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Calaverite

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Formula:
AuTe2
System:
Monoclinic
Colour:
Grass yellow to silver ...
Lustre:
Metallic
Hardness:
2½ - 3
Name:
Named in 1868 by Fredrick August Ludwig Karl Wilhelm Genth for the type locality at the Stanislaus Mine, in Calaveras County, California, USA.
Closely related to krennerite.


Classification of Calaverite

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
2.EA.10

2 : SULFIDES and SULFOSALTS (sulfides, selenides, tellurides; arsenides, antimonides, bismuthides; sulfarsenites, sulfantimonites, sulfbismuthites, etc.)
E : Metal Sulfides, M: S <= 1:2
A : M:S = 1:2 - With Cu, Ag, Au
2.12.13.2

2 : SULFIDES
12 : AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
3.3.1

3 : Sulphides, Selenides, Tellurides, Arsenides and Bismuthides (except the arsenides, antimonides and bismuthides of Cu, Ag and Au, which are included in Section 1)
3 : Sulphides etc. of Au

Physical Properties of Calaverite

Metallic
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Opaque
Colour:
Grass yellow to silver white
Streak:
Greenish to yellowish gray
Hardness (Mohs):
2½ - 3
Hardness (Vickers):
VHN100=197 - 213 kg/mm2
Tenacity:
Brittle
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven, Sub-Conchoidal
Density:
9.1 - 9.4 g/cm3 (Measured)    9.31 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of Calaverite

Type:
Anisotropic
Anisotropism:
Weak
Colour in reflected light:
White
Pleochroism:
Weak

Chemical Properties of Calaverite

Formula:
AuTe2
Elements listed in formula:
Common Impurities:
Ag

Crystallography of Calaverite

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Cell Parameters:
a = 7.19 Å, b = 4.4 Å, c = 5.08 Å
β = 90.3°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 1.634 : 1 : 1.155
Unit Cell Volume:
V 160.71 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
4
Morphology:
Bladed and short to slender prisms.
Twinning:
Commonly on {110}, less frequently on {031} and {111}.
Comment:
Space group C2/m or C2. Incommensurately modulated structure. Some analogies to muthmannite.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
3.02 (10)
2.93 (3)
2.20 (4)
2.09 (8)
1.758 (3)
1.689 (3)
1.506 (3)
Comments:
Similar to the data for muthmannite.

Occurrences of Calaverite

Type Occurrence of Calaverite

Relationship of Calaverite to other Species

2.EA.05SylvaniteAgAuTe4
2.EA.15KostoviteAuCuTe4
2.EA.15KrenneriteAu3AgTe8
2.EA.20BerndtiteSnS2
2.EA.20KitkaiteNiTeSe
2.EA.20MeloniteNiTe2
2.EA.20MerenskyitePdTe2
2.EA.20MoncheitePt(Te,Bi)2
2.EA.20ShuangfengiteIrTe2
2.EA.20SudovikovitePtSe2
2.EA.25VerbeekitePdSe2
2.EA.30DrysdalliteMoSe2
2.EA.30JordisiteMoS2
2.EA.30MolybdeniteMoS2
2.EA.30TungsteniteWS2
3.3.2KrenneriteAu3AgTe8
3.3.3KostoviteAuCuTe4
3.3.4UytenbogaardtiteAg3AuS2
3.3.5FischesseriteAg3AuSe2
3.3.6PetrovskaiteAuAgS
3.3.7PetziteAg3AuTe2
3.3.8MuthmanniteAuAgTe2
3.3.9SylvaniteAgAuTe4
3.3.10Penzhinite(Ag,Cu)4Au(S,Se)4
3.3.11Bezsmertnovite(Au,Ag)4Cu(Te,Pb)
3.3.12BilibinskiteAu3Cu2Pb · nTeO2
3.3.13Bogdanovite(Au,Te,Pb)3(Cu,Fe)
3.3.14Montbrayite(Au,Sb)2Te3

Other Names for Calaverite

Name in Other Languages:
German:Calaverit
Simplified Chinese:碲金矿
Spanish:Calaverita

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.
Industrial Uses:
Gold ore

References for Calaverite

Reference List:
Genth, F.A. (1868) Contributions to mineralogy - No. VII. American Journal of Science and Arts: 95: 305-321.

Genth, F.A. (1878) On some tellurium and vanadium minerals. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society: 17: 113-123.

Hillebrand, W.F. (1895) Chemical composition of calaverite from Cripple Creek, Colorado. Annual Report of the United States Geological Survey: 16: 133-135.

Hillebrand, W.F. (1895) Calaverite from Cripple Creek, Colorado. American Journal of Science: 150: 128-131.

Penfield, S.L., Ford, W.E. (1902) Über den Calaverit: Zeitschrift für Krystallographie und Mineralogie: 35: 430-451.

Smith, G.F.H. (1903) Ueber das bemerkenswerthe Problem der Entwickelung der Kristallformer der Calaverit: Zeitschr. Kristallographie, Band 37: 209-234.

Zeitschrift für Kristallographie: 169: 227-236.

Goldschmidt, V., Palache, C., Peacock, M.A. (1931) Über Calaverit: Neues Jahrb. F. Min. etc. B.B. 63, Abt. A.: 1-58.

Short, M.N. (1937) Etch tests on calaverite, krennerite, and sylvanite. American Mineralogist: 22: 667-674.

Palache, C., Berman, H., Frondel, C. (1944) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 335-338.

Thompson, R.M. (1949) The telluride minerals and their occurrence in Canada. American Mineralogist: 34: 341-382.

Pertlik, F. (1984) Kristallchemie natürlicher telluride III: Die kristallstruktur des minerals calaverit, AuTe2. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie: 169: 227-236.

Schutte, W.J., de Boer, J.L. (1988) Valence fluctuations in the incommensurately modulated structure of calaverite AuTe2. Acta Cryst.: 44: 486–494.

Reithmayer, K., Steurer, W., Schulz, H., de Boer, J.L. (1993) High-pressure single-crystal structure study on calaverite, AuTe2. Acta Crystallographica: B49: 6-11.

Wagner, F.E., Sawicki, J.A., Friedl, J., Mandarino, J.A., Harris, D.C., Cabri, L.J. (1994) 197Au Mössbauer study of the gold–silver ditellurides sylvanite, krennerite and calaverite. The Canadian Mineralogist: 32: 189-201.

Stanek, J. (1995) 197Au Mössbauer study of the gold-silver ditellurides sylvanite, krennerite and calaverite: discussion. The Canadian Mineralogist: 33: 185-185.

Wagner, F.E., Sawicki, J.A., Friedl, J. (1995) 197Au Mössbauer study of the gold-silver ditellurides sylvanite, krennerite and calaverite: reply. The Canadian Mineralogist: 33: 187-188.

Internet Links for Calaverite

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Specimens:
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Localities for Calaverite

Mineral and/or Locality  
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