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Botryogen

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Formula:
MgFe3+(SO4)2(OH) · 7H2O
Colour:
Light to dark orange-red; pale to dark orange
Lustre:
Vitreous
Hardness:
2 - 2½
Specific Gravity:
2.14
Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Name:
From the Greek βότρυς = "bunch of grapes" and γεννάν = "to bear", in allusion to the appearance of the original botryoidal and stalactitic masses found at Falun, Sweden.
Chemically similar to magnesiocopiapite, mountkeithite, and slavíkite.

Decomposes in hot water.

Crystal structure details (Majzlan et al., 2016): (1) 2 Fe sites; (2) Fe(SO4)2(OH)(H2O)2 chains cross-linked by Mgϕ6 polyhedra (ϕ - unspecified ligand); (3) three transformer water groups with [3]O and two non-transformer with [4]O.


Hide all sections | Show all sections

Classification of BotryogenHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
7.DC.25

7 : SULFATES (selenates, tellurates, chromates, molybdates, wolframates)
D : Sulfates (selenates, etc.) with additional anions, with H2O
C : With only medium-sized cations; chains of edge-sharing octahedra
31.9.6.1

31 : HYDRATED SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
9 : (AB)(XO4)Zq·xH2O
25.11.19

25 : Sulphates
11 : Sulphates of Fe and other metals

Physical Properties of BotryogenHide

Vitreous
Transparency:
Transparent, Translucent
Colour:
Light to dark orange-red; pale to dark orange
Streak:
Ocher-yellow
Hardness:
2 - 2½ on Mohs scale
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Perfect
On {010}, perfect; on {110}, good.
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven, Conchoidal
Density:
2.14 g/cm3 (Measured)    2.23 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of BotryogenHide

Type:
Biaxial (+)
RI values:
nα = 1.522 nβ = 1.529 nγ = 1.577
2V:
Measured: 41° , Calculated: 44°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.055
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Low
Dispersion:
none
Pleochroism:
Visible
Comments:
X = b = Colourless to light brown
Y = Cinnamon-brown
Z ^c +12° = Golden yellow

Chemical Properties of BotryogenHide

Formula:
MgFe3+(SO4)2(OH) · 7H2O
Common Impurities:
Zn,Mn

Crystallography of BotryogenHide

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Cell Parameters:
a = 10.47 - 10.51 Å, b = 17.83 - 17.85 Å, c = 7.11 - 7.14 Å
β = 100o00' - 100o
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.587 : 1 : 0.399
Unit Cell V:
1,307.13 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Morphology:
Crystals prismatic [001]; smaller crystals commonly long prismatic; large crystals short prismatic with {101} large and often striated [100]. The vertical zone is striated [001]. Reniform, botryoidal, or globular aggregates with a radiating structure and crystalline surfaces.
Comment:
Space group setting is P21/n

Type Occurrence of BotryogenHide

Synonyms of BotryogenHide

Other Language Names for BotryogenHide

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Copiapite33 photos of Botryogen associated with Copiapite on mindat.org.
Halotrichite23 photos of Botryogen associated with Halotrichite on mindat.org.
Parabutlerite18 photos of Botryogen associated with Parabutlerite on mindat.org.
Butlerite6 photos of Botryogen associated with Butlerite on mindat.org.
Pickeringite5 photos of Botryogen associated with Pickeringite on mindat.org.
Halotrichite-Pickeringite Series5 photos of Botryogen associated with Halotrichite-Pickeringite Series on mindat.org.
Selenite2 photos of Botryogen associated with Selenite on mindat.org.
Redingtonite1 photo of Botryogen associated with Redingtonite on mindat.org.
Natroalunite-2c1 photo of Botryogen associated with Natroalunite-2c on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

7.DC.05AluminiteAl2(SO4)(OH)4 · 7H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
7.DC.05Meta-aluminiteAl2(SO4)(OH)4 · 5H2O
7.DC.10ButleriteFe3+(SO4)(OH) · 2H2OMon. 2/m : P21/m
7.DC.10ParabutleriteFe3+(SO4)(OH) · 2H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
7.DC.15FibroferriteFe3+(SO4)(OH) · 5H2OMon.
7.DC.20XitieshaniteFe3+(SO4)Cl · 6H2OMon.
7.DC.25Zincobotryogen(Zn,Mg,Mn2+)Fe3+(SO4)2(OH) · 7H2OMon. 2/m
7.DC.30ChaidamuiteZnFe3+(SO4)2(OH) · 4H2OTric. 1 : P1
7.DC.30GuilditeCuFe3+(SO4)2(OH) · 4H2OMon.

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

31.9.6.2Zincobotryogen(Zn,Mg,Mn2+)Fe3+(SO4)2(OH) · 7H2OMon. 2/m
31.9.6.3XitieshaniteFe3+(SO4)Cl · 6H2OMon.

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

25.11.1NatrojarositeNaFe3(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m : R3m
25.11.2SideronatriteNa2Fe(SO4)2(OH) · 3H2OOrth. 2 2 2 : P21 21 21
25.11.3MetasideronatriteNa2Fe(SO4)2(OH) · H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
25.11.4FerrinatriteNa3Fe(SO4)3 · 3H2OTrig. 3 : P3
25.11.5AmarilliteNaFe(SO4)2 · 6H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
25.11.6YavapaiiteKFe(SO4)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
25.11.7KrausiteKFe(SO4)2 · H2OMon. 2/m : P21/m
25.11.8GoldichiteKFe(SO4)2 · 4H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
25.11.9JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
25.11.10VoltaiteK2Fe2+5Fe3+3Al(SO4)12 · 18H2OIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3c
25.11.11UngemachiteK3Na8Fe(SO4)6(NO3)2 · 6H2OTrig. 3 : R3
25.11.12MetavoltineNa6K2FeFe6(SO4)12O2 · 18H2OTrig.
25.11.13Sabieite(NH4)Fe3+(SO4)2Trig. 3 2 : P3 2 1
25.11.14Ammoniojarosite(NH4)Fe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m : R3m
25.11.15Clairite(NH4)2Fe3(SO4)4(OH)3 · 3H2OTric.
25.11.16Mohrite(NH4)2Fe(SO4)2 · 6H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
25.11.17Lonecreekite(NH4)Fe3+(SO4)2 · 12H2OIso.
25.11.18Godovikovite(NH4)Al(SO4)2Trig. 3 2 : P3 2 1
25.11.21Slavíkite(H3O+)3Mg6Fe15(SO4)21(OH)18 · 98H2OTrig. 3 : R3
25.11.23SturmaniteCa6(Fe3+,Al,Mn3+)2(SO4)2[B(OH)4](OH)12 · 25H2OTrig. 3m : P3 1c
25.11.24Millosevichite(Al,Fe)2(SO4)3Tric.
25.11.25AluminocopiapiteAl2/3Fe3+4(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2OTric. 1 : P1
25.11.26HalotrichiteFeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2OMon. 2 : P2
25.11.27Idrizite(Mg,Fe)(Al,Fe)2(SO4)3(OH)2 · 15H2O or near
25.11.28LishizheniteZnFe2(SO4)4 · 14H2OTric. 1 : P1
25.11.29ZincovoltaiteK2Zn5Fe3+3Al(SO4)12 · 18H2OIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3c

Other InformationHide

Notes:
Partially soluble in boiling water, rendering an ocherous residue. Soluble in HCl.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for BotryogenHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Berzelius (1815) Afhandlingar I Fysik, Kemi och Mineralogi, Stockholm: 4: 307 (as Rother Eisen-Vitriol).
Haidinger (1828) Annalen der Physik, Halle, Leipzig: 12: 491.
Beudant, F.S. (1832), Trailé élémentaire de Minéralogie, second edition, 2 volumes: 2: 483 (as Neoplase).
Cleve (1862) Upsala University Åarskrift: 22.
Blaas (1883) Konigliche Akademie der Wissenschaften, Vienna, Sitzber.: 87: 161.
Hockauf (1886) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 12: 251.
Darapsky (1890) Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Heidelberg, Stuttgart: I: 65 (as Rubrite).
Frenzel (1890) Mineralogische und petrographische Mitteilungen, Vienna: 11: 217 (as Quetenite).
Darapsky (1898) Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Heidelberg, Stuttgart: I: 163 (as Kubeite).
Eakle (1903) University of california Department of Geology Bull.: 3: 231 (as Palacheite).
Bandy (1938) American Mineralogist: 23: 749. [as Kubeite]
Palache, C., Berman, H., Frondel, C. (1951) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 617-618.
Acta Crystallographica: 24B: 760-767.
Anthony, J.W., Bideaux, R.A., Bladh, K.W. and Nichols, M.C., Eds. (2016) Handbook of Mineralogy, Mineralogical Society of America, Chantilly, VA 20151-1110, USA. http://www.handbookofmineralogy.org/
Majzlan, J., Plášil, J., Dachs, E., Benisek, A., Koch, C.B. (2016) Crystal chemistry, Mössbauer spectroscopy, and thermodynamic properties of botryogen. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie - Abhandlungen: 193 (in press); http://forum.amiminerals.it/viewtopic.php?f=5&t=12428 (2016)

Internet Links for BotryogenHide

Localities for BotryogenHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Argentina
 
  • San Juan
    • Calingasta Department
      • Calingasta
        • Quebrada Alcaparrosa
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 480, 609, 618, 1014.
Australia
 
  • Queensland
    • Mount Isa City Shire
[MinRec 19:478]
Sielecki, R. (1988) The Mount Isa-Cloncurry mineral field. Mineralogical Record, Vol. 19, pg. 469-490.
Austria
 
  • Tyrol
    • East Tyrol
      • Puster valley
        • Sillian
R. Exel: Die Mineralien und Erzlagerstätten Österreichs (1993)
Chile
 
  • Antofagasta Region
    • Antofagasta Province
      • Sierra Gorda District
Rob Lavinky samples; analysed by XRD methods in USA
    • El Loa Province
      • Calama
        • Cerritos Bayos
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 618.; Kampf, A.R.; Mills, S.J.; Housley, R.M.; Williams, P.A.; Dini, M. (2012): Alcaparrosaite, K3Ti4+Fe3+(SO4)4O(H2O)2, a new hydrophobic Ti4+ sulfate from Alcaparrosa, Chile. Mineralogical Magazine 76, 851-861.
        • Chuquicamata District
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 618; Mineralogical Record: 9: 329.
          • Toki Cu deposit (Toki Cluster)
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 618; Mineralogical Record: 14: 356.
  • Arica and Parinacota Region
    • Arica Province
      • Los Camarones
Kampf, A. R., Mills, S. J., Nash, B. P., Housley, R. M., Rossman, G. R., Dini, M. and Gatta G.D. (2013): Camaronesite, [Fe3+(H2O)2(PO3OH)]2(SO4)•1–2H2O, a new phosphate-sulfate from the Camarones Valley, Chile, structurally related to taranakite. Mineralogical Magazine 77, 453-465.
Kampf, A. R., Mills, S. J., Nash, B. P., Housley, R. M., Rossman, G. R., Dini, M. and Gatta G.D. (2013): Camaronesite, [Fe3+(H2O)2(PO3OH)]2(SO4)•1–2H2O, a new phosphate-sulfate from the Camarones Valley, Chile, structurally related to taranakite. Mineralogical Magazine 77, 453-465.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 618.
  • Tarapacá Region
    • El Tamarugal Province
      • Pampa del Tamarugal
Peter G. Seroka collection
China
 
  • Gansu Province
    • Baiyin Prefecture
      • Baiyin District
        • Baiyinchang ore field
          • Baiyinchang Cu deposit
Bingbin Yang (1979): Geology and Prospecting 15(2), 54-58
Bingbin Yang (1979): Geology and Prospecting 15(2), 54-58
  • Qinghai Province
    • Haixi Autonomous Prefecture
      • Da Qaidam Co. (Dachaidan Co.)
        • Xitieshan
Qingtong Ye (1983): Acta Geologica Sinica 57(4)
France
 
  • Grand Est
    • Bas-Rhin
      • Villé Valley
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 618.
Germany
 
  • Lower Saxony
    • Harz
      • Goslar
        • Rammelsberg
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 618.
  • Thuringia
    • Gera
      • Ronneburg U deposit
T. Witzke & F. Rüger: Lapis 1998(7/8), 26-64
Hungary
 
  • Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén Co.
    • Rudabányai Mts
      • Rudabánya
Sánoor Szakáll, Mária Foldvári, Gábor Papp, Péter Kovács-pálffy, Árpád Kovács (1997) Secondary Sulphate Minerals From Hungary. Acta Mineralogica-petrographica, Szeged, Xxxviii, Supplementum, 7-63.
  • Heves Co.
    • Mátra Mts
      • Gyöngyösoroszi
Own found,2005
  • Nógrád Co.
    • Cserhát Mts
Geoda - Journal of the Hungarian Friends of Minerals, 2007 august.
Iran
 
  • Hormozgan Province
    • Bandar-Abbas County
      • Bandar Abbas (Bandar-e Abbas)
        • Haji Abad town
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 618.
Italy
 
  • Liguria
    • Genova Province
      • Sestri Levante
Antofilli M., Borgo E., Palenzona A. (1983): I Nostri Minerali. Geologia e Mineralogia in Liguria. Sagep, Ed., Genova, 295 pp. ; Handbook of Mineralogy
  • Piedmont
    • Torino Province
      • Lanzo Valleys
        • Grande Valley
          • Chialamberto
Girolami, C. (2006). I minerali delle Valli di Lanzo. Stampato in proprio.
  • Tuscany
    • Grosseto Province
      • Massa Marittima
Brizzi G., Capperi M., Masotti A. - La miniera di pirite di Niccioleta, Massa Marittima (GR) - Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, Milano, Fasc. 4 (1989) e Fasc. 1 - 2(1990)
    • Livorno Province
      • Elba Island
        • Porto Azzurro
G. D'Achiardi, 1910 - Pickeringite (picroallumogene) dell'Isola d'Elba - Atti Soc. Tosc. Sc. Nat., P.V., 19, 23-25.
Japan
 
  • Shikoku Island
    • Ehime prefecture
Minakawa and Noto (1994) Chigaku Kenkyu, 43, 175-179.
Jordan
 
  • Jerash
Dill, H. G., Kus, J., Abed, A. M., Sachsenhofer, R. F., & Abul Khair, H. (2009). Diagenetic and epigenetic alteration of Cretaceous to Paleogene organic-rich sedimentary successions in northwestern Jordan, typical of the western margin of the Arabian Plate. GeoArabia, 14(2), 101-140.
Slovakia
 
  • Košice Region
    • Gelnica Co.
Duda, Rejl, Slivka: "Mineralien", 1991
Spain
 
  • Andalusia
    • Huelva
      • Minas de Riotinto
        • Rio Tinto Mines (Riotinto Mines)
Calvo, M. et al.(1999). Bocamina (4), 50-86
Sweden
 
  • Dalarna
Ann. Phys. Chem. (Pogg.) (1828): 12: 491; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 618, 625; Clark (1993) - "Hey's Mineral Index".
Ukraine
 
  • Crimea Oblast'
    • Crimea peninsula
      • Balaklava area
Dobrovolskaya T.I., Polkanov Y.A. The Paleovolcano Fiolent. Giude (2004) - Simferopol, 2004, 19 p. (in Russ.) Oleg V. Zinchenko at al. (2008).The mineralogy of seasonal sulfates in the cape Fiolent - Zapiski Ukrainskogo Mineralogichnogo Tovaristva (Proceeding Ukrainian Mineralogical Society), 2008, #5, p. 75-83 (in Ukr.)
USA
 
  • Arizona
    • Cochise Co.
      • Mule Mts
        • Warren District
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd. ed.:69
azminerals.com
    • Mohave Co.
      • Hualapai (Hualpai) Mts
        • Hualapai District
          • Arrastra Mt.
  • California
    • Inyo Co.
      • Coso Mts (Coso Range)
        • Coso District (New Coso District)
          • Coso Hot Springs
Hasenmueller, E. A., & Bish, D. L. (2005, March). The hydration and dehydration of hydrous ferric iron sulfates. In 36th Annual Lunar and Planetary Science Conference (Vol. 36).
    • Merced Co.
      • Diablo Range
        • Stayton District (McLeod District; Panoche District)
          • Antimony Peak
Min.Rec.: 20:427-434.
    • Napa Co.
      • Knoxville District
        • Knoxville
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 618; Eakle, Arthur Starr (1903a), Palacheite: University of California, Department of Geological Science Bulletin: 3: 231; Eakle, Arthur Starr (1903b), Note on the identity of palacheite and botryogen: American Journal of Science, 4th. Series: 16: 379-380; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 275.
      • Mayacmas Mts (Mayacamas Mts)
        • Calistoga District (Silverado District)
          • Calistoga
            • The Palisades [range]
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, 7th. edition, Volume II: 618; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 275.
    • San Bernardino Co.
      • Calico Mts (Calico Hills)
        • Calico District (Daggett District; Calico-Daggett area)
          • Calico
Moller, W.P. (1963) Sulfur Hole. Mineralogist: 31, part 1, N. 3: 12-16; part 2, No. 4: 14-15; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 275; Joseph F. Cooper, Jr., Gail E. Dunning, Ted A. Hadley, and William P. Moller (2001) The Sulfur Hole, Calico District, San Bernardino County, California
  • Nevada
    • Nye Co.
      • Hot Creek Range
        • Morey District
          • Morey Mine
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
  • Ohio
    • Franklin Co.
      • Columbus
Van King
Ernest H. Carlson. Jerret Whitford. "Occurrence And Mineralogy Of Efflorescence In Late Devonian Black Shales, North-Central Ohio." 2002 GSA Meeting: Web: http://gsa.confex.com/gsa/2002AM/finalprogram/abstract_44706.htm
    • Huron Co.
      • Monroeville
        • West Branch Huron River
http://gsa.confex.com/gsa/2002AM/finalprogram/abstract_44706.htm
    • Meigs Co.
      • Langsville
Minerals of Ohio Bull. 69 ODNR
  • Pennsylvania
    • Lebanon Co.
      • Cornwall Borough (Cornwall)
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 618.
  • Tennessee
    • Sevier Co.
      • Great Smoky Mountains National Park
Coskren, T. D. & Lauf, R. J. (2000): The Minerals of Alum Cave Bluff, Great Smoky Mountains, Tennessee. Mineralogical Record, 31, 163-175.; Rocks & Min. (2007) 82:235
Mineral and/or Locality  
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