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Clinopyroxene Subgroup

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Member of:
A subgroup name for monoclinic Pyroxene Group minerals.
Compare Orthopyroxene Subgroup.

The most widespread members include aegirine, augite, hedenbergite and diopside.


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Classification of Clinopyroxene SubgroupHide

Ca-Fe-Mg clinopyroxenes

Synonyms of Clinopyroxene SubgroupHide

Other Language Names for Clinopyroxene SubgroupHide

Simplified Chinese:单斜辉石
Spanish:Polyaugita

Varieties of Clinopyroxene SubgroupHide

ClinohyperstheneAn obsolete name for a pyroxene intermediate between clinoenstatite and clinoferrosilite (previously known as ferrosilite).
Subcalcic augiteAn obsolete name for a clinopyroxene that would now be categorized as either augite or pigeonite depending on the Ca percentage. If Ca>20% then it would be augite, otherwise pigeonite.
Subcalcic ferroaugiteAn obsolete name for a clinopyroxene that would now be categorized as either augite or pigeonite depending on the Ca percentage. If Ca>20% then it would be augite, otherwise pigeonite.

Relationship of Clinopyroxene Subgroup to other SpeciesHide

Member of:
Other Members of this group:
Orthopyroxene SubgroupA subgroup name for orthorhombic Pyroxene Group minerals.
Group Members:
Aegirine NaFe3+Si2O6Mon. 2/m : B2/b
Aegirine-augite (NaaCabFe2+cMgd)(Fe3+eAlfFe2+gMgh)Si2O6Mon. 2/m : B2/b
Augite (CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6Mon. 2/m : B2/b
Clinoenstatite MgSiO3Mon.
Clinoferrosilite Fe2+SiO3Mon.
Diopside CaMgSi2O6Mon. 2/m : B2/b
Esseneite CaFe3+[AlSiO6]Mon. 2/m : B2/b
Hedenbergite CaFe2+Si2O6Mon. 2/m : B2/b
Jadeite Na(Al,Fe3+)Si2O6Mon.
Jervisite NaSc3+Si2O6Mon.
Johannsenite CaMn2+Si2O6Mon. 2/m : B2/b
Kanoite Mn2+(Mg,Mn2+)Si2O6Mon. 2/m : P21/b
Kosmochlor NaCrSi2O6Mon.
Kushiroite CaAl[AlSiO6]Mon. 2/m : B2/b
Namansilite NaMn3+Si2O6Mon.
Natalyite NaV3+Si2O6Mon.
Omphacite (NaaCabFe2+cMgd)(AleFe3+fFe2+gMgh)Si2O6Mon. 2/m
Petedunnite Ca(Zn,Mn2+,Mg,Fe2+)Si2O6Mon.
Pigeonite (CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6Mon. 2/m : P21/b
Spodumene LiAlSi2O6Mon.

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

Clinopyroxene Subgroup in petrologyHide

An essential component of (items highlighted in red)
Common component of (items highlighted in red)

References for Clinopyroxene SubgroupHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Hess, H.H. (1949), Chemical composition and optical properties of common clinopyroxenes American Mineralogist: 34: 621-666.
Clark, J.R., D.E. Appleman, and J.J. Papike (1969) Crystal-chemical characterization of clinopyroxenes based on eight new structure refinements. MSA Special Paper 2: 31-50.
Hollister, L.S. and Gancarz, A. (1971) Compositional sector-zoning in clinopyroxene from the Narce area, Italy. American Mineralogist: 56: 959-979.
Fleet, M.E. (1975c) Growth habits of clinopyroxene. Canadian Mineralogist: 13: 336-341.
Newton, R.C., Charlu, T.V., and Kleppa, O.J. (1977) Thermochemistry of high pressure garnets and clinopyroxenes in the system CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta: 41: 369-377.
McCallister, R.H. (1978), The coarsening kinetics associated with exsolution in an iron-free clinopyroxene: Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology: 65: 327-331.
Nord, G.L., & R.H. McCallister (1979), Kinetics and mechanisms of decomposition in Wo25En31Fs44 clinopyroxene: Geological Society of America, Abstracts with program: 11: 488.
Grove, T.L. (1982), Use of exsolution lamellae in lunar clinopyroxenes as cooling rate speedometers: an experimental calibration: American Mineralogist: 67: 251-268.
Morimoto, N. (1988): Nomenclature of Pyroxenes. Am. Mineral. 73, 1123-1133.
Harlow, G.E. and Veblen, D.R. (1991) Potassium in clinopyroxene inclusions from diamonds. Science: 251: 652-655.
Edgar, A.D. and Vukadinovic, D. (1993) Potassium-rich clinopyroxene in the mantle: an experimental investigation of K-rich lamproite up to 60 kbar. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta: 57: 563-5072.
Webb, S.L. and Jackson, I. (1993) The pressure dependence of the elastic moduli of single-crystal orthopyroxene (Mg0.8Fe0.2)SiO3. European Journal of Mineralogy: 5: 1111-1119.
Weinbruch, S. & W.F. Müller (1995), Constraints on nthe cooling rates of chondrules from the microstructure of clinopyroxene and plagioclase: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta: 59: 3221-3230.
Harlow, G.E. (1997) K in clinopyroxene at high pressure and temperature: an experimental study. American Mineralogist: 82: 259-269.
Hugh-Jones, D.A. (1997) Thermal expansion of MSiO3 and FeSiO3 ortho- and clinopyroxenes. American Mineralogist: 82: 689-696.
Zhang, L., Ahsbahs, H., Hafner, S.S., and Kutoglu, A. (1997) Single-crystal compression and crystal structure of clinopyroxene up to 10 GPa. American Mineralogist: 82: 245-258.
Arlt, T. and Angel, R. (2000) Displacive phase transitions in C-centered clinopyroxenes: spodumene, LiScSi2O6, and ZnSiO3. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals: 27: 719-731.
Arlt, T., Kunz, M., Stolz, J., Armbruster, T., and Angel, R. (2000) P-T-X data on P2 1/c-clinopyroxenes and their displacive phase transitions Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology: 138: 35-45.
Boffa Ballaran, T., Carpenter, M.A., and Ross, N.L. (2001) Infrared powder-absorption spectroscopy of Ca-free P21/c clinopyroxenes. Mineralogical Magazine: 65: 339-350.
Chudinovskikh, L.T., Zharikov, V.A., Ishbulatov, R.A., and Matveev, Yu.A. (2001) On the mechanism of incorporation of ultra-high amounts of potassium into clinopyroxene at high pressure. Doklady Rossikoi Akademii Nauk. Earth Sciences: 380: 1-4.
Weinbruch, S., W.F. Müller & R.H. Hewins (2001), A transmission electron microscope study of exsolution and coarsening in iron-bearing clinopyroxene fro m synthetic analogues of chondrules: Meteoritics and Planetary Science: 36: 1237-1248.
Bindi, L., Safonov, O.G., Litvin, Y.A., Perchuk, L.L., and menchetti, S. (2002) Ultrahigh potassium content in the clinopyroxene structure: an X-ray single-crystal study. European Journal of Mineralogy: 14: 929-934.
Perchuk, L.L., Safonov, O.G., Yapaskurt, V.O., and Barton, J.M., Jr. (2002) Crystal-melt equilibria involving potassium-bearing clinopyroxene as indicators on mantle-derived ultrahigh-potassic liquids: an analytical review. Lithos: 60(3-4): 89-111.
Tribaudino, M. and Nestola, F. (2002) Average and local structure in P2 1/c clinopyroxenes along the join diopside-enstatite (CaMgSi2O6). European Journal of Mineralogy: 14: 549-555.
Bindi, L. Safonov, O.G., Yapasurt, V., Perchuk, L.L., and Menchetti, S. (2003) Ultrapotassic clinopyroxene from the Kumdy-Kol microdiamond mine, Kokchetav Complex, Northern Kazakhstan: occurrence, composition and crystal-chemical characterization. American Mineralogist: 88: 464-468.
Weinbruch, S., S. Styrsa, & W.F. Müller (2003), Exsolution and coarsening in iron-free clinopyroxene during isothermal annealing: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta: 67: 5071-5082.
Kung, J., Li, B.S., Uchida, T., Wang, Y.B., Neuville, D., and Liebermann, R.C. (2004) In situ measurements of sound velocities and densities across the orthopyroxene - high-pressure clinopyroxene transition in MgSiO3 at high-pressure. Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors: 147: 27-44.
Yang, H. and Konzett, J. (2005) Crystal chemistry of a high-pressure C2/c clinopyroxene with six-coordinated silicon. American Mineralogist: 90: 1223-1226.
Seto, Y., Ohi, S., Shimobayashi, N., Kitamura, M., Miyake, A., Hiroi, Y., and Grantham, G.H. (2006) Clinopyroxene exsolution in wollastonite from Namaqualand granulite, South Africa. American Mineralogist: 91: 446-450.
Nespolo, M. & Aroyo, M.I. (2016): The modular structure of pyroxenes. European Journal of Mineralogy, 28, 189-203.

Internet Links for Clinopyroxene SubgroupHide

Significant localities for Clinopyroxene SubgroupHide

Showing 54 significant localities out of 11,313 recorded on mindat.org.

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Afghanistan
 
  • Badakhshan Province (Badakshan Province; Badahsan Province)
    • Khash & Kuran Wa Munjan Districts
      • Koksha Valley (Kokscha Valley; Kokcha Valley)
[Diopside] Moore, T.P.,Woodside, R.M.W. (2014): The Sar-e-Sang Lapis Mines, Kuran Wa Munjan district, Badakhshan Province, Afghanistan. Mineralogical Record 45 (3), 280-336.
Antarctica
 
  • Eastern Antarctica
    • Victoria Land
      • Allan Hills
[Kushiroite] Makoto Kimura, Takashi Mikouchi, Akio Suzuki, Masaaki Miyahara, Eiji Ohtani, and Ahmed El Goresy (2009): Kushiroite, CaAlAlSiO6: A new mineral of the pyroxene group from the ALH 85085 CH chondrite, and its genetic significance in refractory inclusions. American Mineralogist, 94, 1479-1482.
Austria
 
  • Carinthia
    • Koralpe
      • Moschkogel - Weinebene area
        • Brandrücken
[Spodumene] G. Niedermayr, I. Praetzel: Mineralien Kärntens, 1995
  • Tyrol
    • North Tyrol
      • Zillertal
        • Zemmgrund
          • Ochsner-Rotkopf massif
[Diopside] R. Exel: Die Mineralien und Erzlagesrtääten Österreichs (1993)
Canada
 
  • Québec
    • Abitibi-Témiscamingue
      • La Vallée-de-l'Or RCM
        • Réservoir-Dozois
[Hedenbergite] Age of the Cabonga nepheline syenite, Grenville Province, western Quebec Hudon, Pierre; Friedman, Richard M.; Gauthier, Gilles; Martignole, Jacques Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, vol. 43, issue 9, pp. 1237-1249 Olivier Langelier Collection
China
 
  • Fujian Province
    • Fuzhou Prefecture
      • Jin'an District
        • Kuai'an
[Aegirine] Suwa, K., Enami, M., Hiraiwa, I., and Yang, T. (1987): Mineralogy and Petrology 36, 111-120; Wenkui Wang, Shanrong Zhao, and Xinxi Niu (1990): Geology of Fujian 9(1)
France
 
  • Occitanie
    • Aveyron
[Esseneite] Eytier J.R. & Ch., Favreau G., Devouard B., Vigier J. (2004), Minéraux de pyrométamorphisme de Lapanouse-de Sévérac (Aveyron), Cahier des Micromonteurs, n°85, pp: 3-58
  • Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur
    • Alpes-de-Haute-Provence
[Esseneite] Favreau G., Meisser N., Chiappero P.J. (2004), Saint-Maime (Alpes-de-Haute-Provence): un exemple de pyrométamorphisme en région provençale, n°3, pp: 59-92
Germany
 
  • Bavaria
    • Franconia
      • Münchberg Metamorphic complex
        • Stammbach
          • Weißenstein
[Omphacite] [Clark, 1993 - "Hey's Mineral Index"]
Italy
 
  • Aosta Valley
    • Saint-Marcel
[Diopside var: Violan] August Breithaupt (1838) Journal Prackt. Chemie, 15:329
  • Latium
    • Rome Province
[Aegirine var: Fedorovite] Viola, Carlo Maria (1899) Mineralogische und petrographische Mitteilungen aus dem Hernikerlande in dem Provinz Rom (Italien). Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie, und Paeleontologie: Band I: 93-137.
  • Piedmont
    • Verbano-Cusio-Ossola Province
      • Omegna
        • Agrano
[Jervisite] Mellini, M., Merlino, S., Orlandi, P., Rinaldi, R. (1982): Cascandite and jervisite, two new scandium silicates from Baveno, Italy. American Mineralogist, 67, 599-603.
  • Tuscany
    • Livorno Province
      • Campigliese (Campiglia Mountains; Campiglia Ridge)
        • Campiglia Marittima
[Johannsenite] De Michele, V. (1974). Guida mineralogica d'Italia. Istituto Geografico De Agostini, Novara, 2 vol
  • Veneto
    • Vicenza Province
      • Recoaro Terme
[Johannsenite] De Michele, V. (1974). Guida mineralogica d'Italia. Istituto Geografico De Agostini, Novara, 2 vol.
Japan
 
  • Hokkaido
    • Oshima peninsula
      • Kumaishi
[Kanoite] Kobayashi, H. (1977): Kanoite, (Mn2+,Mg)2[Si2O6], a new clinopyroxene in the metamorphic rock from Tatehira, Oshima Peninsula, Hokkaido, Japan. Chishitsugaku Zasshi 83, 537-542.
Malawi
 
  • Zomba District
[Aegirine] [www.johnbetts-fineminerals.com]; Cairncross, B., Messner, K & Farquharson, E. (1999): Die Pegmatite des Mount Malosa bei Zomba, Malawi. LAPIS 24 (4), 22-32; American Mineralogist, Volume 94, pages 1216–1222, 2009; Mineralogical Record (1997) 28:64; Guastoni, A., & Pezzotta, F. (2007). REE-mineral phases replacing helvite, niobian-rutile, bastnäsite-(Ce) from alkaline pegmatites of Mount Malosa, Zomba District, Malawi. Granitic Pegmatites: the State of the Art. Memorias, 8, 42-43.; Cairncross, B. (2002). Aegirine and Associated Minerals from Mount Malosa, Malawi. Rocks & Minerals, 77(1), 31-37.
Mexico
 
  • Mexico
    • Jiquipilco (Xiquipilco)
[Kosmochlor] Handbook of Mineralogy - Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols; Laspeyres, H. 1897 Die steinigen Gemengtheile im Meteoreisen von Toluca in Mexico. Z. Kristallogr. Kristallgeom. 27, 586-600.
Myanmar
[Jadeite] C.R.Acad.Sci.Paris (1863) 56, 861
Norway
 
  • Buskerud
    • Øvre Eiker
[Aegirine] Strøm, P. (1821): Undersökning af ett nytt Fossil. Kongliga Vetenskaps-Academiens Handlingar, 160-163; Berzelius, J. (1821): Tillägg til föregående Afhandling. Kongliga Vetenskaps-Academiens Handlingar, 163-166; Möller, N.B. (1825a) : Achmit fra Eger. Magazin for Naturvidenskaberne, 6, 174-181
  • Vestfold
    • Larvik
      • Langesundsfjorden
[Aegirine] Berzelius, [J]. (1835): [without titel dated 13 jan. 1835]. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Gegnosie, Geologie und Petrefaktenkunde, 1835, 184-185 ; Murad E (2006) Mineralogy of aegirine from Låven Island, Langesundfjorden, southern Norway, Norwegian Journal of Geology, 86, 435-438
Russia
 
  • Eastern-Siberian Region
    • Prebaikalia (Pribaikal'e)
      • Irkutskaya Oblast'
        • Lake Baikal area
          • Slyudyanka (Sludyanka)
[Natalyite] ZVMO,(1985) 114, 630-635; Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow; Bosi, F., Reznitskii, L., Skogby, H., & Hålenius, U. (2014). Vanadio-oxy-chromium-dravite, NaV3 (Cr4Mg2)(Si6O18)(BO3) 3 (OH) 3O, a new mineral species of the tourmaline supergroup. American Mineralogist, 99(5-6), 1155-1162.
  • Far-Eastern Region
    • Khabarovskiy Kray
      • Taikan Ridge
        • Ir-Nimi manganese deposit
[Namansilite] Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
[Namansilite] Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
    • Primorskiy Kray
      • Kavalerovo Mining District
        • Dal'negorsk (Dalnegorsk; Tetyukhe; Tjetjuche; Tetjuche)
[Hedenbergite] [MinRec 32:9]; Rogulina, L.I., and Sveshnikova, O.L. (2008): Geology of Ore Deposits 50(1), 60-74.; Dobovol'skaya, M. G., Baskina, V. A., Balashova, S. P., Kenisarin, A. M., Arakelyants, M. M., Klimachev, L. A., & Muravitskaya, G. N. (1990). Order of Formation of the Ores and Mafic Dikes of the Nikolayevsk Deposit (Southern Primor'ye). International Geology Review, 32(4), 391-403.
  • Urals Region
    • Middle Urals
      • Sverdlovskaya Oblast'
        • Asbest
[Diopside] [MinRec 32:41]; Antonov A.A. [Антонов А.А.] (2003): Mineralogy of rodingites of the Bazhenovsk ultrabasic massif [Минералогия родингитов Баженовского гипербазитого массива]. Nauka, Sankt-Peterburg, 129 pp. (in Russian).
Sweden
 
  • Södermanland
    • Haninge
      • Utö
[Spodumene] d’Andrada, J. B. (1800): Der eigenschaften und kennzeichen einiger neuen fossilien aus Schweden und Norwegen nebst einigen chemischen bemerkungen ueber dieselben. Allgemeines Journal der Chemie 4, 28-39 ; Langhof, J., Jonson, E, Gustafsson, L. & Otter, B. (1998): Utö- en klassisk svensk mineralfyndort. Bergverksmuseets Skrift 14, 29-31
    • Nyköping
      • Tunaberg
        • Tunaberg Cu-Co Ore Field
[Hedenbergite] Hedenberg, A.L. in Afhandlingar i Fysic, Kemi och Mineralogi. Utgifne af W. Hisinger och J. Berzelius. (Stockholm, 1806-18),Vol 2, p. 164; Berzelius, J.J. (1819): Nouveau Système de Minéralogie. A Paris, Chez Méquignon-Marvis, 1819. p.206
  • Värmland
    • Filipstad
[Aegirine-augite var: Urbanite] Sjögren, H. (1894): Contributions to Swedish mineralogy. Bull. Geol. Inst. Univ. Upsala. 2 (3), 39-74.
[Hedenbergite] Flink, G. 1885 Öfversigt K. Vet.-Ak. Förh.
USA
 
  • California
    • San Diego Co.
      • Warner Springs District
        • Warner Springs
[Spodumene var: Kunzite] Larson, W. F. (2011), Personal collection of William F. Larson. On display at the Collector in Fallbrook, California.
  • Connecticut
    • Fairfield Co.
      • Redding (Reading)
        • Branchville
[Spodumene] Brush and Dana (1880); Shainin (1946); Cameron et al (1954) USGS Prof Paper 255; Rocks & Minerals (1995) 70:396-409
    • Litchfield Co.
      • Canaan
        • Falls Village
[Diopside] Harold Moritz collection
      • New Milford
        • Boardman's Bridge
[Diopside] Harold Moritz collection
      • North Canaan
[Diopside] Januzzi, Ronald E. (1994), Mineral Data Book - Western Connecticut and Environs. The Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.; Schooner, Richard. (1961), The Mineralogy of Connecticut. Fluorescent House, Branford, Connecticut.; Schairer, J. F. (1931), The Minerals of Connecticut. State Geological and Natural History Survey, Hartford Connecticut Bulletin 51.
      • Torrington
[Diopside] Mike Polletta specimen
    • Middlesex Co.
      • Portland
        • Collins Hill
          • Strickland pegmatite (Strickland-Cramer Quarry; Strickland-Cramer Mine; Strickland-Cramer Feldspar-Mica Quarries)
[Spodumene] Cameron, Eugene N., Larrabee, David M., McNair, Andrew H., Page, James T., Stewart, Glenn W., and Shainin, Vincent E. (1954): Pegmatite Investigations 1942-45 New England; USGS Professional Paper 255: 333-338.; Schooner, Richard. (1955): 90 Minerals from 1 Connecticut Hill. Rocks & Minerals: 30(7-8): 351-8.; Schooner, Richard. (1958): The Mineralogy of the Portland-East Hampton-Middletown-Haddam Area in Connecticut (With a few notes on Glastonbury and Marlborough). Published by Richard Schooner; Ralph Lieser of Pappy’s Beryl Shop, East Hampton; and Howard Pate of Fluorescent House, Branford, Connecticut.
    • New Haven Co.
      • Orange
[Diopside] Harold Moritz collection
  • Maine
    • Oxford Co.
      • Newry
[Spodumene var: Kunzite] King, V. T., 2006, Minerals of Halls Ridge and Plumbago-Puzzle Mountain, Newry, ... Maine, Mineral News, v. 22(6): p. 1-3.
  • Massachusetts
    • Essex Co.
      • Essex
[Aegirine] Gleba, 1978. Massachusetts Mineral & Fossil Localities
    • Hampshire Co.
      • Huntington (Norwich)
[Spodumene] Emerson, Geology of Massachusetts and Rhode Island, 1917. (USGS Bulletin 597), p.257.
  • Minnesota
    • Cook Co.
[Pigeonite] A. N. Winchell ,Am. Geol.,26, 1900 p. 203.; Am Min 16:195-208
  • Montana
    • Lincoln Co.
      • Libby District (Snowshoe District)
        • Libby
[Aegirine var: Vanadian Aegirine] Larsen, E. S. & Hunt, W.F. (1913) Two vanadiferous aegirites from Libby, Montana American Journal of Science. 36: 290- 296
  • New Jersey
    • Sussex Co.
      • Franklin Mining District
        • Franklin
[Hedenbergite] Van King
[Johannsenite] Schaller, W.T.: Am.Min.:23:575-582 (1938); Dunn(1995):Pt3:434-435.
[Petedunnite] Essene, E.J. and Peacor, D.R. (1987) Petedunnite (CaZnSi2O6), a new zinc clinopyroxene from Franklin, New Jersey, and phase equilibria for zincian pyroxenes. American Mineralogist (1987): 72: 157-166; Dunn, Pete J. (1995): Franklin and Sterling Hill New Jersey: the world's most magnificent mineral deposits, Part 3: 436.
        • Ogdensburg
          • Sterling Hill
[Augite] Dunn(1995):Pt3:432.; Leavens, P. B., Zullo, J., & Verbeek, E. (2009). A complex, genthelvite-bearing skarn from the Passaic pit, Sterling Hill mine, Ogdensburg, New Jersey. Axis, 5, 26.
  • North Carolina
    • Cleveland Co.
      • Kings Mountain District
[Spodumene] Jan H.Bernard and Jaroslav Hyrsl,2004,Minerals and their Localities,pg # 567; Rocks and Minerals, (1985) 60:76-82; Carolina Geological Society Field Trip Guidebook 1981, 39-48
  • South Dakota
    • Pennington Co.
      • Keystone District
        • Keystone
[Spodumene] Rocks & Minerals: 57: 160 &/or 60: 110 & 112.; USGS Bull 380D; U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.; Norton, James J. (1964) Pegmatites and other Precambrian Rocks in the Southern Black Hills; Geology and mineral deposits of some pegmatites in the southern Black Hills, South Dakota. USGS Professional Paper 297E.
  • Washington
    • Okanogan Co.
      • Golden Horn Batholith
[Aegirine] MinRec 14:51; Rocks and Minerals 66:6, p453; Cannon, B. (1975): Minerals of Washington, p.49
    • Snohomish Co.
      • Sultan District
        • Sultan Basin
[Hedenbergite] Rocks & Minerals (1991) 66:478-484
  • Wyoming
    • Campbell Co.
      • Reno Junction
[Esseneite] Am.Min. 72 (1987), 148
    • Park Co.
[Clinoferrosilite] Amer.J.Sci.(1935) ser. 4, 30, 481-494
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