995): Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications (Truro), 104 pp.
Journal of the Russell Society, 6(1), 17-26 (1995)
Golley, P. & Williams, R. (1995): Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications (Truro), 104 pp.
        • Pendeen
Peter Haas; Goley, P. and Williams R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications
        • Trewellard
Anthony, J. W. et al. (1997): Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3, 73; Goley, P. and Williams R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications
      • Wadebridge District
        • Padstow
          • Gunver Head
Goley, P. and Williams R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications
Tindle, A.G. (2008) Minerals of Britian and Ireland
    • Dumfries & Galloway
Braithwaite, R.S.W. and Knight, J.R. (1990) Rare Minerals, Including Several New to Britain, in Supergene Alteration of U-Cu-As-Bi-Co Mineralisation Near Dalbeattie, South Scotland. Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 54, n° 374: 129-131.
Anthony, J. W. et al. (1997): Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3, 73
      • Needle's Eye
BMS Database
    • Strathclyde
      • Lochgilphead
[J.Russell Soc. 1998:38]
  • Wales
    • Ceredigion
      • Ceulanymaesmawr
        • Talybont
          • Nant-y-Moch Reservoir area
NHM London, and Steve Rust Collection
    • Gwynedd
      • Lleyn Peninsula
        • Llanengan
          • Abersoch
Dossett, I. & Green, D.I., 1998. Atacamite, botallackite and cumengeite from Abersoch, Gwynedd, Wales. Journal of the Russell Society 7(1), 37-38.
    • Neath-Port Talbot
David Evans specimen
Dave Evans collection
USA
 
  • Arizona
    • Cochise Co.
      • Mule Mts
        • Warren District
          • Bisbee
Graeme, R. (1993), Bisbee revisited, Min.Rec.: 24: 421-436.
      • Tombstone Hills
        • Tombstone District
Rob Bowell, lab tested
    • Maricopa Co.
      • Big Horn Mts
        • Osborn District
          • Tonopah
            • Belmont Mountain
Analyzed by the University of Arizona.
  • New York
    • St. Lawrence Co.
      • Balmat-Edwards Zinc District
No reference listed
  • Oklahoma
    • Jackson Co.
      • Creta
Rocks & Min. vol. 72 (1997)
  • Washington
    • Pierce Co.
      • Tacoma
        • Ruston
Washington Geology, vol.25, no. 3, September 1997.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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