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Butlerite

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Gurdon M. Butler
Formula:
Fe3+(SO4)(OH) · 2H2O
Colour:
Dark orange; light yellow-orange in transmitted light.
Lustre:
Vitreous
Hardness:
Specific Gravity:
2.548
Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Name:
Named by Carl Lausen in 1928 in honor of Gurdon Montague "Monty" Butler (March 26, 1881 Lake Geneva, Wisconsin, USA - February 21, 1961 California, USA), mining geologist and professor, University of Arizona. The Butler Mountains of Camino del Diablo, Arizona were also named for Gurdon Montague Butler.
Dimorph of:
Compare the anhydrous counterpart: 'Unnamed (Fe Sulphate Hydroxide)'.


Hide all sections | Show all sections

Classification of ButleriteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
7.DC.10

7 : SULFATES (selenates, tellurates, chromates, molybdates, wolframates)
D : Sulfates (selenates, etc.) with additional anions, with H2O
C : With only medium-sized cations; chains of edge-sharing octahedra
31.9.1.1

31 : HYDRATED SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
9 : (AB)(XO4)Zq·xH2O
25.10.15

25 : Sulphates
10 : Sulphates of Fe alone

Physical Properties of ButleriteHide

Vitreous
Transparency:
Translucent
Colour:
Dark orange; light yellow-orange in transmitted light.
Streak:
Pale yellow
Hardness:
2½ on Mohs scale
Cleavage:
Perfect
On {100}, perfect. another cleavage direction (pinacoidal) is imperfect
Density:
2.548 g/cm3 (Measured)    2.53 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of ButleriteHide

Type:
Biaxial (+/-)
RI values:
nα = 1.593 - 1.604 nβ = 1.665 - 1.674 nγ = 1.731 - 1.741
Birefringence:
moderately high
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.138
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
High
Dispersion:
r < v weak
Pleochroism:
Visible
Comments:
X ^c - 18° = Colourless
Y = Faint yellow
Z = b = Light yellow
Comments:
2V large.

Chemical Properties of ButleriteHide

Formula:
Fe3+(SO4)(OH) · 2H2O
IMA Formula:
Fe3+SO4(OH) · 2H2O

Crystallography of ButleriteHide

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:
P21/m
Setting:
P21/m
Cell Parameters:
a = 6.51 Å, b = 7.37 Å, c = 5.85 Å
β = 108.87°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.883 : 1 : 0.794
Unit Cell V:
265.59 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
2
Morphology:
Crystals commonly tabular {001} or {100} with a propensity for elongation [010]; also octahedral (anthropogenic).
Twinning:
Very common on {105}.

Epitaxial Relationships of ButleriteHide

Epitaxial Minerals:
ParabutleriteFe3+(SO4)(OH) · 2H2O
Epitaxy Comments:
Oriented growths.

Type Occurrence of ButleriteHide

Place of Conservation of Type Material:
University of Arizona Mineral Museum, Tucson, Arizona, M52; Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 90539; National Museum of Natural History, Washington, D.C., USA, 95953.
Geological Setting of Type Material:
Oxidation of pyrite in a mine fire with reactions to fire fighting techniques (water, steam, CO2)
Associated Minerals at Type Locality:

Other Language Names for ButleriteHide

German:Butlerit
Spanish:Butlerita

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Parabutlerite9 photos of Butlerite associated with Parabutlerite on mindat.org.
Copiapite7 photos of Butlerite associated with Copiapite on mindat.org.
Botryogen6 photos of Butlerite associated with Botryogen on mindat.org.
Amarantite1 photo of Butlerite associated with Amarantite on mindat.org.
Aragonite1 photo of Butlerite associated with Aragonite on mindat.org.
Aubertite1 photo of Butlerite associated with Aubertite on mindat.org.
Aluminocopiapite1 photo of Butlerite associated with Aluminocopiapite on mindat.org.
Halotrichite1 photo of Butlerite associated with Halotrichite on mindat.org.
Pyrite1 photo of Butlerite associated with Pyrite on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

7.DC.05AluminiteAl2(SO4)(OH)4 · 7H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
7.DC.05Meta-aluminiteAl2(SO4)(OH)4 · 5H2O
7.DC.10ParabutleriteFe3+(SO4)(OH) · 2H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
7.DC.15FibroferriteFe3+(SO4)(OH) · 5H2OMon.
7.DC.20XitieshaniteFe3+(SO4)Cl · 6H2OMon.
7.DC.25BotryogenMgFe3+(SO4)2(OH) · 7H2OMon. 2/m
7.DC.25Zincobotryogen(Zn,Mg,Mn2+)Fe3+(SO4)2(OH) · 7H2OMon. 2/m
7.DC.30ChaidamuiteZnFe3+(SO4)2(OH) · 4H2OTric. 1 : P1
7.DC.30GuilditeCuFe3+(SO4)2(OH) · 4H2OMon.

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

25.10.1SzomolnokiteFeSO4 · H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
25.10.2RozeniteFeSO4 · 4H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
25.10.3SiderotilFeSO4 · 5H2OTric.
25.10.4FerrohexahydriteFeSO4 · 6H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
25.10.5MelanteriteFeSO4 · 7H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
25.10.6Rhomboclase(H5O2)Fe3+(SO4)2 · 2H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
25.10.7LauseniteFe2(SO4)3·5H2OMon. 2/m : P21/m
25.10.8KorneliteFe2(SO4)3 · 7H2OMon. 2/m : P21/m
25.10.9CoquimbiteFe2-xAlx(SO4)3 · 9H2O, x ~0.5Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3 1c
25.10.10ParacoquimbiteFe2(SO4)3 · 9H2OTrig. 3 : R3
25.10.11QuenstedtiteFe2(SO4)3 · 11H2OTric. 1 : P1
25.10.12FerricopiapiteFe5(SO4)6O(OH) · 20H2OTric. 1 : P1
25.10.13MetahohmanniteFe3+2(SO4)2O · 4H2OTric. 1 : P1
25.10.14HohmanniteFe3+2(SO4)2O · 8H2OTric. 1
25.10.16ParabutleriteFe3+(SO4)(OH) · 2H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
25.10.17AmarantiteFe3+2(SO4)2O · 7H2OTric. 1
25.10.18FibroferriteFe3+(SO4)(OH) · 5H2OMon.
25.10.19Hydroniumjarosite(H3O)Fe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
25.10.20RömeriteFe2+Fe3+2(SO4)4 · 14H2OTric. 1 : P1
25.10.21BíliniteFe2+Fe3+2(SO4)4 · 22H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
25.10.22CopiapiteFe2+Fe3+4(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2OTric. 1 : P1

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for ButleriteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Posnjak, E., Merwin, H. (1922) The system, Fe2O3—SO3—H2O. Journal of the American Chemical Society: 44: 1965–1994.
Lausen, C. (1928) Hydrous sulphates formed under fumerolic conditions at the United Verde Mine. American Mineralogist: 13: 203-229.
Bandy, M.C. (1938) Mineralogy of three sulphate deposits of northern Chile. American Mineralogist: 23: 669-760.
Gordon (1941) Academy of Sciences, Philadelphia, Not. Nat., no. 89.
Frondel, C., Fleischer, M. (1942) New mineral names. American Mineralogist: 27: 144-144.
Palache, C., Berman, H., Frondel, C. (1951) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 608-609.
Fanfani, L., Nunzi, A., Zanazzi, P.F. (1971) The crystal structure of butlerite. American Mineralogist: 56: 751-757.
Rossman, G.R. (1976) Spectroscopic and magnetic studies of ferric iron hydroxy sulfates: the series Fe(OH)SO4·nH2O and jarosites. American Mineralogist: 61: 398-404.
Scordari, F. (1981) Fibroferrite: a mineral with a {Fe(OH)(H2O)2SO4} spiral chain and its relationship to Fe(OH)SO4, butlerite and parabutlerite. Tschermaks Mineralogische und Petrographische Mitteilungen: 28: 17-29.

Internet Links for ButleriteHide

Localities for ButleriteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Argentina
 
  • San Juan
    • Calingasta Department
      • Calingasta
        • Quebrada Alcaparrosa
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 480, 609, 1014.
Chile
 
  • Antofagasta Region
    • Antofagasta Province
      • Mejillones
        • Mejillones peninsula
Gunnar Farber specimens
      • Sierra Gorda District
Samples analysed by Dr. Jochen Schluter, Curator of Hamburg Mineralogical Museum, Germany
    • El Loa Province
      • Calama
        • Cerritos Bayos
samples analysed by Gerhard Moehn and Joy Desor
        • Chuquicamata District
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 609.
          • Toki Cu deposit (Toki Cluster)
Handbook of Mineralogy
  • Atacama Region
https://e-rocks.com/item/jyj211633/butlerite
  • Tarapacá Region
    • El Tamarugal Province
      • Pampa del Tamarugal
Peter G. Seroka collection
China
 
  • Qinghai Province
    • Haixi Autonomous Prefecture
      • Da Qaidam Co. (Dachaidan Co.)
        • Xitieshan
Wanmao Li, Guoying Chen, and Zhizhong Peng (1986): Acta Mineralogica Sinica 6(2), 109-114
Cuba
 
  • Isla de la Juventud special municipality
    • Isla de la Juventud (Isle of Pines; Island of Youth)
Zwahr, H. & Gonzales, R. (1999): Secondary sulfate mineralization of the kaolin deposit of Rio del Callejon, Cuba. Zeitschrift für Geologische Wissenschaften 27, 219-233.
Germany
 
  • Lower Saxony
    • Harz
      • Goslar
        • Astfeld
Schnorrer-Köhler, G. (1988): Mineralogische Notizen IV. Der Aufschluss, 39, 153-168.
Hungary
 
  • Baranya Co.
    • Mecsek Mts
      • Pécs
Szakáll, S. & Kristály, F. (2008): Ammonium sulphates from burning coal dumps at Komló and Pécs-Vasas, Mecsek Mts., South Hungary. Mineralogia, Special Papers, Vol. 32 (2nd Central-European Mineralogical Conference 2008 (CEMC)), 154.
Iran
 
  • Kerman Province
    • Rafsanjan County
      • Pariz
Khorasanipour, M. (2015). Environmental mineralogy of Cu-porphyry mine tailings, a case study of semi-arid climate conditions, Sarcheshmeh mine, SE Iran. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 153, 40-52.
  • Yazd Province
    • Saghand (Sagand; Saqand)
Bariand, P., Cesbron, F. & Berthelon, J. P. (1977): Iron sulfates of Saghand near Yazd (Iran). Memoire Hors-Série de la Société Géologique de France 8, 77-85.; Bariand, P., Berthelon, J. P., Cesbron, F. & Sadrzadeh, M. (1973): New aluminum sulfate hydrate, khademite of Saghand (Iran). Comptes Rendus des Seances de l'Académie des Sciences, Série C, 277, 1585-1588 (in French).
Morocco
 
  • Marrakech-Safi Region
    • Marrakech Prefecture
      • Marrakech
Rachid Hakkou, Mostafa Benzaazoua and Bruno Bussière (2008): Acid Mine Drainage at the Abandoned Kettara Mine (Morocco): 1. Environmental Characterization. Mine Water and the Environment, 27, 145-159.
Poland
 
  • Upper Silesia (Śląskie)
    • Rybnik District
      • Czerwionka-Leszczyny Commune
Kruszewski, Ł. (2013): Supergene minerals from the burning coal mining dumps in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin, South Poland. International Journal of Coal Geology: 105: 91-109 (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0166516212002881)
Kruszewski, Ł. (2013). Supergene sulphate minerals from the burning coal mining dumps in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin, South Poland. International Journal of Coal Geology, 105, 91-109.
Russia
 
  • Far-Eastern Region
    • Kamchatka Oblast'
Bortnikova, S. B., Bortnikova, S. P., Manstein Yu, A., Kiryuhin, A. V., Vernikovskaya, I. V., & Palchik, N. A. (2009, February). Thermal springs hydrogeochemistry and structure at North-Mutnovskoe fumarole field (South Kamchatka, Russia). In Proceedings, thirty–fourth workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering. Stanford University, Stanford, CA, pp SGP-TR-187.
    • Sakhalinskaya Oblast'
      • Kuril Islands (Kurile Islands)
        • Iturup Island
http://maurice.strahlen.org/kurilles/kurilles.htm
USA (TL)
 
  • Arizona
    • Yavapai Co.
      • Black Hills (Black Hill Range)
        • Verde District
          • Jerome
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 149; Lausen, C. (1928), Hydrous sulphates formed under fumerolic conditions at the United Verde mine, AmMin: 13: 203-229; Cesbron, F. (1964), Contribution à la minéralogie des sulfates de fer hydraté, Bull. Soc. Franc. Min. Crist: 87:125-143; Fanfani, L.A., et al (1971), The crystal structure of butlerite, Am.Min.: 56: 751-757; Galbraith, F.W. & Brennan (1959), Minerals of AZ: 66.
  • California
    • Inyo Co.
      • Coso Mts (Coso Range)
        • Coso District (New Coso District)
          • Coso Hot Springs
            • Coso Hot Springs deposit
www.mineralsocal.org
  • Colorado
    • Gunnison Co.
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckels, E. B.
  • Nevada
    • Washoe Co.
      • Steamboat Springs District
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
  • New Mexico
    • Santa Fe Co.
      • La Bajada District
Northrup, Minerals of New Mexico, 3rd Rev. Ed., 1996
  • Utah
    • Emery Co.
      • San Rafael District (San Rafael Swell)
        • Calf Mesa
UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
Am.Min.40:469
Mineral and/or Locality  
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