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Lead grey
2½ - 3
Specific Gravity:
Crystal System:
Named in 1837 by Moritz Christian Julius Thaulow in honor of Charles Louis Boulanger (1810-1849), a French mining engineer. Boulanger first analyzed his namesake species calling it "plomb antimonie sulfure" in 1835. He also translated Leopold von Buch's famous book, "Description physique des Iles Canaries, suivie dʾune indication des principaux volcans du globe", which was a contributing factor in the decline of the Wernerian or Neptunian theory of the origin of the Earth.
Easily confused with jamesonite.
Homeotype of lopatkaite.
May occur in intergrowths with jamesonite and meneghinite.

Boulangerite has an OD structure with the following MDO polytypes (Ventruti et al., 2012):
- MDO1 with space group P121/a1 and unit-cell parameters a1 ≈ 21.61, b1 ≈ 23.54, c1 ≈ 8.05 Å, β1 ≈ 100.7°
- MDO2 with space group P21/n11 and unit-cell parameters a2 ≈ 21.24, b2 ≈ 23.54, c2 ≈ 8.05 Å, α2 ≈ 90°

There are interconnected SbS3 groups in the structure as, e.g., in jamesonite, robinsonite, and zinkenite.

See also falkmanite.

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Classification of BoulangeriteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)

2 : SULFIDES and SULFOSALTS (sulfides, selenides, tellurides; arsenides, antimonides, bismuthides; sulfarsenites, sulfantimonites, sulfbismuthites, etc.)
H : Sulfosalts of SnS archetype
C : With only Pb

5 : 2.5 < ø < 3

5 : Sulphosalts - Sulpharsenites and Sulphobismuthites (those containing Sn, Ge,or V are in Section 6)
6 : Sulpharsenites etc. of Pb alone

Physical Properties of BoulangeriteHide

sometimes silky
Lead grey
2½ - 3 on Mohs scale
Distinct on {100}
Flexible in thin crystals
6.2 g/cm3 (Measured)    6.21 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of BoulangeriteHide


Chemical Properties of BoulangeriteHide

Common Impurities:

Crystallography of BoulangeriteHide

Crystal System:
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:
Cell Parameters:
a = 21.56 Å, b = 23.51 Å, c = 8.09 Å
β = 100.8°
a:b:c = 0.917 : 1 : 0.344
Unit Cell V:
4,027.99 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Needle-like crystals, rarely rings, fibrous, compact masses.
Strong subcell is orthorhombic, with halved c.

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

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Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
Powder Diffraction Data:
3.910 (23)
3.725 (100)
3.216 (41)
3.023 (32)
3.009 (21)
2.823 (42)
2.812 (31)

Type Occurrence of BoulangeriteHide

Synonyms of BoulangeriteHide

Other Language Names for BoulangeriteHide

Varieties of BoulangeriteHide

Cuprian BoulangeriteCuprian variety of Boulangerite.
Originally reported from Transbaikalia (Zabaykalye), Eastern-Siberian Region, Russia.

Compare meneghinite which may occur in intimate intergrowths with boulangerite.

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Calcite186 photos of Boulangerite associated with Calcite on
Quartz173 photos of Boulangerite associated with Quartz on
Siderite61 photos of Boulangerite associated with Siderite on
Dolomite45 photos of Boulangerite associated with Dolomite on
Fluorite44 photos of Boulangerite associated with Fluorite on
Sphalerite42 photos of Boulangerite associated with Sphalerite on
Galena34 photos of Boulangerite associated with Galena on
Chalcopyrite33 photos of Boulangerite associated with Chalcopyrite on
Pyrite29 photos of Boulangerite associated with Pyrite on
Stibnite29 photos of Boulangerite associated with Stibnite on

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

2.HC.05bArgentobaumhaueriteAg1.5Pb22As33.5S72Tric. 1 : P1
2.HC.05bBaumhaueritePb12As16S36Tric. 1 : P1
2.HC.05eChabournéiteTl4Pb2(Sb,As)20S34Tric. 1 : P1
2.HC.05dDufrénoysitePb2As2S5Mon. 2 : P21
2.HC.05aGuettarditePbAsSbS4Mon. 2/m : P21/b
2.HC.05fParapierrotiteTlSb5S8Mon. m
2.HC.05fPierrotiteTl2(Sb,As)10S16Orth. mm2 : Pna21
2.HC.05dRathiteAg2Pb12-xTlx/2As18+x/2S40Mon. 2/m : P21/b
2.HC.05aSartoritePbAs2S4Mon. 2/m : P21/m
2.HC.05aTwinnite Pb0.8Tl0.1Sb1.3As0.8S4Mon. 2/m
2.HC.05dVeenitePb2(Sb,As)2S5Mon. 2 : P21
2.HC.05gMarumoitePb32As40S92Mon. 2 : P21
2.HC.05eDalnegroite(Tl4Pb2)(As12Sb8)S34Tric. 1 : P1
2.HC.10aFülöppitePb3Sb8S15Mon. 2/m : B2/b
2.HC.10cHeteromorphitePb7Sb8S19Mon. 2/m : B2/b
2.HC.10bPlagionitePb5Sb8S17Mon. 2/m
2.HC.10dSemseyitePb9Sb8S21Mon. 2/m : B2/b
2.HC.20RobinsonitePb4Sb6S13Mon. 2/m : P21/m
2.HC.25MoëloitePb6Sb6S14(S3)Orth. 2 2 2 : P21 21 2
2.HC.30DadsonitePb23Sb25S60ClTric. 1 : P1
2.HC.35OwyheeiteAg3+xPb10-2xSb11+xS28, -0.13 < x > +0.20Mon. 2/m : P21/b
2.HC.40ParasterryiteAg4Pb20Sb14As10S58Mon. 2/m : P21/b

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

5.6.1SartoritePbAs2S4Mon. 2/m : P21/m
5.6.2DufrénoysitePb2As2S5Mon. 2 : P21
5.6.4BaumhaueritePb12As16S36Tric. 1 : P1
5.6.5GratonitePb9As4S15Trig. 3m : R3m
5.6.6JordanitePb14(As,Sb)6S23Mon. 2/m : P21/m
5.6.7FülöppitePb3Sb8S15Mon. 2/m : B2/b
5.6.8ZinkenitePb9Sb22S42Hex. 6 : P63
5.6.9PlagionitePb5Sb8S17Mon. 2/m
5.6.10HeteromorphitePb7Sb8S19Mon. 2/m : B2/b
5.6.13SemseyitePb9Sb8S21Mon. 2/m : B2/b
5.6.17RobinsonitePb4Sb6S13Mon. 2/m : P21/m
5.6.18GuettarditePbAsSbS4Mon. 2/m : P21/b
5.6.19Twinnite Pb0.8Tl0.1Sb1.3As0.8S4Mon. 2/m
5.6.20VeenitePb2(Sb,As)2S5Mon. 2 : P21
5.6.21SorbyiteCuPb9(Sb,As)11S26Mon. 2/m : B2/m
5.6.22GeocronitePb14(Sb,As)6S23Mon. 2/m : P21/m
5.6.23GalenobismutitePbBi2S4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
5.6.24CosalitePb2Bi2S5Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
5.6.25CannizzaritePb48Bi56S132Mon. 2/m : P21/m
5.6.26LillianitePb3-2xAgxBi2+xS6Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
5.6.27GiessenitePb27Cu2(Bi,Sb)19S57Mon. 2/m
5.6.32KirkiitePb10Bi3As3S19Mon. 2/m : P21/m
5.6.33UstarasitePb(Bi,Sb)6S10 (?)

Other InformationHide

Raman bands connected with stretching and bending of the SbS3 groups are between 375 and 175 cm-1
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for BoulangeriteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Boulanger, C. (1835) Sur un sulfure double d'antimoine et de plombe de Molières, Départment du Gard. Ann. Mines, 7: 575-582.
Breithaupt, A. (1837) Embrithite, Plumbostib. J. pr. Chem., 10: 442.
Shannon, E.V. (1921) Additional notes on the crystallography and composition of boulangerite. American Journal of Science, 5th. series: 1: 423-426.
Berry, L. G. (1940) Studies of mineral sulpho-salts III. - Boulangerite and "Epiboulangerite". Univ. Toronto Studies, Geol. Ser., 44: 5-19.
Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Seventh edition, Volume I: 420-422.
Robinson, S. C. (1948) The identity of falkmanite and yenerite with boulangerite. American Mineralogist, 33: 716-723.
Garavelli, C. L. (1957) Contributo alla conoscenza della boulangerite. Atti Società Toscana Scienze Naturali, Memorie, 64: 133-151.
Born, L., & Hellner, E., (1960) A structural proposal for boulangerite. American Mineralogist, 45: 1266-1271.
Dornberger-Schiff, K., & Hohne, E. (1962) Zur Symmetrie des Boulangerites. Chem. d. Erde, 22: 78-82.
Petrova, I. V., Kuznetsov, A. I., Belokoneva, E. A., Symonov, M. A., Pobedimskaya, E. A., & Belov, N. V. (1978) On the crystal structure of boulangerite. Dokl. Acad. Nauk SSSR, 242: 337-340 (in Russian).
Mozgova, N. N., & Bortnikov, N. S. (1980) On non-stoichiometry of the acicular lead sulphantimonites. In: Geochimija. Mineralogija - Moscow, Nauka. 126-138 (in Russian).
Mumme, W. (1989) The crystal structure of Pb5.05(Sb3.75Bi0.28)S10.72Se0.28: boulangerite of near ideal composition. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Monatshefte, 1989, 11: 498-512.
Bente, K., Meier-Salimi, M. (1991) Substitution experiments and structure investigations on Ag-Tl-bearing boulangerites - a contribution to the rayite problem. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Abhandlungen, 163, 212-216.
Criddle, A.J. and C.J. Stanley, Editors (1993) Quantitative data file for ore minerals, 3rd. edition. Chapman & Hall, London.
Kaden, R., Wagner, G., Bente, K. (2012) Crystal chemistry and electrical conductivity of boulangerite, dadsonite and iodine-substituted pillaite grown by chemical vapor transport. Canadian Mineralogist, 50, 219-233.
Ventruti, G., Stasi, F., Pinto, D., Vurro, F., Renna, M. (2012) The plumose boulangerite from Bottino, Apuan Alps, Italy: Crystal structure, OD character and twinning. Canadian Mineralogist, 50, 181-199.
Kharbish, S. & Jeleň, S. (2016) Raman spectroscopy of the Pb-Sb sulfosalts minerals: Boulangerite, jamesonite, robinsonite and zinkenite. Vibrational Spectroscopy, 85, 157-166.

Internet Links for BoulangeriteHide

Localities for BoulangeriteHide

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Locality ListShow

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