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About BütschliiteHide

Johann Adam Otto Bütschli
Grayish yellow, brownish gray, may be pale green
Specific Gravity:
2.607 (Calculated)
Crystal System:
Named after Johann Adam Otto Bütschli (1848-1920), Heidelberg, Germany, who prepared the artificial compound.
Dimorph of:
A poorly studied material that should probably not be afforded species status.

Classification of BütschliiteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)

A : Carbonates without additional anions, without H2O
C : Alkali and alkali-earth carbonates
Dana 7th ed.:

3 : A2B(XO3)2

11 : Carbonates
1 : Carbonates of the alkali metals and ammonium

Physical Properties of BütschliiteHide

Grayish yellow, brownish gray, may be pale green
(not reported)
Good (?) on {0001}
2.607 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of BütschliiteHide

RI values:
nω = 1.595 nε = 1.455
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.140
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:

Chemical Properties of BütschliiteHide


Crystallography of BütschliiteHide

Crystal System:
Class (H-M):
3m (3 2/m) - Hexagonal Scalenohedral
Space Group:
Cell Parameters:
a = 5.3822(4) Å, c = 18.156(2) Å
a:c = 1 : 3.373
Unit Cell V:
455.48 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Microscopic barrel-shaped crystals elongated [0001], earthy to porcellaneous masses.
On synthetic

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Powder Diffraction Data:
0.933 Å(20)
1.044 Å(20)
1.614 Å(20)
1.69 Å(20)
2.07 Å(10)
2.69 Å(10)
2.86 Å(100)
3.02 Å(30)

Type Occurrence of BütschliiteHide

Geological Setting of Type Material:
Clinkers formed by the fusion of wood ash in partly burned trees.
Associated Minerals at Type Locality:

Synonyms of BütschliiteHide

Other Language Names for BütschliiteHide

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

5.AC.10NyerereiteNa2Ca(CO3)2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Cmcm
5.AC.20FairchilditeK2Ca(CO3)2Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
5.AC.25ShortiteNa2Ca2(CO3)3Orth. mm2 : Amm2
5.AC.30Burbankite(Na,Ca)3(Sr,Ba,Ce)3(CO3)5Hex. 6mm : P63mc
5.AC.30CalcioburbankiteNa3(Ca,REE,Sr)3(CO3)5Hex. 6mm : P63mc
5.AC.30SanromániteNa2CaPb3[CO3]5Hex. 6mm : P63mc

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

11.1.1ZabuyeliteLi2CO3Mon. 2/m : B2/b
11.1.3NahcoliteNaHCO3Mon. 2/m
11.1.4WegscheideriteNa5H3(CO3)4Tric. 1 : P1
11.1.5ThermonatriteNa2CO3 · H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pmmm
11.1.6TronaNa3H(CO3)2 · 2H2OMon. 2/m
11.1.7NatronNa2CO3 · 10H2OMon. 2/m : P2/m
11.1.8KaliciniteKHCO3Mon. 2/m
11.1.9ShortiteNa2Ca2(CO3)3Orth. mm2 : Amm2
11.1.10NyerereiteNa2Ca(CO3)2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Cmcm
11.1.13PirssoniteNa2Ca(CO3)2 · 2H2OOrth. mm2 : Fdd2
11.1.14GaylussiteNa2Ca(CO3)2 · 5H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
11.1.15BaylissiteK2Mg(CO3)2 · 4H2OMon.
11.1.16FairchilditeK2Ca(CO3)2Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
11.1.18Teschemacherite(NH4)HCO3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pccn

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for BütschliiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Milton and Axelrod (1947) American Mineralogist: 32: 607-624.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: Halides, Nitrates, Borates, Carbonates, Sulfates, Phosphates, Arsenates, Tungstates, Molybdates, Etc. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 231-232.
American Mineralogist (1974): 59: 353-358.
Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Monatshefte (1980): 230-236.

Internet Links for BütschliiteHide

Localities for BütschliiteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
  • Minas Gerais
    • Conselheiro Pena
Bermanec, V., Scholz, R., Markovic, F., Zigovecki-Gobac, Z., and Chaves, M. L. S. C. (2011) Mineralogy of the Boa Vista pegmatite, Galiléia, Minas Gerais, Brazil: Contributions to the 5th International Symposium on Granitic Pegmatites, Galliski et al., eds., Assoc. Geológica Argentina, Serie D, Publicación Especial 14, p. 33-35.; Bermanec, V., Scholz, R., Marković, F., Gobac, Ž. Ž., & Chaves, M. L. D. S. C. (2011) Mineralogy of the Boa Vista pegmatite, Galileia, Minas Gerais, Brazil. In 5th international symposium on granitic pegmatites, PEG 2011.
Scholz R, Chukanov N V, Menezes L A D, Atencio D, Lagoeiro L, Belotti F M, Chaves M L S C, Romano A W, Brandão P R, Belakovskiy D I, Pekov I (2014) Césarferreiraite, Fe2+Fe3+2(AsO4)2(OH)28·H2O, from Eduardo mine, Conselheiro Pena, Minas Gerais, Brazil: Second arsenate in the laueite mineral group. American Mineralogist 99, 607-611
  • Ontario
    • Lennox and Addington County
      • Richmond Township
Trail,R.J. 1980, Catalogue of Canadian Minerals, GSC Paper 80-18; Handbook of Mineralogy
    • Renfrew County
Handbook of Mineralogy
Trail,R.J. 1980, Catalogue of Canadian Minerals, GSC Paper 80-18
  • Silesian Voivodeship
    • Rybnik City Co.
Kruszewski, Ł., Fabiańska, M.J., Segit, T., Kusy, D., Motyliński, R., Ciesielczuk, J., Deput, E., (2019): Carbon-nitrogen compounds, alcohols, mercaptans, monoterpenes, acetates, aldehydes, ketones, SF6, PH3, and other fire gases in coal-mining waste heaps of Upper Silesian Coal Basin (Poland) – a re-investigation by means of in situ FTIR external database approach. Science of The Total Environment (in press)
  • Arizona
    • Coconino County
      • Grand Canyon
        • Point Sublime (Sublime Point)
          • Kanabownits Canyon
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 149; Milton, C. (1944), Stones from trees, Scientific Monthly: 59: 421-423; Milton, C. & J. Axelrod (1947), Fused woodash stones: Fairchildite (n.sp.) K2CO3·CaCO3, buetschlite (n.sp.) 3K2CO3·2CacO3·6H2O, and calcite, CaCO3, their essential components, Am.Min.: 32: 607-624; Mrose, M.E., et al (1966), Synthesis and properties of fairchildite and buetschlite: Their relationship in wood-ash stone formations, Geol. Soc. Amer. Spec. Paper 101: 146.
Milton and Axelrod (1947) American Mineralogist: 32: 607-624.
    • Maricopa Co.
Garvie, L.A.J. (2016): Mineralogy of paloverde (Parkinsonia microphylla) tree ash from the Sonoran Desert: A combined field and laboratory study. American Mineralogist: 101 : 1584-1595; http://forum.amiminerals.it/viewtopic.php?f=5&t=12875 (2016
  • Idaho
    • Bonner Co.
      • Kaniksu National Forest
Handbook of Mineralogy - Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols
  • Oregon
    • Jackson Co.
ID by PXRD, on sample field collected by Frank Callahan in ash from burned Arbutus Menziesii (madrone) trees.
  • Virginia
    • Montgomery Co.
Mineralogical Record: 2(3): 130-132.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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