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About ButtgenbachiteHide

Henri J.F. Buttgenbach
Cu19(NO3)2(OH)32Cl4 · 2H2O
Deep blue; blue in transmitted light.
Crystal System:
Named in 1925 by A. Schoep for Henri Buttgenbach (Verviers, Liège province, Belgium February 5, 1874 - Sint-Pieters-Woluwe, Brussels, April 29, 1964), a Belgian mineralogist. He worked in Congo, and from 1921 on was a professor at the University of Liège. He described several minerals and wrote 'Les minéraux de Belgique et de Congo Belge', a reference work.
Connellite-Buttgenbachite Series.

A very rare secondary copper mineral.

Classification of ButtgenbachiteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)

D : Oxyhalides, hydroxyhalides and related double halides
A : With Cu, etc., without Pb
Dana 7th ed.:

1 : Anhydrous Nitrates Containing Hydroxyl or Halogen

13 : Nitrates

Physical Properties of ButtgenbachiteHide

Deep blue; blue in transmitted light.
Light blue

Optical Data of ButtgenbachiteHide

Uniaxial (+)
RI values:
nω = 1.738 nε = 1.752
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.014
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:

Chemical Properties of ButtgenbachiteHide

Cu19(NO3)2(OH)32Cl4 · 2H2O
IMA Formula:
Cu36(NO3)2Cl8(OH)62 · nH2O

Crystallography of ButtgenbachiteHide

Crystal System:
Class (H-M):
6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) - Dihexagonal Dipyramidal
Space Group:
Cell Parameters:
a = 15.75 Å, c = 9.161 Å
a:c = 1 : 0.582
Unit Cell V:
1968.04 ų
Crystals acicular [0001] and striated [0001]; radiating groups of needles; felted aggregates.

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Powder Diffraction Data:
13.70 (100)
7.95 (100)
3.27 (70)
2.75 (100)
2.51 (70)
2.30 (100)
1.621 (90)

Type Occurrence of ButtgenbachiteHide

Place of Conservation of Type Material:
Laboratory of Mineralogy, University of Liège.

Other Language Names for ButtgenbachiteHide

Relationship of Buttgenbachite to other SpeciesHide

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

3.DA.CentennialiteCaCu3Cl2(OH)6 · nH2O (n ~ 0.7)Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1
3.DA.10aAtacamiteCu2(OH)3ClOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
3.DA.10bBotallackiteCu2(OH)3ClMon. 2/m : P21/m
3.DA.10bClinoatacamiteCu2(OH)3ClMon. 2/m
3.DA.10aKempiteMn2+2(OH)3ClOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
3.DA.10cParatacamiteCu3(Cu,Zn)(OH)6Cl2Trig. 3m (3 2/m)
3.DA.10bBelloiteCu(OH)ClMon. 2/m : P21/b
3.DA.10cHerbertsmithiteCu3Zn(OH)6Cl2Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
3.DA.10cKapellasiteCu3Zn(OH)6Cl2Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1
3.DA.10cGillarditeCu3Ni(OH)6Cl2Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
3.DA.10cHaydeeiteCu3Mg(OH)6Cl2Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1
3.DA.15ClaringbulliteCu4ClF(OH)6Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
3.DA.15BarlowiteCu4BrF(OH)6Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
3.DA.20SimonkolleiteZn5Cl2(OH)8 · H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1
3.DA.25ConnelliteCu19(SO4)(OH)32Cl4 · 3H2OHex. 6 m2 : P62c
3.DA.40AnthonyiteCu(OH,Cl)2 · 3H2OMon. 2/m
3.DA.40CalumetiteCu(OH,Cl)2 · 2H2OOrth.
3.DA.45KhaidarkaniteNa0.34Cu4Al3(OH)14F3 · 2H2OMon.
3.DA.50BobkingiteCu5Cl2(OH)8 · 2H2OMon. 2/m : B2/m
3.DA.55AvdoniniteK2Cu5(OH)4Cl8 · H2OMon. 2/m
3.DA.60DroninoiteNi6Fe2+3(OH)16Cl2 · 4H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

13.1NitratineNaNO3Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3c
13.2NiterKNO3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pmma
13.3GerhardtiteCu2(NO3)(OH)3Orth. 2 2 2 : P21 21 21
13.4NitromagnesiteMg(NO3)2 · 6H2OMon. 2/m
13.5NitrocalciteCa(NO3)2 · 4H2OMon. 2/m
13.6NitrobariteBa(NO3)2Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
13.8SveiteKAl7(NO3)4(OH)16Cl2 · 8H2OMon.
13.9DarapskiteNa3(SO4)(NO3) · H2OMon. 2/m
13.10HumberstoniteNa7K3Mg2(SO4)6(NO3)2 · 6H2OTrig. 3 : R3
13.11Mbobomkulite(Ni,Cu)Al4((NO3)2,SO4)(OH)12 · 3H2OMon.
13.12Hydrombobomkulite(Ni,Cu)Al4((NO3)2,SO4)(OH)12 · 13-14H2OMon.
13.13Nickelalumite(Ni,Cu)Al4(SO4,(NO3)2)(OH)12 · 3H2OMon.

Other InformationHide

Soluble in acids and in ammonium hydroxide. Insoluble in water.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for ButtgenbachiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Penfield (1890) American Journal of Science: 40: 82.
Schoep, A. (1925) Comptes rendus de l'Académie des Sciences de Paris, vol. 181, 421.
Schoep, A. (1925) Bulletin de la Société Chimique de Belgique, vol. 34, 313.
Bannister, F.A., Hey, M.H., and Claringbull, G.F. (1950) Connellite, buttgenbachite, and tallingite. Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 29, n° 211, 280-286.
Palache, C., Berman, H., and Frondel, C. (1951) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 572-573.
Mélon, J. and Toussaint, J. (1952) La buttgenbachite de Likasi (Congo belge). Bulletin de la Société Géologique de Belgique 75, 293-296. (in French).
American Mineralogist: 11: 216.
American Mineralogist: 12: 381.
Mineralogical Magazine: 39: 264-270.
Leverett, P., Williams, P.A., and Hibbs, D.E. (2007) Buttgenbachite from Cornwall: a single crystal study. Journal of the Russell Society 10, 47-50 [abstract: MinAbs 08M/1136]

Internet Links for ButtgenbachiteHide

Localities for ButtgenbachiteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
  • Queensland
    • Cloncurry Shire
      • Cloncurry
Handbook of Mineralogy Vol V
Sharpe, J.L., Williams, P.A. (2000) Exotic Secondary Copper Mineralization in the Eastern Mt Isa Block, Northwest Queensland. The Royal Society of New South Wales, 133:31-32.
DR Congo (TL)
  • Haut-Katanga
    • Kambove District
      • Likasi (Jadotville; Jadotstad)
Palache, C., Berman, H., and Frondel, C. (1951) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 573.; Lapis (1992): 17(3), 13-40.; http://www.champ-hannut.be/fichierpdf/Rev%20SP%202017%20NL.pdf
Lapis 17(3), 13-40 (1992)
  • Lualaba
    • Kolwezi mining district
Personal communication from Jasun McAvoy. Jasun acquired the material from one of the miners. The material has been analyzed.
Personal communication from Jasun McAvoy and Carsten Slotta.
  • Tuscany
    • Livorno Province
      • Campigliese (Campiglia Mountains; Campiglia Ridge)
        • Campiglia Marittima
          • Madonna di Fucinaia (Madonna della Fucinaia) slag heaps
Francesco Bonotti collection
  • Trøndelag
    • Oppdal
      • Dindalen
Witsø, T. (1995): Mineraler i Oppdal med beskrivelse. Driva Kro og steinsenter. Unpublished paper. http://vinstradalen.no/pdf/Mineraler.pdf
  • England
    • Cornwall
      • St Just
        • Botallack
Golley, P. & Williams, R. (1995): Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications (Truro), 104 pp.
  • Arizona
    • Cochise Co.
      • Mule Mts
        • Warren District
          • Bisbee
Hibbs, Leverette, Williams (2006) Connellite from Bisbee Arizona: A single Crystal X-ray Study Axis Vol 2 No. 2 http://www.minrec.org/pdfs/CONNELLITE.pdf
      • Tombstone Hills
        • Tombstone District
          • Tombstone
Hibbs, Leverette, Williams (2006) Connellite from Bisbee Arizona: A single Crystal X-ray Study Axis Vol 2 No. 2 http://www.minrec.org/pdfs/CONNELLITE.pdf
    • Pima Co.
      • Tohono O'odom (Papago) Indian Reservation
        • Comobabi Mts
          • Cababi District (Comobabi District)
            • Ko Vaya
              • Mildren Mine group
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 149; Williams, S.A, (1963), Oxidation of sulfide ores in the Mildren and Steppe mining districts, Pima Co., AZ, Econ.Geol.: 58: 1119-1125.
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 149; Williams, S.A, (1963), Oxidation of sulfide ores in the Mildren and Steppe mining districts, Pima Co., AZ, Econ.Geol.: 58: 1119-1125.
  • Michigan
    • Houghton Co.
      • Centennial
Rocks & Min.:58:109.
Rocks & Minerals 82:276-297
Mineralogy of Michigan (E. W. Heinrich & G. W. Robinson)
  • Nevada
    • Esmeralda Co.
      • Coaldale District
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
Mineral and/or Locality  
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