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Brannerite

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John Casper Branner
Formula:
UTi2O6
System:
Monoclinic
Colour:
Black, brownish ...
Lustre:
Vitreous, Resinous, Dull
Hardness:
4½ - 5½
Name:
For Dr. John Casper Branner (1850-1922), American geologist, formerly Professor of Geology and President of Stanford University, Palo Alto, California, USA.
Dimorph of:
Brannerite-Thorutite Series. Dimorphous with Orthobrannerite (?).

Compare also uranopolycrase.


Classification of Brannerite

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
4.DH.05

4 : OXIDES (Hydroxides, V[5,6] vanadates, arsenites, antimonites, bismuthites, sulfites, selenites, tellurites, iodates)
D : Metal: Oxygen = 1:2 and similar
H : With large (+- medium-sized) cations; sheets of edge-sharing octahedra
8.3.4.1

8 : MULTIPLE OXIDES CONTAINING NIOBIUM,TANTALUM OR TITANIUM
3 : AB2O6
7.16.23

7 : Oxides and Hydroxides
16 : Oxides of U

Physical Properties of Brannerite

Vitreous, Resinous, Dull
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Opaque
Colour:
Black, brownish olive-green, yellow-brown to yellow with alteration; yellowish green in transmitted light
Streak:
Dark greenish brown to yellowish brown
Hardness (Mohs):
4½ - 5½
Fracture:
Conchoidal
Density:
4.2 - 5.43 g/cm3 (Measured)    5.2 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of Brannerite

Type:
Isotropic
RI values:
n = 2.23 - 2.3
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.000 - Isotropic minerals have no birefringence
Surface Relief:
Very High
Reflectivity:
400 nmR=13.9%
420 nmR=13.5%
440 nmR=13.1%
460 nmR=12.8%
480 nmR=12.7%
500 nmR=12.5%
520 nmR=12.3%
540 nmR=12.2%
560 nmR=12.1%
580 nmR=12.0%
600 nmR=11.9%
620 nmR=11.8%
640 nmR=11.7%
660 nmR=11.7%
680 nmR=11.6%
700 nmR=11.5%

Reflectance graph
Graph shows reflectance levels at different wavelengths (in nm). Top of box is 100%. Peak reflectance is 13.9%.

Chemical Properties of Brannerite

IMA Formula:
UTi2O6
Idealised Formula:
UTi2O6
Elements listed in formula:
Analytical Data:
(1) Chemical analysis of material from Custer Co., Idaho, USA
(2) Theoretical values for UTi2O6
             (1)      (2)

UO3        (33.5)
SiO2        (0.6)
TiO2       (39.0)   (37.17)
ZrO2        (0.2)
ThO2        (4.1)
UO2        (10.3)   (62.83)
(Y,Er)2O3   (3.9)
FeO         (2.9)
PbO         (0.2)
CaO         (2.9)
BaO         (0.3)
SrO         (0.1)
H2O         (2.0)
CO2         (0.2)

sum        100.2    100.0 wt.-%
Common Impurities:
Ba,Fe,Pb,REE,Si,Sr,Th,Zr

Crystallography of Brannerite

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:
B2/m
Space Group Setting:
C2/m
Cell Parameters:
a = 9.8123 Å, b = 3.7697 Å, c = 6.9253 Å
β = 118.957°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 2.603 : 1 : 1.837
Unit Cell Volume:
V 224.14 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
2
Morphology:
Indistinct prismatic crystals, to 30 cm, some showing an orthogonal prism zone; more typically as rounded, detrital grains and pebbles and as irregular embedded grains and masses.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
3.41 (10)
1.903 (8)
4.73 (6)
3.32 (6)
2.462 (6)
2.276 (6)
1.864 (6)
Comments:
Recorded on material from Custer Co., Idaho, USA, after recrystallisation in air at 1000 °C

Occurrences of Brannerite

Type Occurrence of Brannerite

General Appearance of Type Material:
Detrital crystals and grains.
Place of Conservation of Type Material:
National Museum of Natural History, Washington, D.C., USA (Nos. 105793, 114997)
Geological Setting of Type Material:
Detrital material in a gold-bearing placer.
Associated Minerals at Type Locality:

Relationship of Brannerite to other Species

Series:
Forms a series with Thorutite (see here)
4.DH.05OrthobranneriteU4+U6+Ti4O12(OH)2
4.DH.05Thorutite(Th,U,Ca)Ti2(O,OH)6
4.DH.10KassiteCaTi2O4(OH)2
4.DH.10Lucasite-(Ce)CeTi2O5(OH)
4.DH.15Bariomicrolite (of Hogarth 1977)
4.DH.15Bariopyrochlore (of Hogarth 1977)A2Nb2(O,OH)6Z
4.DH.15Betafite (of Hogarth 1977)A2-mB2X6-wY1-n
4.DH.15Bismutomicrolite (of Hogarth 1977)
4.DH.15Calciobetafite (of Mazzi & Munno)(Ca,Na)2(Nb,Ti)2(O,OH)7
4.DH.15Ceriopyrochlore (of Hogarth 1977)A2Nb2(O,OH)6Z
4.DH.15Cesstibtantite
4.DH.15JixianitePb(W,Fe3+)2(O,OH)7
4.DH.15Hydropyrochlore(H2O,◻)2Nb2(O,OH)6(H2O)
4.DH.15Natrobistantite
4.DH.15Plumbopyrochlore (of Skorobogatova et al.)A2Nb2(O,OH)6Z
4.DH.15Plumbomicrolite (of Hogarth 1977)
4.DH.15Plumbobetafite (of Hogarth 1977)A2-mB2X6-wY1-n
4.DH.15Stibiomicrolite (of Groat et al.)
4.DH.15Strontiopyrochlore (of Hogarth 1977)A2Nb2(O,OH)6Z
4.DH.15Stannomicrolite (of Hogarth 1977)
4.DH.15Stibiobetafite (of Černý et al.)A2-mB2X6-wY1-n
4.DH.15Uranpyrochlore (of Hogarth 1977)(U,Ca,Ce)2(Nb,Ta)2O6(OH,F)
4.DH.15Yttrobetafite (of Hogarth 1977)A2-mB2X6-wY1-n
4.DH.15Yttropyrochlore (of Hogarth 1977)A2Nb2(O,OH)6Z
4.DH.15Fluornatromicrolite(Na1.5Bi0.5)Ta2O6F
4.DH.15Bismutopyrochlore (of Chukanov et al.)A2Nb2(O,OH)6Z
4.DH.15Hydrokenoelsmoreite2W2O6(H2O)
4.DH.20BismutostibiconiteBi(Sb5+,Fe3+)2O7
4.DH.20BindheimitePb2Sb25+O7
4.DH.20Monimolite
4.DH.20CuproroméiteCu2Sb2(O,OH)7
4.DH.20StetefeldtiteAg2Sb2(O,OH)7(?)
4.DH.20Stibiconite(Sb,O,OH) ?
4.DH.25RosiaitePbSb2O6
4.DH.30Zirconolite(Ca,Y)Zr(Ti,Mg,Al)2O7
4.DH.35LiandratiteU6+Nb2O8
4.DH.35PetscheckiteU4+Fe2+Nb2O8
4.DH.40IngersoniteCa3Mn2+Sb45+O14
4.DH.45Pittongite(Na,H2O)0.7(W,Fe3+)(O,OH)3
7.16.1UraniniteUO2
7.16.2Schoepite(UO2)8O2(OH)12 · 12H2O
7.16.3ParaschoepiteUO3 · (2-x)H2O
7.16.4Metaschoepite(UO2)8O2(OH)12 · 10H2O
7.16.5Metastudtite(UO2)O2(H2O)2
7.16.6Studtite(UO2)O2(H2O)2 · 2H2O
7.16.7IanthiniteU24+(UO2)4O6(OH)4 · 9H2O
7.16.8CompreignaciteK2(UO2)6O4(OH)6 · 7H2O
7.16.9VandenbrandeiteCuUO2(OH)4
7.16.10RoubaultiteCu2O2(UO2)3(CO3)2(OH)2 · 4H2O
7.16.11BecquereliteCa(UO2)6O4(OH)6 · 8H2O
7.16.12RameauiteK2Ca(UO2)6O6(OH)4 · 6H2O
7.16.13AgrinieriteK2Ca[(UO2)3O3(OH)2]2 · 5H2O
7.16.14ProtasiteBa(UO2)3O3(OH)2 · 3H2O
7.16.15BillietiteBa(UO2)6O4(OH)6 · 8H2O
7.16.16BauranoiteBaU2O7 · 4-5H2O
7.16.17Metacalciouranoite(Ca,Na,Ba)U2O7 · 2H2O
7.16.18Calciouranoite(Ca,Ba,Pb,K,Na)U2O7 · 5H2O
7.16.19OrthobranneriteU4+U6+Ti4O12(OH)2
7.16.20Thorutite(Th,U,Ca)Ti2(O,OH)6
7.16.21Davidite-(La)La(Y,U)Fe2(Ti,Fe,Cr,V)18(O,OH,F)38
7.16.22Davidite-(Ce)Ce(Y,U)Fe2(Ti,Fe,Cr,V)18(O,OH,F)38
7.16.24FourmarieritePb1-xO3-2x(UO2)4(OH)4+2x · 4H2O
7.16.25Richetite(Fe3+,Mg)xPb2+8.6(UO2)36O36(OH)24 · 41H2O
7.16.26CuritePb3+x[(UO2)4O4+x(OH)3-x]2 · 2H2O
7.16.27MasuyitePb(UO2)3O3(OH)2 · 3H2O
7.16.28VandendriesscheitePb1.6(UO2)10O6(OH)11 · 11H2O
7.16.29MetavandendriesscheitePbU7O22 · nH2O
7.16.30SayritePb2(UO2)5O6(OH)2 · 4H2O
7.16.31WölsendorfitePb7(UO2)14O19(OH)4 · 12H2O
7.16.32ClarkeiteNa(UO2)O(OH) · nH2O
7.16.33UranosphaeriteBi(UO2)O2(OH)

Other Names for Brannerite

Other Information

Health Risks:
Radioactive

References for Brannerite

Reference List:
Hess, F.L., Wells, R.C. (1920) Brannerite, a new uranium mineral. Journal of the Franklin Institute: 189: 225-237.
Hess and Wells (1920), Journal of the Franklin Institute 189, 225, 779.

Gordon, S.G. (1920) New minerals. American Mineralogist: 5: 105-105.

Palache, C., Berman, H., Frondel, C. (1944) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc. (New York), 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 774-775.

Fleischer, M. (1956) New mineral names. American Mineralogist: 41: 163-168.

Moddle, D.A. (1957) Brannerite from Eastern Ontario. The Canadian Mineralogist: 6: 155-157.

Hewett, D.F., Stone, J., Levine, H. (1957) Brannerite from San Bernardino County, California. American Mineralogist: 42: 30-38.

Frondel, C. (1958) Systematic mineralogy of uranium and thorium. U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin: 1064: 333-337.

Kaiman, S. (1959): Synthesis of brannerite. Canaian Mineralogist: 6: 389-390.

Patchett, J.E., Nuffield, E.W. (1960) Studies of radioactive compounds: X-The synthesis of crystallography of brannerite. The Canadian Mineralogist: 6: 483-490.

Fleischer, M. (1963) New mineral names. American Mineralogist: 48: 1413-1421.

International Mineralogical Association (1967) Commission on new minerals and mineral names. Mineralogical Magazine: 3: 131-136.

Ferris, C.S., Ruud, C.O. (1971) Brannerite: Occurrence and recognition by microscope. Colorado School of Mines Quarterly: 66: 1-35.

Steacy, H.R., Plant, A.G., Boyle, R.W. (1974) Brannerite associated with native gold at the Richardson Mine, Ontario. The Canadian Mineralogist: 12: 360-363.

Szymanski, J.T., Scott, J.D. (1982) A crystal structure refinement of synthetic brannerite, UTi2O6, and its bearing on rate of alkaline-carbonate leaching of brannerite in ore. Canadian Mineralogist: 20: 271-279.

Graeser, S., Guggenheim, R. (1990) Brannerite from Lengenbach, Binntal (Switzerland). Schweizerische mineralogische und petrographische Mitteilungen: 70: 325-331. (study of non-metamict crystal)

Anthony, J.W. et al. (1997) Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3: 76.

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