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About Britholite-(Y)Hide

Reddish-brown, black.
Crystal System:
First described as abukumalite by Hata (1938) from the Suishoyama pegmatite, Fukushima Prefecture, Japan. Later it was renamed as britholite-(Y) as part of the changes in nomenclature for rare-earth minerals (Levinson 1966). It is named for its relation to britholite-(Ce) and the suffix "-(Y)" due to the dominance of yttrium in the composition.
A mineral in the Britholite Group of the Apatite Supergroup. A britholite with predominance of Y among the M site cations and OH > F. The
yttrian analogue of britholite-(Ce). A typically metamict mineral.

Classification of Britholite-(Y)Hide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
A : Nesosilicates
H : Nesosilicates with CO3, SO4, PO4, etc.

52 : NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups and O,OH,F,H2O
4 : Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [6] and/or >[6] coordination

17 : Silicates Containing other Anions
6 : Silicates with phosphate

Physical Properties of Britholite-(Y)Hide

Reddish-brown, black.
Pale brown

Optical Data of Britholite-(Y)Hide

Uniaxial (-)
RI values:
nω = 1.730 - 1.752 nε = 1.728 - 1.750
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.002
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:

Chemical Properties of Britholite-(Y)Hide

IMA Formula:

Crystallography of Britholite-(Y)Hide

Crystal System:
Class (H-M):
6/m - Dipyramidal
Space Group:
Cell Parameters:
a = 9.43 Å, c = 6.81 Å
a:c = 1 : 0.722
Unit Cell V:
524.45 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)

Type Occurrence of Britholite-(Y)Hide

Synonyms of Britholite-(Y)Hide

Other Language Names for Britholite-(Y)Hide

Relationship of Britholite-(Y) to other SpeciesHide

Other Members of this group:
Britholite-(Ce)(Ce,Ca)5(SiO4)3OHHex. 6/m : P63/m
Fluorbritholite-(Ce)(Ce,Ca)5(SiO4)3FHex. 6/m : P63/m
Fluorbritholite-(Y)(Y,Ca)5(SiO4)3FHex. 6/m : P63/m
Fluorcalciobritholite(Ca,REE)5(SiO4,PO4)3FHex. 6/m : P63/m

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
4 photos of Britholite-(Y) associated with Allanite-(Ce){CaCe}{Al2Fe2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
4 photos of Britholite-(Y) associated with Yttrofluorite(Ca1-xYx)F2+x where 0.05< x <0.3
3 photos of Britholite-(Y) associated with Pyrochlore GroupA2Nb2(O,OH)6Z
2 photos of Britholite-(Y) associated with Bastnäsite-(Ce)Ce(CO3)F
2 photos of Britholite-(Y) associated with Tengerite-(Y)Y2(CO3)3 · 2-3H2O
2 photos of Britholite-(Y) associated with ZirconZr(SiO4)
1 photo of Britholite-(Y) associated with Pyrochlore
1 photo of Britholite-(Y) associated with TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

9.AH.10Tundrite-(Ce)Na2Ce2Ti(SiO4)(CO3)2O2Tric. 1 : P1
9.AH.20TernesiteCa5(SiO4)2(SO4)Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
9.AH.25Britholite-(Ce)(Ce,Ca)5(SiO4)3OHHex. 6/m : P63/m
9.AH.25ChlorellestaditeCa5(SiO4)1.5(SO4)1.5ClHex. 6/m : P63/m
9.AH.25Fluorbritholite-(Ce)(Ce,Ca)5(SiO4)3FHex. 6/m : P63/m
9.AH.25HydroxylellestaditeCa5(SiO4)1.5(SO4)1.5(OH)Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mcm
9.AH.25MattheddleitePb5(SiO4)1.5(SO4)1.5(Cl,OH)Hex. 6/m : P63/m
9.AH.25Fluorcalciobritholite(Ca,REE)5(SiO4,PO4)3FHex. 6/m : P63/m
9.AH.25Fluorbritholite-(Y)(Y,Ca)5(SiO4)3FHex. 6/m : P63/m

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide,Ca)5(SiO4)3OHHex. 6/m : P63/m 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mcm 6/m : P63/m,OH)Hex. 6/m : P63/m,La,Th)(Ti,Nb)(Al,Fe)(Si2O7)(OH)4 · 3H2O,Ca)5(SiO4)3FHex. 6/m : P63/m

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

17.6.1NagelschmidtiteCa7(SiO4)2(PO4)2Hex. 6 : P61
17.6.2PerhamiteCa3Al7.7Si3P4O23.5(OH)14.1 · 8H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1
17.6.6Karnasurtite-(Ce)(Ce,La,Th)(Ti,Nb)(Al,Fe)(Si2O7)(OH)4 · 3H2O
17.6.8BornemaniteNa6BaTi2Nb(Si2O7)2(PO4)O2(OH)F Tric. 1 : P1
17.6.9SoboleviteNa13Ca2Mn2Ti3(Si2O7)2(PO4)4O3F3Mon. m : Pb
17.6.10Laplandite-(Ce)Na4CeTiPO4Si7O18 · 5H2O
17.6.11 VunonnemiteNa5TiNb3Si6O25F2 · 2Na3PO4
17.6.12Saryarkite-(Y)Ca(Y,Th)Al5(SiO4)2(PO4,SO4)2(OH)7 · 6H2OTet. 4 2 2
17.6.13Steenstrupine-(Ce)Na14Mn2+2(Fe3+,Mn3+)2Ce6(Zr,Th)(Si6O18)2(PO4)6(HPO4)(OH)2 · 2H2OTrig.
17.6.14WaylanditeBiAl3(PO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
17.6.15Britholite-(Ce)(Ce,Ca)5(SiO4)3OHHex. 6/m : P63/m

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Britholite-(Y)Hide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Hata, S. (1938): Abukumalite, a new mineral from pegmatites of Isaka, Fukushima prefecture. Sci. Pap. Inst. Phys. Chem. Res. Tokyo, 34, 1018-1023. [as abukumalite]
Omori, K. and Hasegawa, S. (1953): Yttrialite and abukumalite from pegmatite of Suishoyama, Iisaka village, Fukushima, Japan. J. Japan. Assoc. Mineral., Petrol. Econ. Geol., 37, 21-29. [as abukumalite]
Zeitschrift für Kristallographie: 206: 233-246.
Oberti, R., Ottolini, L., Della Ventura, G., Parodi, G.C. (2001): On the symmetry and crystal chemistry of britholite: New structural and microanalytical data. American Mineralogist, 86, 1066-1075.

Internet Links for Britholite-(Y)Hide

Localities for Britholite-(Y)Hide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
  • Québec
    • Abitibi-Témiscamingue
      • Témiscamingue RCM
        • Les Lacs-du-Témiscamingue
GSC database
    • Côte-Nord
      • Sept-Rivières RCM
Louise Corriveau (Date Modified: 2008-12-08) Mineral Deposits of Canada District Metallogeny The Manitou district a Canadian iron oxide copper-gold deposit setting. Geological Survey of Canada
Chunliu Song, Bingkun Qiao and Jianhong Zhang (1988): Acta Mineralogica Sinica 8(1), 19-24
  • Pirkanmaa
    • Valkeakoski
Siivola, J. (1975): The lanthanoid content of some minerals from the Pyörönmaa pegmatite in Kangasala, Finland. Geological Survey of Finland Bulletin. 276, 1-17
  • Southwest Finland
    • Kimitoön (Kemiönsaari)
Jyrki Autio Collection. Pavel M. Kartashov analytical data.
Ilkka Mikkola collection, identified with XRD and XRF.
    • Laitila
Pavel M. Kartashov analytical data 2019, Joel Dyer collection
Japan (TL)
  • Fukushima
Hata, S. (1938) Abukumalite [britholite-(Y)], a new mineral from pegmatites of Iisaka, Fukushima prefecture. Sci. Pap. Inst. Phys. Chem. Res., Tokyo, 34, 1018-1023.
    • Kawamata
Nagashima, K., Nakao, K., Wakita, H., & Kato, A. (1971). Chemical Studies of Minerals Containing Rarer Elements from the Far East District. LXIV. Abukumalite from Fusamata, Kawamata-machi, Fukushima Prefecture, Japan. Bull. Chem. Soc. Japan, 44, 867-869.
      • Iizaka Village (Iisaka)
Sci. Pap. Inst. Phys. Chem. Res., Tokyo, 34, 1018-1023.; Sueno, S., Matsuura, S., Bunno, M., & Kurosawa, M. (2002). Occurrence and crystal chemical features of protoferro-anthophyllite and protomangano-ferro-anthophyllite from Cheyenne Canyon and Cheyenne Mountain, USA and Hirukawa-mura, Suisho-yama, and Yokone-yama, Japan. Journal of mineralogical and petrological sciences, 97(4), 127-136.
  • Gifu
    • Nakatsugawa City
      • Hirukawa
ex-Okamoto collection, now (2015) on display at Hakusekikan museum, Hirukawa.
  • Hovd Aimag (Khovd Aimag)
    • Altai Mts
      • Khaldzan Buragtag massif
Pavel Kartashov analytical data (2012), selfcollected specimens of 1990
  • Nordland
    • Hamarøy
Husdal, T. (2008): The minerals of the pegmatites within the Tysfjord granite, northern Norway. Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrift 38: 5-28
Husdal, T. (2008): The minerals of the pegmatites within the Tysfjord granite, northern Norway. Norsk Bergverksmuseum, skrift 38, 5-28.
    • Tysfjord
      • Drag
        • Eivollen
Husdal, T., Müller, A. Olerud, S, & Thorsen, Ø. (2017) Pegmatites of the Tysfjord-Hamarøy area, northern Norway. in Müller et. al. (2017) Norwegian pegmatites ! Tysfjord-Hamarøy, Evje-Iveland, Langesundsfjord. Geological society of Norway Geological Guides 6-2017: 3-47.
        • Lapplægeret
Husdal, T. (2008): The minerals of the pegmatites within the Tysfjord granite, northern Norway. Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrift 38: 5-28
Husdal, T. (2008): The minerals of the pegmatites within the Tysfjord granite, northern Norway. Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrift 38: 5-28
Husdal, T. (2008): The minerals of the pegmatites within the Tysfjord granite, northern Norway. Norsk Bergverksmuseum, skrift 38, 5-28.
  • Telemark
    • Skien
      • Kilebygda
Neumann, H. (1985): Norges Mineraler. Norges geologiske Undersøkelse Skrifter 68(p. 124)
  • Vest-Agder
    • Vennesla
      • Øvrebø
Griffin, W.L., Nilssen, B. and Jensen, B.B. (1979) Britholite-(Y) and its alteration: Reiarsdal, Vest-Agder, south Norway. Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift 59: 265-271
  • Azores
    • São Miguel Island
Lavarde, S., Chiappino, L., Alves, P., Astolfi, M., (2019) Les Minéraux du massif volcanique du Fogo, Ile de São Miguel, Açores, Portugal. Le Règne Mineral, 145, 30-50
  • Khabarovsk Krai
Alekseev, V. I., & Marin, Y. B. (2015). Composition and evolution of accessory mineralization of Li–F granites in the Far East as indicators of their ore potential. Geology of Ore Deposits, 57(8), 635-644.
  • Murmansk Oblast
    • Belye Tundry Massif
Voloshin, A.V., Lyalina, L.M., Savchenko, Ye.E., Selivanova, E.A. [Волошин А.В., Лялина Л.М., Савченко Е.Э., Селиванова Е.А.] (2005): Intragranite rare-metal pegmatites of the alkaline granite formation of the Kola Peninsula. Quartz-zircon pseudomorphs [Внутригранитные редкометалльные пегматиты щелочногранитовой формации Кольского полуострова. Кварц-цирконовые псевдоморфозы]. Zapiski RMO [Записки РМО], 134, 4, 98-107; Lyalina, L.M., Savchenko, Ye.E., Selivanova, E.A. [Лялина Л.М., Савченко Е.Э., Селиванова Е.А.] (2007): Fluorthalénite-(Y) and crystalline britholite-(Y) in a pegmatite of the Belye Tundry alkali granite massif, Kola Peninsula [Фторталенит-(Y) и кристаллический бритолит-(Y) в пегматите щелочно-гранитного массива Белые тундры, Кольский полуостров]. Mineralogy in the whole space of this word. Proceedings of IV Fersman Scientific Session. Apatity, 4-6 June 2007 [Минералогия во всем пространстве сего слова. Труды IV Ферсмановской научной сессии. Апатиты, 4-6 июня 2007]. K & M, Apatity, 174-177; Lyalina, L.M., Selivanova, E.A., Savchenko, Ye.E., Zozulya, D.R., Kadyrova, G.I. (2014): Minerals of the gadolinite-(Y)–hingganite-(Y) series in the alkali granite pegmatites of the Kola Peninsula. Geology of Ore Deposits, 56, 675-684.
    • Lovozersky District
      • Keivy Mountains
Pavel M. Kartashov data
Lunts, A.Ya. [Лунц, А.Я] (1972) Mineralogy, geochemistry and origin of the rare-earth pegmatites of alkaline granites, north-western USSR [Минералогия, геохимия и генезис редкоземельных пегматитов щелочных гранитов Северо-Запада СССР]. Nedra [Недра], Moscow, 176 pp. (in Russian).
Pavel M. Kartashov data
No reference listed
  • Trenčín Region
    • Považská Bystrica Co.
Uher, P., Ondrejka, M.: Britolit-(Y): Neskoromagmatický akcesorický minerál Y-REE z granitu A-typu v Stupnom při Považskej Bystrici, Pieninské bradlové pásmo (severozápadné Slovensko). Bulletin mineralogicko-petrografického oddělení Národního muzea v Praze, 2008, vol. 16, 2, 224-229.; Uher, P., Ondrejka, M., Bačík, P., Broska, I. and Konečný, P. (2015): Britholite, monazite, REE-carbonates and calcite: products of hydrothermal alteration of allanite and apatite in A-type granite from Stupné, Western Carpathians, Slovakia. Lithos, 236-237, 212-225.
South Africa
  • North West
    • Bojanala Platinum District
      • Pilanesberg Alkaline Ring Complex
  • Jönköping County
    • Jönköping
      • Gränna
Adamson, O. J. (1944): The Petrology of the Norra Kärr District. An occurrence of alkaline Rocks in Southern Sweden. Geologiska Föreningen i Stockholm Förhandlingar, 66: 112-255; Thulin, H. (1996): Norra Kärr. Litiofilen 13: 17-51
Tindle, A.G. (2008) Minerals of Britian and Ireland
    • Highland
Fluid Evolution and The Formation and Alteration of Allanite in Skarn from the Beinn an Dhubaich Granite Aureole, Skye Martin Smith & Paul Henderson Jour. Conf. Abstracts 5: 939 (2000)
  • Colorado
    • Fremont Co.
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.
    • Gunnison Co.
      • White Earth Mining District (Powderhorn Mining District)
"Minerals of Colorado, updated & revised", p. 17, by Eckel, Edwin B., 1997
  • Michigan
    • Marquette Co.
      • Republic
"Mines and Minerals of Michigan's Iron Country," Ramon S. Demark. Rocks & Minerals, March 2000.
  • Nevada
    • Humboldt Co.
      • Bottle Creek Mining District
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
  • Texas
    • Llano Co.
      • Kingsland Granite Company Quarry (Petrick Quarry)
Arthur Smith, Frank Roberts, Denise Bicknell (2008) Mineral News, 24, #1, 6-7.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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