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About Britholite-(Ce)Hide

Brown, greenish brown, yellow, resin brown, black.
Vitreous, Greasy
Crystal System:
First found by Gustav Flink in 1897 in a nepheline-syenite pegmatite at Naujakasik, Ilimaussaq complex, Greenland, and provisionally named "a cappelenite-like mineral". Described and named by Chr. Winther (1901). Named after the greek βρῖθος (brithos) for weight, refering to the high specific gravity of the mineral. Later it was renamed as britholite-(Ce) as part of the changes in nomenclature for rare-earth minerals (Levinson 1966). The suffix "-(Ce)" refers to the dominance of cerium in the composition.
A mineral in the Britholite Group of the Apatite Supergroup. The mineral is typically Th-bearing and often metamict.

Classification of Britholite-(Ce)Hide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
Renamed by the IMA
Approval History:
Renamed 1987.

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
A : Nesosilicates
H : Nesosilicates with CO3, SO4, PO4, etc.

52 : NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups and O,OH,F,H2O
4 : Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [6] and/or >[6] coordination

17 : Silicates Containing other Anions
6 : Silicates with phosphate

Physical Properties of Britholite-(Ce)Hide

Vitreous, Greasy
Brown, greenish brown, yellow, resin brown, black.
5½ on Mohs scale

Optical Data of Britholite-(Ce)Hide

Uniaxial (+/-)
RI values:
nα = 1.770 nβ = 1.810
Max Birefringence:
δ = 1.770
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Very High

Chemical Properties of Britholite-(Ce)Hide

IMA Formula:

Crystallography of Britholite-(Ce)Hide

Crystal System:
Class (H-M):
6/m - Dipyramidal
Space Group:
Cell Parameters:
a = 9.61(2) Å, c = 7.03(2) Å
a:c = 1 : 0.732
Unit Cell V:
562.25 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Forms: Hexagonal prism {10-10}, pyramid {10-11} and prism {11-20} (from type description). Prismatic crystals
Some studied samples are monoclinic pseudo-hexagonal with spacegroup P21

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Powder Diffraction Data:
2.836 (vs)
3.480 (s)
2.809 (s)
1.858 (s)
4.116 (m)
3.927 (m)
3.211 (m)
Sample from Oka, Canada

Type Occurrence of Britholite-(Ce)Hide

General Appearance of Type Material:
Brown, apparently hexagonal prisms embedded in a nepheline-syenite pegmatite matrix.
Geological Setting of Type Material:
Nepheline-syenite pegmatite

Synonyms of Britholite-(Ce)Hide

Other Language Names for Britholite-(Ce)Hide

Varieties of Britholite-(Ce)Hide

Aluminian BritholiteAn Al-bearing variety of Britholite-(Ce).
CefluosilA phosphate-free Britholite
Thorian Britholite-(Ce)Britholite Group .

Relationship of Britholite-(Ce) to other SpeciesHide

Other Members of this group:
Britholite-(Y)(Y,Ca)5(SiO4)3OHHex. 6/m : P63/m
Fluorbritholite-(Ce)(Ce,Ca)5(SiO4)3FHex. 6/m : P63/m
Fluorbritholite-(Y)(Y,Ca)5(SiO4)3FHex. 6/m : P63/m
Fluorcalciobritholite(Ca,REE)5(SiO4,PO4)3FHex. 6/m : P63/m

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Allanite-(Ce)8 photos of Britholite-(Ce) associated with Allanite-(Ce) on mindat.org.
Törnebohmite-(Ce)5 photos of Britholite-(Ce) associated with Törnebohmite-(Ce) on mindat.org.
Biotite4 photos of Britholite-(Ce) associated with Biotite on mindat.org.
Microcline3 photos of Britholite-(Ce) associated with Microcline on mindat.org.
Titanite3 photos of Britholite-(Ce) associated with Titanite on mindat.org.
Törnebohmite-(La)2 photos of Britholite-(Ce) associated with Törnebohmite-(La) on mindat.org.
Bastnäsite-(La)2 photos of Britholite-(Ce) associated with Bastnäsite-(La) on mindat.org.
Pyrochlore Group2 photos of Britholite-(Ce) associated with Pyrochlore Group on mindat.org.
Aegirine2 photos of Britholite-(Ce) associated with Aegirine on mindat.org.
Zircon2 photos of Britholite-(Ce) associated with Zircon on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

9.AH.10Tundrite-(Ce)Na2Ce2Ti(SiO4)(CO3)2O2Tric. 1 : P1
9.AH.20TernesiteCa5(SiO4)2(SO4)Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
9.AH.25Britholite-(Y)(Y,Ca)5(SiO4)3OHHex. 6/m : P63/m
9.AH.25ChlorellestaditeCa5(SiO4)1.5(SO4)1.5ClHex. 6/m : P63/m
9.AH.25Fluorbritholite-(Ce)(Ce,Ca)5(SiO4)3FHex. 6/m : P63/m
9.AH.25HydroxylellestaditeCa5(SiO4)1.5(SO4)1.5(OH)Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mcm
9.AH.25MattheddleitePb5(SiO4)1.5(SO4)1.5(Cl,OH)Hex. 6/m : P63/m
9.AH.25Fluorcalciobritholite(Ca,REE)5(SiO4,PO4)3FHex. 6/m : P63/m
9.AH.25Fluorbritholite-(Y)(Y,Ca)5(SiO4)3FHex. 6/m : P63/m

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide,Ca)5(SiO4)3OHHex. 6/m : P63/m 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mcm 6/m : P63/m,OH)Hex. 6/m : P63/m,La,Th)(Ti,Nb)(Al,Fe)(Si2O7)(OH)4 · 3H2O,Ca)5(SiO4)3FHex. 6/m : P63/m

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

17.6.1NagelschmidtiteCa7(SiO4)2(PO4)2Hex. 6 : P61
17.6.2PerhamiteCa3Al7.7Si3P4O23.5(OH)14.1 · 8H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1
17.6.6Karnasurtite-(Ce)(Ce,La,Th)(Ti,Nb)(Al,Fe)(Si2O7)(OH)4 · 3H2O
17.6.8BornemaniteNa6BaTi2Nb(Si2O7)2(PO4)O2(OH)F Tric. 1 : P1
17.6.9SoboleviteNa13Ca2Mn2Ti3(Si2O7)2(PO4)4O3F3Mon. m : Pb
17.6.10Laplandite-(Ce)Na4CeTiPO4Si7O18 · 5H2O
17.6.11 VunonnemiteNa5TiNb3Si6O25F2 · 2Na3PO4
17.6.12Saryarkite-(Y)Ca(Y,Th)Al5(SiO4)2(PO4,SO4)2(OH)7 · 6H2OTet. 4 2 2
17.6.13Steenstrupine-(Ce)Na14Mn2+2(Fe3+,Mn3+)2Ce6(Zr,Th)(Si6O18)2(PO4)6(HPO4)(OH)2 · 2H2OTrig.
17.6.14WaylanditeBiAl3(PO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
17.6.16Britholite-(Y)(Y,Ca)5(SiO4)3OHHex. 6/m : P63/m

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Britholite-(Ce)Hide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Winther, C. (1901) Britholite, a new mineral. Meddelelser om Grønland: 24: 190-196.
Silberminz (1929) Comptes rendus de l’académie des sciences de l’U.R.S.S., series A, 55. [as Lessingite]
Foshag, W.F. (1930) New Mineral Names. American Mineralogist: 15: 242. [as Lessingite]
Böggild, O.B. (1953) The Mineralogy of Greenland, Meddelelser om Grønland, Vol. 149/3, Reitzels Forlag Köbenhavn.
Nickel. E. H., Mandarino, J. A. (1987) Procedures involving the IMA Commission on New Minerals and Mineral Names and guidelines on mineral nomenclature. American Mineralogist: 72: 1031-1042
Noe, D.C., Hughes, J.M., Mariano, A.N., Drexler, J.W., Kato, A. (1993) The crystal structure of monoclinic britholite-(Ce) and britholite-(Y). Zeitschrift für Kristallographie: 206: 233-246.
Arden, K.M., Halden, N.M. (1999) Crystallization and alteration history of britholite in rare-earth-element-enriched pegmatitic segregations associated with the Eden Lake Complex, Manitoba, Canada. The Canadian Mineralogist: 37: 1239-1253.
Oberti, R., Ottolini, L., Della Ventura, G., Parodi, G.C. (2001) On the symmetry and crystal chemistry of britholite: New structural and microanalytical data. American Mineralogist: 86: 1066-1075.
Hughes, J.M., Rakovan, J.F. (2015) Structurally robust, chemically diverse: Apatite and apatite supergroup minerals. Elements: 11(3): 165-170.

Internet Links for Britholite-(Ce)Hide

Localities for Britholite-(Ce)Hide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
  • Namibe Province
    • Tombwa City Council
L. Torró, C. Villanova, M. Castillo, M. Campeny, A. O. Gonçalves and J. C. Melgarejo (2012): Niobium and rare earth minerals from the Virulundo carbonatite, Namibe, Angola. Mineralogical Magazine 76, 393-409.
  • San Luis Province
    • San Martín department
      • Las Chacras
Kyla M. Arden and Norman M. Halden (1999) Crystallization and alteration history of britholite in rare-earth-element-enriched pegmatitic segregations associated with the Eden Lake Complex, Manitoba, Canada Can Mineral, 37:1239-1253; Urbina Nilda, E., et al. "METALLOGENY OF THE SIERRAS PAMPEANAS OF SAN LUIS, ARGENTINA."
Lira, R., Viñas, N.A., Ripley, E.M. y Barbieri, M., 1999. El yacimiento de tierras raras, torio y uranio Rodeo de Los Molles, San Luis. En: Recursos Minerales de la República Argentina (Ed. E.O. Zappettini). Instituto de Geología y Recursos Minerales. SEGEMAR, Anales 35: 987-997.
  • South Australia
    • Olary Province
      • Yunta
Brugger, J., Ogierman, J., Pring, A., Waldron, H., Kolitsch, U. (2006): Origin of the secondary REE-minerals at the Paratoo copper deposit near Yunta, South Australia. Mineralogical Magazine, 70, 609-627.
    • Stuart Shelf
      • Roxby Downs
Lottermoser B. G. (1995). Neues.Jb. Miner. Mh.1995, 8, 371-384; Econ Geol. (1992) 87:1-28
  • Minas Gerais
    • Poços de Caldas alkaline complex
      • Poços de Caldas
Azzi, Andrezza de Almeida (2017) Rare Minerals from Poços de Caldas, MG
Chris D. Parkinson et al. , " Ultrahigh-pressure pyrope-kyanite granulites and associated eclogites in Neoproterozoic nappes of southeast Brazil", 2001, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, http://akmotoki.tripod.com/2001/Waseda/Cdp.html
  • Paraná
    • Tijucas do Sul
      • Morro Redondo complex
Vilalva, F.C.J., and Vlach, S.R.F. (2010): Mineralogical Magazine 74(4), 645-658
  • Manitoba
Kyla M. Arden and Norman M. Halden (1999) Crystallization and alteration history of britholite in rare-earth-element-enriched pegmatitic segregations associated with the Eden Lake Complex, Manitoba, Canada. Can. Mineral., 37, 1239-1253.
  • Newfoundland and Labrador
    • Labrador
GSC locality database
      • Seal Lake alkaline complex (Letitia Lake)
GSC locality database; GSC database locality No. 4100
  • Northwest Territories
    • Mackenzie District
      • Blachford Lake alkaline complex
SHEARD, E.R., WILLIAMS-JONES, A.E., HEILIGMANN, M., PEDERSON, C. AND TRUEMAN, D.L. (2012) Controls on the concentration of zirconium, niobium, and the rare earth elements in the Thor Lake rare metal deposit, Northwest Territories, Canada. Economic Geology, 107(1), 81-104.
D. Robert Pinckston, Dorian G. W. Smith (1995) Mineralogy of the Lake zone, Thor Lake rare-metals deposit, N.W.T., Canada. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, 32:516-532; SHEARD, E.R., WILLIAMS-JONES, A.E., HEILIGMANN, M., PEDERSON, C. AND TRUEMAN, D.L. (2012) Controls on the concentration of zirconium, niobium, and the rare earth elements in the Thor Lake rare metal deposit, Northwest Territories, Canada. Economic Geology, 107(1), 81-104.
  • Ontario
    • Thunder Bay District
McLaughlin (1990)
  • Québec
    • Abitibi-Témiscamingue
      • Témiscamingue RCM
        • Les Lacs-du-Témiscamingue
Kenneth L. Currie and Otto van Breemen (1996)The origin of rare minerals in the Kipawa syenite complex, western Quebec. Can Mineral 34:435-451
    • Laurentides
      • Deux-Montagnes RCM
        • Oka
Liu, W. (1993): Fluid inclusion geochemistry and rare earth element distributions in the Oka carbonatite, Quebec. Electronic Theses and Dissertations. M.Sc. thesis, University of Windsor, Ontario, Canada, Paper 2128. 126 p.
GOLD, D.P. (1972): The Monteregian Hills: ultra-alkaline rocks and the Oka carbonatite complex. 24th International Geological Congress (Montreal), Guidebook B-11.
Gold (1969) & Sabina (1968); GOLD, D.P. (1969) The Oka carbonatite and alkaline complex. Guidebook GAC/MAC Annual meeting 1969, 43-62.
Pavel M. Kartashov 2018
    • Montérégie
      • La Vallée-du-Richelieu RCM
        • Mont Saint-Hilaire
Horváth, L and Gault, R.A. (1990), The mineralogy of Mont Saint-Hilaire Quebec. Mineralogical Record: 21: 284-359.
      • Lajemmerais RCM
        • Varennes & St-Amable
          • Saint-Amable sill
Horváth Collection - confirmed by visual & XRD
  • Fujian
    • Sanming
      • Mingxi Co.
Qiang Wang, Zhenhua Zhao, Ping Jian, Zhiwei Bao, Xiaolin Xiong and Jinlong Ma (2003): Chinese Science Bulletin 48(20), 2241-2247
  • Hebei
    • Zhangjiakou
      • Huailai Co.
Zhang Peishan, Yang Zhuming, Tao Kejie, and Yang Xueming (1996): Mineralogy and Geology of Rare Earths in China. Science Press (Beijing), pp. 226.
  • Inner Mongolia
    • Baotou League (Baotou Prefecture)
      • Bayan Obo mining district
        • Bayan Obo
Orris, G.J., and Grauch, R.I. (2002): USGS Open-File Report 02-189; Zonglin Hou (1989): Geology and Prospecting 25(7), 1-5, 22
  • Shandong
    • Jining
      • Weishan Co.
Orris, G.J., and Grauch, R.I. (2002): USGS Open-File Report 02-189, 174 pp.
  • Sichuan
    • Liangshan
      • Mianning Co.
Orris, G.J., and Grauch, R.I. (2002): USGS Open-File Report 02-189
  • Greenland
    • Kujalleq
      • Narsaq
        • Ilímaussaq complex
          • Kangerluarsuk Fjord (Kangerdluarssuq Fjord)
Danoe, M., Soerensen, H. (1959): An examination of the rare minerals from the Nepheline Syenites of south west Greenland, Meddelelser om Groenland, Vol. 162, Nr.5, Reitzels Forlag, Koebenhavn
          • Taseq area
Karup-Møller, S. & Rose-Hansen, J. (2017): Alteration of steenstrupine-(Ce) from the Ilímaussaq alkaline complex, South Greenland. European Journal of Mineralogy, 29, (in press).
          • Tunulliarfik Fjord (Tunugdliarfik)
Winther, C. (1901): Britholite, a new mineral. Meddelelser om Grønland. 24, 190-196; Boeggild, O.B. (1953): The Mineralogy of Greenland, Meddelelser om Grønland. 149/3, Reitzels Forlag Koebenhavn
Collection of NHM, Vienna
  • Lapland
    • Savukoski
      • Tulppio
        • Sokli carbonatite complex
AL-Ani, Thair and Sarapää, Olli 2016. Abundance of REE bearing minerals in carbonatite and lambrophyre dikes in Kaulus area, Sokli carbonative complex, NE Finland. Geologian Tutkimuskeskus 7/2016.
  • Ostrobothnia
Al-Ani Thair, Sarapää Olli and Torppa Akseli 2010. Petrography and Mineralogy of REE-bearing minerals of Iivaara, Otanmäki and Korsnäs alkaline rocks. Geologian Tutkimuskeskus arkistoraportti M42/2010/15
  • Rhineland-Palatinate
    • Mayen-Koblenz
      • Mendig
        • Niedermendig
https://www.mindat.org/locentry-523354.html; https://www.mindat.org/photo-116311.html
Knute Eldjarn
G.C. Parodi and V. Chevrier : "New discoveries in nephelinites from Los island (Republic of Guinea)", 5th International Conference "Mineralogy & Museums", Paris, Sept. 5-8th 2004, Bull. de Liaison de la Soc. Franç. de Minéralogie et Cristallographie, 2004, Vol 16, N°2.; Biagioni, C., Merlino, S., Parodi, G. C., & Perchiazzi, N. (2012). Crystal Chemistry of Minerals of the Wöhlerite Group from the Los Archipelago, Guinea. The Canadian Mineralogist, 50(3), 593-609.
  • Baranya
Nagy, G., (2003): Nacareniobsite in Phonolites in the Mecsek Mts. (Hungary) - Second occurrence in the world, Acta Mineralogica-Petrographica, Abstract series 1, Szeged 2003
  • Rajasthan (Rajputana)
    • Jaipur Division
      • Barmer District
F. Wall, M. J. Le Bas and R. K. Srivastava (1993) Calcite and Carbocernaite Exsolution and Cotectic Textures in a Sr,REE-Rich Carbonatite Dyke from Rajasthan, India. Mineralogical Magazine 57:495-513.
  • Campania
    • Naples
      • Somma-Vesuvius Complex
        • Monte Somma
          • Ercolano
Orlandi, P., Perchiazzi, N., & Mannucci, G. (1989). First occurrence of britholite-(Ce) in Italy (Monte Somma, Vesuvius). European Journal of Mineralogy, 1, 723-725
luigi chiapino
          • Sant'Anastasia
Russo, M., Punzo, I. (2004): I minerali del Somma-Vesuvio, AMI
  • Latium
    • Rome Province
Federico, M., Peccerillo, A., (2002): Mineral chemistry and petrogenesis of granular ejecta from the Alban Hills volcano, Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol 74, 223-252
      • Sacrofano Caldera
        • Campagnano di Roma
    • Viterbo Province
Lapis 28(12), 19-28 (2003)
American Mineralogist, Volume 86, pages 1066–1075, 2001
Della Ventura, G., Williams, C.T., Cabella, R., Oberti, R., Caprilli, E., Bellatreccia, F. (1999) Britholite-hellandite intergrowths and associated REE-minerals from the alkali-syenitic ejecta of the Vico volcanic complex (Latium, Italy): petrological implications bearing on REE mobility in volcanic systems. European Journal of Mineralogy, 11, 843-854; Della Ventura, G. (2002) Ciprianite, mottanaite-(Ce) e hellandite-(Ce): tre nuovi minerali scoperti nel Lazio e revisione sistematica del gruppo dell'hellandite. Il Cercapietre, 1-2; http://www.gminromano.it/Cercapietre/rivista02/testo/02A01.html; Oberti, R., Ottolini, L., Cámara, F., Della Ventura, G. (1999) Crystal structure of non-metamict Th-rich hellandite-(Ce) from Latium (Italy) and crystal chemistry of the hellandite-group minerals. American Mineralogist, 84, 913–921.
"Giorgio Bortolozzi (visual identification)". Although not analysed, the suffix -(Ce) has been attributed because all analytical data on britholites from other localities of the Vico volcanic complex show that the mineral is cerium dominant.
        • Vetralla
"Giorgio Bortolozzi (visual identification)"
Ciriotti, M.E. & Biagioni, C. (2011): Pot-pourri 2011: identificazioni di minerali di interesse. Micro, 3/2011, 125-133
  • Tuscany
    • Grosseto Province
      • Pitigliano
Gianfranco Ciccolini Collection
  • Aktobe Region
    • Khromtau
Kogaro et al (1995) Alkaline Rocks and Carbonatites of the World Part 2: USSR
  • North Kazakhstan Region
    • Timiryazev
Handbook of Mineralogy
  • Diana
    • Ambanja District
      • Antsirabe Commune
Wolfgang Hampel (2011) and Guillaume Estrade (University of Toulouse, 2011)
  • Southern Region
    • Balaka
Orris, G.J., and Grauch, R.I. (2002): USGS Open-File Report 02-189.
  • Hovd Aimag (Khovd Aimag)
    • Altai Mts
G.S. Ripp data; Kovalenko, V. I., Yarmolyuk, V. V., Sal nikova, E. B., Kartashov, P. M., Kovach, V. P., Kozakov, I. K., ... & Yakovleva, S. Z. (2004). The Khaldzan-Buregtei Massif of peralkaline rare-metal igneous rocks: structure, geochronology, and geodynamic setting in the Caledonides of Western Mongolia. Petrology c/c of Petrologiia, 12(5), 412-436.
Pavel M. Kartashov analytical data (2012), specimens selfcollected in 1990
  • Ömnögovi Aimag
    • Shara Hulasa Hiid
Ripp, G. S.; Karmanov, N. S.; Kanakin, S. V.; Doroshkevich, A. G.; Andreev, G. V. (2005): Cerium britholite from the Mushugai ore deposit (Mongolia). Zapiski Rossiiskogo Mineralogicheskogo Obshchestva 134, 90-103. (in Russian) ; Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, Vol. 42, No. 5, p. 335; Sanematsu, K., Kon, Y., Hirano, H., & Watanabe, Y. (2010, November). Mineralogy and Geochemistry of the Mushgai Khudag REE Deposit, Mongolia. In 2010 GSA Denver Annual Meeting.
  • Béni Mellal-Khénifra Region
    • Khénifra Province
      • Tamazeght Mountain Range
Khadem Allah, B. (1993)
North Korea
  • Kangwon Province
    • Pyonggang-gun
      • Nam-myon
        • Chonma-ri
          • Songna-san
Takubo, J. (1941) Journal of the Chemical Society of Japan, 62, 8.
  • Telemark
    • Porsgrunn
      • Langangen
Larsen, A. O. & Åsheim, A. (1976): Mineraler fra Langangen. NAGS-nytt 3 (1), 9-12.
      • Mørje
Peter Andresen collection.
        • Sagåsen
Andersen, F.,Berge, S.A. & Burvald, I. (1996): Die Mineralien des Langesundsfjords und des umgebenden Larvikit-Gebietes, Oslo-Region, Norwegen. MineralienWelt 7(4):21-100
Larsen, A.O., Åsheim, A. and Gault, R. A. (2005): Minerals of the eudialyte group from the Sagåsen larvikite quarry, Porsgrunn, Norway. Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrifter 30: 58-62
      • Rønningen (Skredderrønningen)
Burvald, Ingulv (1993): To forekomster av nefelin-syenitt-pegmatitt i Telemark. STEIN 20 (3), 176-179
      • Slevolden
Burvald, Ingulv (1993): To forekomster av nefelin-syenitt-pegmatitt i Telemark. STEIN 20 (3), 176-179
  • Vestfold
    • Larvik
      • Brunlanes
Svein A. Berge collection (1979)
Svein A. Berge collection/observation 1992.
Svein A. Berge collection/observation 1992.
      • Hedrum
        • Lågendalen
Andersen, F. (1993): Hedrum pukkverk i Lågendalen. STEIN 20 (4), 236-238
      • Langesundsfjorden
        • Stokkøya
Svein A. Berge observation 1992
      • Malerød
Andresen, P. (2011): Mineralene fra Midtfjellet larvikittbrudd, Malerød, Larvik. Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrift. 46: 41-47
      • Tjølling
        • Håkestad
Larsen, A. O. (1988): Helvite group minerals from syenite pegmatites in the Oslo Region, Norway. Contribution to the mineralogy of Norway no 68. Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift 68: 119-124
        • Klåstad
Larsen, K.E. & Stensvold, B.K.(2015): Berylliummineraler og andre sjeldne mineraler i syenittpegmatitter i Skallist larvikittbrudd, Tjølling, Larvik, Vestfold. Norsk Mineralsymposium 2015, 47-56
        • Stålaker
      • Tvedalen
Larsen, A. O. (ed.) (2010): The Langesundsfjord. History, geology, pegmatites, minerals. Bode Verlag Gmbh, Salzhemmendorf, Germany, 240 p
Svein A. Berge observation 1990
Andersen, F., Berge, S.A. & Burvald, I. (1996): Die Mineralien des Langesundsfjords und des umgebenden Larvikit-Gebietes, Oslo-Region, Norwegen. Mineralien-Welt 7(4), 21-100
Engvoldsen,T.,Andersen, F.,Berge, S.A. & Burvald, I. (1991): Pegmatittmineraler fra Larvik ringkompleks. STEIN 18(1),15-71.
Collection of Peter Andresen; Knut Edvard Larsen collection # MM-3631
Andersen, F., Berge, S.A. & Burvald, I. (1996): Die Mineralien des Langesundsfjords und des umgebenden Larvikit-Gebietes, Oslo-Region, Norwegen. Mineralien-Welt 7(4), 21-100
Svein A.Berge observation 1988
Larsen, A. O. (ed.) (2010): The Langesundsfjord. History, geology, pegmatites, minerals. Bode Verlag Gmbh, Salzhemmendorf, Germany, 240 p
Svein A. Berge collection/observation 1993.
Knut Edvard Larsen collection (MM-1381)
    • Sandefjord
      • Vesterøya
Knut Edvard Larsen collection
Knut Edvard Larsen collection (MM-5171)
Svein A. Berge collection
Berge, S.A. & Hansen, R. (1976): Mineraler i Sandefjordsområdet III-Varden. NAGS-nytt 3 (4), 13-16 (in norwegian); Neumann, H. (1985): Norges Mineraler. Norges geologiske Undersøkelse Skrifter 68, p. 124
  • Azores
    • São Miguel Island
      • Água de Pau Massif
  • Harghita
Hirtopanu Paulina, Andersen C. Jens, Fairhurst J. Robert and Jakab Gyula (2013) Allanite-(Ce) and its associations, from the Ditrau alkaline intrusive massif. Proc. Rom. Acad., Series B, 2013, 15(1), p. 59–74
  • Buryatia
    • Mama River Basin
      • Maigunda River
P.M. Kartashov data
  • Chelyabinsk Oblast
    • Kyshtym (Kychtym; Kishtim)
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 290; Min Mag 31 (1957), 455; P.M. Kartashov data
    • Vishnevye Mts (Vishnyovye; Cherry)
  • Irkutsk Oblast
The Canadian Mineralogist Vol. 44, pp. 929-942 (2006)
  • Khabarovsk Krai
    • Verkhnebureinsky District
      • Verkhnii Mel'gin River
        • Turana Range
          • Chekunda Town
I.I. Kupriyanova Mineralogy of Chergilen rare earth deposit,- Moscow,1962, p.211, PhD dissertation.
  • Krasnoyarsk Krai
    • Enisei Range (Yenisei Ridge; Enisei Ridge)
Kalyago, E. K. & Lapin, A. V. (1990): Britholite from metasomatites of the Kiisk alkaline massif (Enisei Ridge). Zapiski Vsesoyuznogo Mineralogicheskogo Obshchestva 119, 107-110. (in Russian.)
  • Murmansk Oblast
Chakhmouradian A.R., Zaitsev A.N. (2002) Calcite–Amphibole–Clinopyroxene rock from the Afrikanda complex, Kola peninsula, Russia: mineralogy and a possible link to carbonatites. III. Silicate minerals. - Canadian Mineralogist, Vol.40, pp. 1347-1374.
    • Keivy Mountains
Pavel M. Kartashov data
    • Khibiny Massif
Mikhailova, Y.A., Konopleva, N.G., Yakovenchuk, V.N., Ivanyuk, G.Y., Men’shikov, Y.P., and Pakhomovsky, Y.A. (2007): Geology of Ore Deposits 49(7), 590-598.
      • Kihlman Mt.
Pavel M. Kartashov data
      • Kukisvumchorr Mt
Konopleva, N.G., Ivanyuk, G.Y., Pakhomovsky, Y.A., Yakovenchuk, V.N., Men’shikov, Y.P., and Korchak, Y.A. (2008): Geology of Ore Deposits 50(8), 720-731.
Pakhomovsky, Y. A., Ivanyuk, G. Y., & Yakovenchuk, V. N. (2014). Loparite-(Ce) in rocks of the Lovozero layered complex at Mt. Karnasurt and Mt. Kedykvyrpakhk. Geology of Ore Deposits, 56(8), 685-698.
Pavel M. Kartashov data; Lyalina, L., Zolotarev Jr, A., Selivanova, E., Savchenko, Y., Zozulya, D., Krivovichev, S., & Mikhailova, Y. (2015). Structural characterization and composition of Y-rich hainite from Sakharjok nepheline syenite pegmatite (Kola Peninsula, Russia). Mineralogy and Petrology, 1-9; D. R. Zozulya, L. M. Lyalina, Ye. E. Savchenko (2015): Britholite ores of the Sakharjok Zr–Y–REE deposit, Kola Peninsula: Geochemistry, mineralogy, and formation stages. Geochemistry International, 53, 892-902.
  • Sakha Republic (Yakutia)
    • Polar Yakutia
      • Cherskii range system
        • Selennyakh range
          • Tommot river
Pavel M. Kartashov data
  • Tuva
    • Sangilen Upland
Kapustin Yu.L. (1989) Cerite and ternebohmite from fenites of alkaline massifs of Tuva, - Zapiski VMO, 118(4), p. 47-56 (in Rus.)
South Africa
  • North West
    • Bojanala Platinum District
Mitchell, R. H., & Liferovich, R. P. (2006). Subsolidus deuteric/hydrothermal alteration of eudialyte in lujavrite from the Pilansberg alkaline complex, South Africa. Lithos, 91(1), 352-372.
        • Pilanesberg Mtn
Minerals of South Africa
Minerals of South Africa
      • Rustenburg (Rustenburg District)
Handbook of Mineralogy
  • Western Cape
    • West Coast District
      • Piketberg
Rozendaa, A., & Boshoff, R. (2012). Rare Earth Element Mineralogy and its Recovery from the Neoproterozoic Riviera W–Mo Deposit, South Africa. In Proceedings of the 10th International Congress for Applied Mineralogy (ICAM) (pp. 605-612). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
South Korea
  • Gangwon Province
Jitsutaro Takubo (1941) Investigation of Minerals Containing Rarer Elements. On Lessingite found in Heiko, Kogen-do, Korea. Nippon Kagaku Kaishi. 62 (8): 730-732. doi.org/10.1246/nikkashi1921.62.730 [in Japanese]
  • North Chungcheong Province
    • Chungju (Chung Won Kum; Chung-ju)
      • Joongwon-gun
        • Mt. Eorae
P.M. Kartashov data
  • Canary Islands
    • Las Palmas Province
      • Fuerteventura
        • Fuerteventura Basal Complex
- Mangas J., Perez F.J., Marín A.,Reguilón R.M.(1996) Minerales de tierras raras en las carbonatitas del Complejo Basal de Fuerteventura (Islas Canarias). Geogaceta, 20(7) pp. 1511-1513.
  • Castile-La Mancha
    • Albacete
      • Hellín
        • Cancarix
E. Salvioli-mariani et al. , Eur. J. Mineral. , 1996, 8, pp. 1027-1039.
  • Madrid
Prado-Herrero, P. et al. (2009): First find of Kristiansenite in Spain: Comparison with the type specimen by non-descriptive techniques. Estudos Geológicos 19 (2): 135-139
  • Jönköping County
    • Jönköping
      • Gränna
Thulin, H. (1996): Norra Kärr. Litiofilen 13: 17-51; Thulin, H. (2000): Norra Kärr-Några nya fynd och undersökningar. Litiofilen, 17 (2): 25-45.
  • Donetsk Oblast
    • Azov Sea Region
Morozewicz, J. (1904) Uber Beckelit ein Cero-Lantano-Didymo-Silicat vom Calcium. Bull. Inter. Acad. Sci. Cracovie. 1904 : 485-492.
  • Zhytomyr Oblast
    • Ukrainian Shield
L. N. Kogarko, V. A. Konova, M. P. Orlova, A. R. Woolley (1995) Ukraine in Alkaline Rocks and Carbonatites of the World pp 49-58
  • Arkansas
    • Hot Spring Co.
    • Pulaski Co.
      • Little Rock
  • Colorado
    • Boulder Co.
      • Jamestown District
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.
Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckel
    • Gunnison Co.
      • White Earth District (Powderhorn District)
"Minerals of Colorado, updated & revised", p. 17, by Eckel, Edwin B., 1997
  • Massachusetts
    • Norfolk Co.
      • Quincy
  • Missouri
    • Washington Co.
USGS Open File report 2010-5220
  • South Dakota
    • Custer Co.
      • Custer District
        • Custer
R&M 75:3 pp 156-169
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