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Wiluite

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About WiluiteHide

Formula:
Ca19MgAl4(Al,Mg)8(B,☐)4☐[Si2O7]4[(SiO4)10]O(O,OH)9
The formula is a partial simplification of the full structural formula. The large (VII-IX)-coordinated (X4)2(X3)8(X2)8(X1) sites are here combined (e.g. Ca19) and are typically filled with Ca, although other large cations such as the REE may be present. The square-pyramidal Y1 site can host a variety of M2+ and M3+ ions and is the basis for the distinction of several species. The VI-coordinated Y2 site typically is filled with Al, whereas the also VI-coordinated Y3 site may contain Al, Mg, and other cations of similar charge and size. The tetrahedral T1 site is typically vacant but may contain B (less commonly Al); the trigonal T2 site is also typically vacant but may also contain B. Some of the (SiO4) may be replaced by (H4O4), akin to the Si4+ ↔︎ 4H+ hydrogarnet substitution. Among the oxygen that are not part of the silica tetrahedra, there are eight "O11" that typically occur as OH, two "O10" that are typically O & OH or OH & OH (the latter arrangement notably when Y1 is an M2+ cation). There may also be up to three "O12" that in most vesuvianite-group minerals are absent (and are not included here), but may be present particularly when T1 is occupied.

With increased filling of the T2 site by B, various charge balance mechanisms involving either increased O for OH in the "O11" position and/or increased M2+ for M3+ substitution in the Y3 site are necessary (see idealized formula for full T2 occupancy by B). In lieu of an explicitly defined "end-member" wiluite, more generic representations of site fillings are retained here, pending newer data.
Colour:
Dark green
Lustre:
Vitreous
Hardness:
6
Crystal System:
Tetragonal
Name:
Named after the discovery locality, Wilui River region, Saha Republic (Yakutia), Russia.

Classification of WiluiteHide

Approved
Approval Year:
1997
9.BG.35

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
B : Sorosilicates
G : Sorosilicates with mixed SiO4 and Si2O7 groups; cations in octahedral [6] and greater coordination

Physical Properties of WiluiteHide

Vitreous
Transparency:
Transparent, Translucent
Colour:
Dark green
Streak:
Colourless
Hardness:
Cleavage:
Poor/Indistinct
Poor cleavage on {100}.
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven

Optical Data of WiluiteHide

Type:
Uniaxial (+)
RI values:
nω = 1.721 nε = 1.725
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.004
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
High

Chemical Properties of WiluiteHide

Formula:
Ca19MgAl4(Al,Mg)8(B,☐)4☐[Si2O7]4[(SiO4)10]O(O,OH)9

The formula is a partial simplification of the full structural formula. The large (VII-IX)-coordinated (X4)2(X3)8(X2)8(X1) sites are here combined (e.g. Ca19) and are typically filled with Ca, although other large cations such as the REE may be present. The square-pyramidal Y1 site can host a variety of M2+ and M3+ ions and is the basis for the distinction of several species. The VI-coordinated Y2 site typically is filled with Al, whereas the also VI-coordinated Y3 site may contain Al, Mg, and other cations of similar charge and size. The tetrahedral T1 site is typically vacant but may contain B (less commonly Al); the trigonal T2 site is also typically vacant but may also contain B. Some of the (SiO4) may be replaced by (H4O4), akin to the Si4+ ↔︎ 4H+ hydrogarnet substitution. Among the oxygen that are not part of the silica tetrahedra, there are eight "O11" that typically occur as OH, two "O10" that are typically O & OH or OH & OH (the latter arrangement notably when Y1 is an M2+ cation). There may also be up to three "O12" that in most vesuvianite-group minerals are absent (and are not included here), but may be present particularly when T1 is occupied.

With increased filling of the T2 site by B, various charge balance mechanisms involving either increased O for OH in the "O11" position and/or increased M2+ for M3+ substitution in the Y3 site are necessary (see idealized formula for full T2 occupancy by B). In lieu of an explicitly defined "end-member" wiluite, more generic representations of site fillings are retained here, pending newer data.
IMA Formula:
Ca19(Al,Mg)13(B,◻,Al)5(SiO4)10(Si2O7)4(O,OH)10
Idealised Formula:
Ca19MgAl4(Al4Mg4)(B4)☐[Si2O7]4[(SiO4)10]O(O)9

Crystallography of WiluiteHide

Crystal System:
Tetragonal
Class (H-M):
4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) - Ditetragonal Dipyramidal
Space Group:
P4/nnc
Cell Parameters:
a = 15.716 Å, c = 11.704 Å
Ratio:
a:c = 1 : 0.745
Unit Cell V:
2,890.80 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Comment:
Wiluite from Ariccia, Latium, Italy

Type Occurrence of WiluiteHide

Synonyms of WiluiteHide

Other Language Names for WiluiteHide

German:Wiluit
Simplified Chinese:硼符山石
Spanish:Wiluita

Relationship of Wiluite to other SpeciesHide

Other Members of this group:
AlumovesuvianiteCa19AlAl4(Al6Mg2)(☐4)☐[Si2O7]4[(SiO4)10]O(OH)9Tet. 4/m : P4/n
CyprineCa19Cu2+Al4(Al6Mg2)(☐4)☐[Si2O7]4[(SiO4)10](OH)(OH)9Tet. 4/m : P4/n
FluorvesuvianiteCa19Fe3+Al4(Al6Mg2)(☐4)☐[Si2O7]4[(SiO4)10]O(F,OH)9Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m)
HongheiteCa19Fe2+Al4(Fe3+,Mg)8(☐4)B[Si2O7]4[(SiO4)10]O(OH,O)9Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P4/nnc
MagnesiovesuvianiteCa19MgAl4(Al6Mg2)(☐4)☐[Si2O7]4[(SiO4)10](OH)(OH)9Tet. 4/m : P4/n
Manaevite-(Ce)(Ca13Ce4[H2O]2)Mg(Al3Mg)(Mg3Ti3Fe3+2)(☐4)☐[Si2O7]4[(SiO4)8(H4O4)2]O(OH)9Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P4/nnc
ManganvesuvianiteCa19Mn3+Al4(Al6Mg2)(☐4)☐[Si2O7]4[(SiO4)10]O(OH)9Tet. 4/m : P4/n
Milanriederite(Ca18[REE])Fe3+Al4(Mg4Al4)(☐4)☐[Si2O7]4[(SiO4)10](OH)(OH)9Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P4/nnc
VesuvianiteCa19Fe3+Al4(Al6Mg2)(☐4)☐[Si2O7]4[(SiO4)10]O(OH)9Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P4/nnc

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
9 photos of Wiluite associated with GrossularCa3Al2(SiO4)3
5 photos of Wiluite associated with Achtaragdite

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

9.BG.MagnesiovesuvianiteCa19MgAl4(Al6Mg2)(☐4)☐[Si2O7]4[(SiO4)10](OH)(OH)9Tet. 4/m : P4/n
9.BG.AlumovesuvianiteCa19AlAl4(Al6Mg2)(☐4)☐[Si2O7]4[(SiO4)10]O(OH)9Tet. 4/m : P4/n
9.BG.05bAllanite-(Ce){CaCe}{Al2Fe2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)Mon. 2/m : P21/m
9.BG.05bAllanite-(La){CaLa}{Al2Fe2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)Mon. 2/m : P21/m
9.BG.05bAllanite-(Y){CaY}{Al2Fe2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)Mon.
9.BG.05aClinozoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)Mon. 2/m : P21/m
9.BG.05bDissakisite-(Ce){CaCe}{Al2Mg}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)Mon. 2/m : P21/m
9.BG.05Dollaseite-(Ce){CaCe}{MgAlMg}(Si2O7)(SiO4)(OH)FMon. 2/m : P21/m
9.BG.05aEpidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)Mon. 2/m : P21/m
9.BG.05aHancockite{CaPb}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)Mon.
9.BG.05Khristovite-(Ce){CaCe}{MgAlMn2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)(OH)FMon. 2/m : P21/m
9.BG.05aMukhinite{Ca2}{Al2V3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)Mon.
9.BG.05aPiemontite{Ca2}{Al2Mn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)Mon. 2/m : P21/m
9.BG.05Piemontite-(Sr){CaSr}{Al2Mn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)Mon.
9.BG.05bManganiandrosite-(La){Mn2+La}{Mn3+AlMn2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)Mon.
9.BG.05Tawmawite{Ca2}{(Al,Fe3+,Cr)3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
9.BG.05Tweddillite{CaSr}{Mn3+AlMn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)Mon. 2/m : P21/m
9.BG.05bFerriallanite-(Ce){CaCe}{Fe3+AlFe2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)Mon. 2/m : P21/m
9.BG.05Niigataite{CaSr}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)Mon. 2/m
9.BG.05Manganiandrosite-(Ce){Mn2+Ce}{Mn3+AlMn2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)Mon. 2/m : P21/m
9.BG.05Dissakisite-(La){CaLa}{Al2Mg}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)Mon. 2/m : P21/m
9.BG.05Vanadoandrosite-(Ce){Mn2+Ce}{V3+AlMn2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)Mon. 2/m : P21/m
9.BG.05Uedaite-(Ce){Mn2+Ce}{Al2Fe2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)Mon. 2/m : P21/m
9.BG.05aEpidote-(Sr){CaSr}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)Mon. 2/m : P21/m
9.BG.05bAllanite-(Nd){CaNd}{Al2Fe2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)Mon. 2/m : P21/m
9.BG.05bFerriallanite-(La){CaLa}{Fe3+AlFe2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)Mon. 2/m : P21/m
9.BG.05bÅskagenite-(Nd){Mn2+Nd}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O2Mon. 2/m : P21/m
9.BG.9.BG.Ferriakasakaite-(La){CaLa}{Fe3+AlMn2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)Mon. 2/m : P21/m
9.BG.9.BG.Ferriandrosite-(Ce){Mn2+REE}{Fe3+AlMn2+}(SiO4)(Si2O7)O(OH)
9.BG.9.BGFerriperbøeite-(Ce)(CaCe3)(Fe3+Al2Fe2+)(Si2O7)(SiO4)3O(OH)2Mon. 2/m : P21/m
9.BG.10ZoisiteCa2Al3[Si2O7][SiO4]O(OH)Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
9.BG.15MacfalliteCa2Mn3+3(SiO4)(Si2O7)(OH)3Mon.
9.BG.15SursassiteMn2+2Al3(SiO4)(Si2O7)(OH)3Mon. 2/m : P21/m
9.BG.20Julgoldite-(Fe2+)Ca2Fe2+Fe3+2(Si2O7)(SiO4)(OH)2 · H2OMon.
9.BG.20OkhotskiteCa2Mn3+Mn3+2(Si2O7)(SiO4)(OH)2 · H2OMon.
9.BG.20Pumpellyite-(Fe2+)Ca2Fe2+Al2(Si2O7)(SiO4)(OH)2 · H2OMon.
9.BG.20Pumpellyite-(Fe3+)Ca2Fe3+Al2(Si2O7)(SiO4)([OH]O) · H2OMon.
9.BG.20Pumpellyite-(Mg)Ca2MgAl2(Si2O7)(SiO4)(OH)2 · H2OMon.
9.BG.20Pumpellyite-(Mn2+)Ca2Mn2+Al2(Si2O7)(SiO4)(OH)2 · H2OMon.
9.BG.20ShuiskiteCa2MgCr3+2(Si2O7)(SiO4)(OH)2 · H2OMon.
9.BG.20Julgoldite-(Fe3+)Ca2Fe3+Fe3+2(Si2O7)(SiO4)([OH]O) · H2OMon.
9.BG.20Pumpellyite-(Al)Ca2AlAl2(Si2O7)(SiO4)([OH]O) · H2OMon.
9.BG.20PoppiiteCa2V3+V3+2(Si2O7)(SiO4)([OH]O) · H2OMon. 2/m : B2/m
9.BG.20Julgoldite-(Mg)Ca2MgFe3+2(Si2O7)(SiO4)(OH)2 · H2OMon.
9.BG.25GanomalitePb9Ca5Mn(Si2O7)4(SiO4)OHex.
9.BG.30RustumiteCa10(Si2O7)2(SiO4)(OH)2Cl2Mon.
9.BG.35VesuvianiteCa19Fe3+Al4(Al6Mg2)(☐4)☐[Si2O7]4[(SiO4)10]O(OH)9Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P4/nnc
9.BG.35ManganvesuvianiteCa19Mn3+Al4(Al6Mg2)(☐4)☐[Si2O7]4[(SiO4)10]O(OH)9Tet. 4/m : P4/n
9.BG.35FluorvesuvianiteCa19Fe3+Al4(Al6Mg2)(☐4)☐[Si2O7]4[(SiO4)10]O(F,OH)9Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m)
9.BG.35CyprineCa19Cu2+Al4(Al6Mg2)(☐4)☐[Si2O7]4[(SiO4)10](OH)(OH)9Tet. 4/m : P4/n
9.BG.40Vyuntspakhkite-(Y)(Y,Yb)4Al2.5-1.5(Si,Al)1.5-2.5(SiO4)4O(OH)7Mon.
9.BG.45DellaiteCa6Si3O11(OH)2Tric.
9.BG.50Gatelite-(Ce)CaCe3Al2(Al,Mg)(Mg,Fe2+,Al)(Si2O7)(SiO4)3(O,F)(OH,O)2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
9.BG.55Västmanlandite-(Ce)Ce3CaMg2Al2Si2O15(OH)2FMon. 2/m : P21/m

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for WiluiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
KLAPROTH, M.H. (1797): Untersuchung des Vesuvians, Vesuvian aus Sibirien, Beiträge zur chemischen Kenntniss der Mineralkörper, Zweiter Band, Rottmann Berlin, 33-38
GROAT, L.A., HAWTHORNE, F.C. & ERCIT, T.S. (1994) The incorporation of boron into the vesuvianite structure.Canadian Mineralogist, 32, 505-523.
GREW, E.S., & ANOVITZ, L.M. (1996): BORON: Mineralogy, Petrology and Geochemistry, second edition, as revised (2002).
GROAT, L.A., HAWTHORNE, F.C., ERCIT, T.S., and GRICE, J.D. (1998): Wiluite, Ca19(Al,Mg,Fe,Ti)13(B,Al,◻)5Si18O68(O,OH)10, a new mineral species isostructural with vesuvianite, from the Sakha Republic, Russian Federation. Canadian Mineralogist 36, 1301-1304.
Bellatreccia, F., Cámara, F, Ottolini, L., Della Ventura, G., Cibin, G., and Mottana, A. (2005): Wiluite from Ariccia, Latium, Italy: Occurrence and Crystal Structure. Canadian Mineralogist: 43: 1457-1468.
Panikorovskii, T.L., Mazur, A.S., Bazai, A.V., Shilovskikh, V.V., Galuskin, E.V., Chukanov, N.V., Rusakov, V.S., Zhukov, Yu.M., Avdontseva, E.Yu., Aksenov, S.M., Krivovichev, S.V. (2017): X-ray diffraction and spectroscopic study of wiluite: implications for the vesuvianite-group nomenclature. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals, 44, 577–593.

Internet Links for WiluiteHide

Localities for WiluiteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Canada
 
  • Québec
    • Outaouais
      • Gatineau TE
GROAT, L.A., HAWTHORNE, F.C. & ERCIT, T.S. (1994) The incorporation of boron into the vesuvianite structure.Canadian Mineralogist, 32, 505-523. GROAT, L.A., HAWTHORNE, F.C., ERCIT, T.S., and GRICE, J.D. (1998): Wiluite, Ca19(Al,Mg,Fe,Ti)13(B,Al,◻)5Si18O68(O,OH)10, a new mineral species isostructural with vesuvianite, from the Sakha Republic, Russian Federation. Canadian Mineralogist 36, 1301-1304.
China
 
  • Yunnan
    • Honghe
      • Gejiu City
        • Gejiu Sn-polymetallic ore field
Chengdian Pen (1986): Mineral Deposits 5(3), 37-48
Czech Republic
 
  • Vysočina Region
    • Žďár nad Sázavou District
      • Bystřice nad Pernštejnem
Groat, L. A., Evans, R. J., Cempírek, J., McCammon, C., & Houzar, S. (2013). Fe-rich and As-bearing vesuvianite and wiluite from Kozlov, Czech Republic. American Mineralogist, 98(7), 1330-1337.
Italy
 
  • Lazio
    • Metropolitan City of Rome Capital
Caponera, I., Fiori, S., Pucci, R., & Signoretti, E. (2007). I minerali dei Colli Albani. Un aggiornamento sugli ultimi dieci anni di ricerche. Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 31 (2), 74-91.
      • Ariccia
Bellatreccia, F., Camara, F., Ottolini, L., Della Ventura, G., Cibin, G., Mottana, A., (2005): Wiluite from Ariccia, Latium, Italy..., Canadian Mineralogist Vol. 43, 1457-1468
Russia (TL)
 
  • Sakha Republic (Yakutia)
    • Mirninsky District
[Canadian Mineralogist(1998) 36, 1301-1304; MinRec 31:206]; Gałuskina, I.O., Gałuskin, E.V., Lazic, B., Armbruster, T., Dzierżanowski, P., Prusik, K., Wrzalik, R. (2010): Eringaite, Ca3Sc2(SiO4)3, a new mineral of the garnet group. Mineralogical Magazine, 74, 365-373.
Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow; Evseev, A. A. (1973) Siberia's Crystals and Symmetry in the Distribution of Occurences of Minerals. World of Stone 1:11-20
USA
 
  • California
    • Tulare Co.
      • Washapie Mountain
AmMin 84:1466 (1999)
 
Mineral and/or Locality  
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