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Brunogeierite

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About BrunogeieriteHide

Formula:
Ge4+Fe2+2O4
Some solid solution towards magnetite: Fe2+Ge4+ = 2Fe3+.
Colour:
Grey-black
Lustre:
Sub-Metallic
Hardness:
5
Specific Gravity:
5.51 (Calculated)
Crystal System:
Isometric
Name:
Named after Dr. Bruno H. Geier (1902-1987), former Chief Mineralogist, Tsumeb Corporation.
Nesogermanate member of the ringwoodite group (Cempírek & Groat 2013).


Classification of BrunogeieriteHide

Approved
Approval year:
1972
First published:
1972
9.AC.15

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
A : Nesosilicates
C : Nesosilicates without additional anions; cations in octahedral [6] coordination
51.3.3.2

51 : NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
3 : Insular SiO4 Groups Only with all cations in octahedral [6] coordination
7.11.15

7 : Oxides and Hydroxides
11 : Oxides of Sn and Pb

Physical Properties of BrunogeieriteHide

Sub-Metallic
Transparency:
Opaque
Colour:
Grey-black
Hardness:
Density:
5.51 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of BrunogeieriteHide

Type:
Isotropic
Reflectivity:
400 nmR=15.5%
420 nmR=15.0%
440 nmR=14.5%
460 nmR=14.1%
480 nmR=13.8%
500nmR=13.6%
520 nmR=13.4%
540 nmR=13.3%
560 nmR=13.2%
580 nmR=13.1%
600 nmR=13.0%
620 nmR=13.0%
640 nmR=12.9%
660 nmR=12.8%
680 nmR=12.8%
700 nmR=12.8%

Reflectance graph
Graph shows reflectance levels at different wavelengths (in nm). Top of box is 100%. Peak reflectance is 15.5%.
Colour in reflected light:
Grey
Internal Reflections:
Brown

Chemical Properties of BrunogeieriteHide

Formula:
Ge4+Fe2+2O4

Some solid solution towards magnetite: Fe2+Ge4+ = 2Fe3+.
IMA Formula:
Fe2+2Ge4+O4

Crystallography of BrunogeieriteHide

Crystal System:
Isometric
Class (H-M):
m3m (4/m 3 2/m) - Hexoctahedral
Space Group:
Fd3m
Cell Parameters:
a = 8.409 - 8.416 Å
Unit Cell V:
594.61 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
8
Morphology:
Crystals rare. Usually as crusts or rims on tennantite (Tsumeb) or inclusions in sphalerite or magnetite (France).

Crystal StructureHide

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IDSpeciesReferenceLinkYearLocalityPressure (GPa)Temp (K)
0014558BrunogeieriteWelch M D, Cooper M A, Hawthorne F C (2001) The crystal structure of brunogeierite, Fe2GeO4 spinel Mineralogical Magazine 65 441-4442001Tsumeb, Namibia0293
CIF Raw Data - click here to close

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
2.540 Å(10)
1.484 Å(9)
1.615 Å(7)
2.972 Å(6)
1.095 Å(6)
1.720 Å(4)
1.283 Å(3)

Type Occurrence of BrunogeieriteHide

Geological Setting of Type Material:
Lower oxidation zone of dolostone-hosted hydrothermal polymetallic ore deposit at 930 m depth, formed by alteration of Ge-rich sulfides.
Reference:
Ottemann, J., Nuber, B. (1972) Brunogeierite, ein germanium-ferritspinell von Tsumeb. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Monatshefte: 1972: 263-267.

Synonyms of BrunogeieriteHide

Other Language Names for BrunogeieriteHide

Relationship of Brunogeierite to other SpeciesHide

Other Members of this group:
AhrensiteSiFe2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m)
Filipstadite(Fe3+0.5Sb5+0.5)Mn2O4Iso.
Qandilite(Mg,Fe3+)2(Ti,Fe3+,Al)O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
Ringwoodite(Mg,Fe2+)2SiO4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
Tegengrenite(Mn3+0.5Sb5+0.5)Mg2O4Trig.
UlvöspinelTiFe2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
1 photo of Brunogeierite associated with SchneiderhöhniteFe2+Fe3+3As3+5O13
1 photo of Brunogeierite associated with ArgutiteGeO2
1 photo of Brunogeierite associated with SphaleriteZnS

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

9.AC.AhrensiteSiFe2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m)
9.AC.05FayaliteFe2+2SiO4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
9.AC.05ForsteriteMg2SiO4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
9.AC.05GlaucochroiteCaMn2+SiO4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
9.AC.05KirschsteiniteCaFe2+SiO4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
9.AC.05Laihunite(Fe2+0.50.5)Fe3+[SiO4]Mon.
9.AC.05LiebenbergiteNi2SiO4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
9.AC.05TephroiteMn2+2SiO4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
9.AC.10MonticelliteCaMgSiO4Orth.
9.AC.15Ringwoodite(Mg,Fe2+)2SiO4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
9.AC.20ChesnokoviteNa2[SiO2(OH)2] · 8H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Ibca

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

51.3.3.1Ringwoodite(Mg,Fe2+)2SiO4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

7.11.1RomarchiteSnOTet.
7.11.2CassiteriteSnO2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P42/mnm
7.11.4SchoenfliesiteMg[Sn(OH)6]Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pn3
7.11.5BurtiteCa[Sn(OH)6]Iso.
7.11.6VismirnoviteZn[Sn(OH)6]Iso.
7.11.7WickmaniteMn2+[Sn(OH)6]Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pn3
7.11.8TetrawickmaniteMn2+[Sn4+(OH)6]Tet. 4/m : P42/n
7.11.9JeanbandyiteFe3+xFe2+1-xSn(OH)6-xOxTet. 4/m : P42/n
7.11.10NataniteFe2+[Sn(OH)6]Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Pn3m
7.11.11Mushistonite(Cu,Zn,Fe2+)[Sn(OH)6]Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Pn3m
7.11.12Ferronigerite-2N1S(Al,Fe,Zn)2(Al,Sn)6O11(OH)Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1
7.11.13MagnesionigeriteTrig.
7.11.14ArgutiteGeO2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P42/mnm
7.11.16StottiteFe2+[Ge4+(OH)6]Tet.
7.11.17CarboiriteFeAl2(GeO4)O(OH)2Tric.
7.11.18OtjisumeitePbGe4O9Tric.
7.11.19BartelkeitePb(Fe2+Ge)[Ge2O7](OH)2 · H2OMon. 2/m : P21/m
7.11.20MassicotPbOOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Cmmm
7.11.21LithargePbOTet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P4/nmm
7.11.22MiniumPb3O4Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P42/mbc
7.11.23PlattneritePbO2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P42/mnm
7.11.24Scrutinyiteα-PbO2Orth.
7.11.25MurdochitePbCu6O8-x(Cl,Br)2xIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
7.11.26MacedonitePbTiO3Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P4/nmm
7.11.27CesàrolitePb(Mn4+)3O6(OH)2
7.11.28CoronaditePb(Mn4+6Mn3+2)O16Mon. 2/m
7.11.29QuenselitePbMnO2(OH)Mon. 2/m : P2/b
7.11.30PlumboferritePb2(Fe3+,Mn2+,Mg)11O19Trig. 3 2 : P3 1 2
7.11.31Magnetoplumbite(Pb,Mn)(Fe,Mn)12O19Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
7.11.32SenaitePb(Mn,Y,U)(Fe,Zn)2(Ti,Fe,Cr,V)18(O,OH)38Trig.

Other InformationHide

Magnetism:
Ferromagnetic
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for BrunogeieriteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Ottemann, J., Nuber, B. (1972) Brunogeierite, ein germanium-ferritspinell von Tsumeb. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Monatshefte: 1972: 263-267.
Fleischer, M. (1973) New mineral names. American Mineralogist: 58: 347-349 (348).
Welch, M.D., Cooper, M.A. and Hawthorne, F.C. (2001) The crystal structure of brunogeierite, Fe2GeO4 spinel. Mineralogical Magazine: 65: 441-444.
Cempírek, J., Groat, L.A. (2013) Note on the formula of brunogeierite and the first bond-valence parameters for Ge2+. Journal of Geosciences: 58: 71-74. [http://www.jgeosci.org/content/jgeosci.130_cempirek.pdf]
Biagioni, C., Pasero, M. (2014) The systematics of the spinel-type minerals: an overview. American Mineralogist: 99: 1254-1264.

Internet Links for BrunogeieriteHide

Localities for BrunogeieriteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
France
 
  • Nouvelle-Aquitaine
    • Pyrénées-Atlantiques
      • Oloron-Sainte-Marie
        • Laruns
Cugerone, A. (2019) Impact of recrystallization and metamorphism on the mobility of germanium and related elements in orogenic Pb-Zn deposits: example of the Pyrenean Axial Zone mineralizations (France-Spain) (Doctoral dissertation, Université Montpellier).
  • Occitanie
    • Ariège
      • Saint-Girons
        • Couflens
F. Aye, J. Bouladon, P. Picot, G. Pouit : "Quelques exemples d'apport de la minéralogie à la connaissance et à la recherche des gîtes minéraux" , Bull. Mineral. , 1978, 101, 139-147
F. Aye, J. Bouladon, P. Picot, G. Pouit : "Quelques exemples d'apport de la minéralogie à la connaissance et à la recherche des gîtes minéraux" , Bull. Mineral. , 1978, 101, 139-147
        • Ustou
Lips, ALW (2006) A review of non-ferrous mineral deposits in Europe - Finalised initial database BRGM/RP -54957 - FR
    • Haute-Garonne
Handbook of Mineralogy
      • Saint-Gaudens
        • Argut-Dessous
F. Aye, J. Bouladon, P. Picot, G. Pouit : "Quelques exemples d'apport de la minéralogie à la connaissance et à la recherche des gîtes minéraux" , Bull. Mineral. , 1978, 101, 139-147
F. Aye, J. Bouladon, P. Picot, G. Pouit : "Quelques exemples d'apport de la minéralogie à la connaissance et à la recherche des gîtes minéraux" , Bull. Mineral. , 1978, 101, 139-147
        • Bagnères-de-Luchon
F. Aye, J. Bouladon, P. Picot, G. Pouit : "Quelques exemples d'apport de la minéralogie à la connaissance et à la recherche des gîtes minéraux" , Bull. Mineral. , 1978, 101, 139-147
F. Aye, J. Bouladon, P. Picot, G. Pouit : "Quelques exemples d'apport de la minéralogie à la connaissance et à la recherche des gîtes minéraux" , Bull. Mineral. , 1978, 101, 139-147
F. Aye, J. Bouladon, P. Picot, G. Pouit : "Quelques exemples d'apport de la minéralogie à la connaissance et à la recherche des gîtes minéraux" , Bull. Mineral. , 1978, 101, 139-147
        • Melles
Cugerone, A., Cenki-Tok, B., Chauvet, A., Le Goff, E., Bailly, L., Alard, O., & Allard, M. (2018). Relationships between the occurrence of accessory Ge-minerals and sphalerite in Variscan Pb-Zn deposits of the Bossost anticlinorium, French Pyrenean Axial Zone: Chemistry, microstructures and ore-deposit setting. Ore Geology Reviews, 95, 1-19.; Cugerone, A. (2019) Impact of recrystallization and metamorphism on the mobility of germanium and related elements in orogenic Pb-Zn deposits: example of the Pyrenean Axial Zone mineralizations (France-Spain) (Doctoral dissertation, Université Montpellier).
        • Saint-Béat
          • Plan-du-Rey
            • Couledoux
F. Aye, J. Bouladon, P. Picot, G. Pouit : "Quelques exemples d'apport de la minéralogie à la connaissance et à la recherche des gîtes minéraux" , Bull. Mineral. , 1978, 101, 139-147; Cugerone, A., Cenki-Tok, B., Chauvet, A., Le Goff, E., Bailly, L., Alard, O., & Allard, M. (2018). Relationships between the occurrence of accessory Ge-minerals and sphalerite in Variscan Pb-Zn deposits of the Bossost anticlinorium, French Pyrenean Axial Zone: Chemistry, microstructures and ore-deposit setting. Ore Geology Reviews, 95, 1-19.
    • Hautes-Pyrénées
      • Argelès-Gazost
        • Lourdes
F. Aye, J. Bouladon, P. Picot, G. Pouit : "Quelques exemples d'apport de la minéralogie à la connaissance et à la recherche des gîtes minéraux" , Bull. Mineral. , 1978, 101, 139-147
Namibia (TL)
 
  • Oshikoto Region
    • Tsumeb
Ottemann, J., Nuber, B. (1972) Brunogeierite, ein germanium-ferritspinell von Tsumeb. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Monatshefte: 1972: 263-267.; Fleischer, M. (1973) New mineral names. American Mineralogist: 58: 347-349.
 
Mineral and/or Locality  
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