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Calcite

This page kindly sponsored by Dragon Minerals
Formula:
CaCO3
Colour:
White, Yellow, Red, Orange, Blue, Green, Brown, Gray etc.
Lustre:
Vitreous, Sub-Vitreous, Resinous, Waxy, Pearly
Hardness:
3
Specific Gravity:
2.7102
Crystal System:
Trigonal
Member of:
Name:
Ancient name. Named as a mineral by Gaius Plinius Secundus (Pliny the elder) in 79 from Calx, Latin for Lime.
Calcite Group. Calcite-Rhodochrosite Series.

A very common and widespread mineral with highly variable forms and colours. Calcite is best recognized by its relatively low Mohs hardness (3) and its high reactivity with even weak acids, such as vinegar, plus its prominent cleavage in most varieties.

NOTE on the unit cell and the Miller indices: Before the advent of X-ray crystallography, the axial ratios were determined by measuring the interfacial angles and looking for the smallest numbers that fitted, assuming that the largest faces were the lowest order. Remarkably the classical crystallographers usually got it right, confirmed by indexing the X-ray diffraction patterns. However, for calcite and the calcite group they got it wrong. The old morphological calcite cell had c/a = 0.8543. The structural cell has c four times as large as would have been calculated for the morphological cell, now c/a = 3.419 (Maslen et al. 1993). Most of the Miller indices here are from ancient times and the c value should, therefore, be multiplied by 4. E.g. the rhombohedral cleavage is given as "Perfect on {1011}" in the old setting and should be "Perfect on {1014}" in the correct structural setting.

An important biomineral. As such, it forms from metastable vaterite via dissolution-reprecipitation process, preceded by vaterite formation via dissolution of its precursor, that is Unnamed (Amorphous Calcium Carbonate) (Bots et al., 2012; Sugiura et al., 2016). Calcite biomineralization may be induced by bacteria. A very recent review on fungal calcite biomineralization is given by Bindschedler et al. (2016).

Visit gemdat.org for gemological information about Calcite.


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Classification of CalciteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
5.AB.05

5 : CARBONATES (NITRATES)
A : Carbonates without additional anions, without H2O
B : Alkali-earth (and other M2+) carbonates
Dana 7th ed.:
14.1.1.1
14.1.1.1

14 : ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
1 : A(XO3)
11.4.1

11 : Carbonates
4 : Carbonates of Ca

Physical Properties of CalciteHide

Vitreous, Sub-Vitreous, Resinous, Waxy, Pearly
Transparency:
Transparent, Translucent
Comment:
Pearly on cleavage and {0001}. Can be dull or earthy in chalk variety.
Colour:
White, Yellow, Red, Orange, Blue, Green, Brown, Gray etc.
Streak:
White
Hardness:
Hardness Data:
Mohs hardness reference species
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Perfect
Perfect on {1011}.
Parting:
Readily along twin lamellae {0112} and {0001}.
Fracture:
Conchoidal
Density:
2.7102(2) g/cm3 (Measured)    2.711 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of CalciteHide

Type:
Uniaxial (-)
RI values:
nω = 1.640 - 1.660 nε = 1.486
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.154 - 0.174
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Low
Optical Extinction:
Symmetrical to cleavage traces.

Chemical Properties of CalciteHide

Formula:
CaCO3
CAS Registry number:
471-34-1

CAS Registry numbers are published by the American Chemical Society
Common Impurities:
Mn,Fe,Zn,Co,Ba,Sr,Pb,Mg,Cu,Al,Ni,V,Cr,Mo

Crystallography of CalciteHide

Crystal System:
Trigonal
Class (H-M):
3m (3 2/m) - Hexagonal Scalenohedral
Space Group:
R3c
Setting:
R3c
Cell Parameters:
a = 4.9896(2) Å, c = 17.061(11) Å
Ratio:
a:c = 1 : 3.419
Unit Cell V:
367.85 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
6
Morphology:
Over 800 different forms have been described. Most commonly as acute rhombohedrons or prismatic with scalenohedral terminations, or combinations of the two.
Twinning:
At least four twin laws have been described, the most common being when the twin plane and the composition plane are {0112}. Also common with twinning on {0001} with {0001} as the compositional surface, producing re-entrant angles. Uncommon with {1011} or {0221} as twin planes, producing somewhat heart-shaped crystals ("butterfly" twins).

Crystallographic forms of CalciteHide

Crystal Atlas:
Image Loading
Click on an icon to view
Calcite no.1 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.2 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.3 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.4 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.5 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.6 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.7 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.8 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.9 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.10 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.11 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.12 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.13 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.14 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.15 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.16 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.17 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.18 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.19 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.20 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.21 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.22 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.23 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.24 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.25 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.26 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.27 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.28 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.29 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.30 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.31 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.32 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.33 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.34 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.35 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.36 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.37 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.38 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.39 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.40 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.41 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.42 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.43 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.44 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.45 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.46 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.47 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.48 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.49 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.50 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.51 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.52 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.53 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.54 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.55 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.56 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.57 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.58 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.59 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.60 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.61 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.62 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.63 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.64 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.65 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.66 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.67 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.68 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.69 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.70 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.71 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.72 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.73 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.74 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.75 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.76 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.77 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.78 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.79 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.80 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.81 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.82 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.83 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.84 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.85 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.86 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.87 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.88 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.89 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.90 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.91 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.92 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.93 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.94 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.95 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.96 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.97 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.98 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.99 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.100 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.101 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.102 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.103 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.104 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.105 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.106 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.107 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.108 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.109 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.110 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.111 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.112 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.113 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.114 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.115 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.116 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.117 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.118 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.119 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.120 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.121 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.122 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.123 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.132 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Calcite no.162 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Calcite no.1708 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.1709 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.1710 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.1711 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.1712 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.1713 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.1714 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.1715 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.1716 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.1717 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.1718 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.1719 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.1720 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.1721 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.1722 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.1723 - Goldschmidt (1913)
Calcite no.1724 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Calcite no.2032 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Calcite no.2179 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Calcite no.2266 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Calcite no.2323 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Calcite no.2326 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Calcite no.2342 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Calcite no.2403 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Calcite no.2467 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Calcite no.2481 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Calcite - Contact twin on {012}
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Epitaxial Relationships of CalciteHide

Epitaxial Minerals:
QuartzSiO2
DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Epitaxy Comments:
Often noted overgrowing crystals of other members of the calcite group and of dolomite with the crystal axes oriented in parallel position. Calcite is similarly noted overgrown by these species. Noted in oriented position on quartz, with calcite {0112} parallel to quartz {1011}

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
3.86(12)
3.035(100)
2.845 (3)
2.495(14)
2.285(18)
2.095 (18)
1.927 (5)
1.913(17)
1.875(17)
1.604(10)
Comments:
ICDD 5-586 (synthetic), ICDD 24-27, ICDD 2-714 (manganoan)

Synonyms of CalciteHide

Other Language Names for CalciteHide

Anglo-Saxon:Calcite
Basque:Kaltzita
Belarusian:Кальцый
Bosnian (Latin Script):Kalcit
Bulgarian:Калцит
Catalan:Calcita
Croatian:Kalcit
Czech:Kalcit
Danish:Kalk
Dutch:Calciet
Esperanto:Kalcito
Estonian:Kaltsiit
Finnish:Kalsiitti
Galician:Calcita
Greek:χάλζ
Hebrew:קלציט
Hungarian:Kalcit
Japanese:方解石
Latvian:Kalcīts
Lithuanian:Kalcitas
Norwegian (Bokmål):Kalk
Persian:کلسیت
Polish:Kalcyt
Portuguese:Calcita
Romanian:Calcit
Serbian (Cyrillic Script):Калцит
Simplified Chinese:方解石
Slovak:Kalcit
Turkish:Kalsit
Ukrainian:Кальцит
Vietnamese:Canxit

Varieties of CalciteHide

Angels Wing CalciteA variety of calcite determined by the crystal shape and color, i.e., large, very thin, tabular white crystals, purportedly resembling angels' wings. The crystals are usually thicker at the base and colourless within the interior of the thicker areas. Com...
BaricalciteName for a barian variety of Calcite.
BarleycornA variety of calcite consisting of pseudomorphs, possibly of gaylussite.
BruyeriteA black concretionary calcite.
Calcite Satin SparThe original name Satin Spar referred to a variety of Calcite. Currently 'Satin Spar' is often used to refer to a variety of Gypsum (See Satin Spar Gypsum, so to avoid confusion the original Calcite variety material is listed on this website as Satin Spar...
Capreite
Cobaltoan CalciteA variety of calcite containing Co2+ replacing Ca.

Originally described from Vallone stope, Cape Calamita Mine (Calamita Mine), Capoliveri, Elba Island, Livorno Province, Tuscany, Italy.
Crazy CalciteA locally applied name in the Franklin, NJ, area for massive calcite that fluoresces two shades and intensities of red under SW UV. The disparity in fluorescence is due to isolated blebs of calcite and a more dolomitic material, both bearing manganese, bu...
Dog-tooth SparA variety of calcite consisting of scalenohedral crystals resembling a dog's canine teeth.
Dolomitic CalciteA variety of calcite containing small amounts of Mg in substitution for Ca (see also Mg-rich calcite). Maximum solubility of Mg in calcite appears to be small. The so-called magnesian limestones and magnesian marbles are mechanical mixtures of calcite and...
Ferroan Calcite
GennoishiJapanese name for pseudomorphs of calcite after ikaite.
GlendoniteName for a calcite pseudomorph after ikaite.

Originally reported from Glendon, NSW, Australia.
HematoconiteA blood-red calcite coloured by inclusions of Hematite
Hislopite
Iceland SparAn optically clear form of calcite, originally from Iceland, but may occur anywhere.
Originally reported from Helgustadir Mine, Eskifjord, Iceland.
KanonenspatMorphological variety showing a short prismatic habit with the hexagonal prism and either the basal pinacoid or flat rhombohedral faces.
Literally "cannon spar".
Kolloid-calciteA collodial variety of Calcite
Limestone OnyxA variety of banded calcite of stalagmitic origin showing patterns similar to onyx. Often cut and used as a decorative stone.

Note: some sources shorten the name to 'onyx'. This is incorrect and confusing and should not be encouraged. True onyx is qua...
LubliniteAn efflorescent form of calcite - soft, with a fibrous consistence, and usually moist.
Mexican JadeAn artificially dyed green calcite.
Mg-rich CalciteA magnesium-rich variety of calcite. Not to be confused with Magnesio-Calcite.
Nailhead SparA variety of calcite determined by a flat pyramidal termination of the prismatic crystals, resembling a nailhead.
Nickeloan Calcite
Patagosite
Plumboan CalciteA lead-bearing variety of calcite. Species from Polish Cu-bearing Zechstein deposits contains up to 4.60 wt.% PbO (Piestrzyński et al., 1996).
Poker Chip CalciteA variety of calcite determined by the crystal shape, i.e., flat rhomboids resembling a poker chip. The individual crystals are often "stacked" upon each other, somewhat resembling a stack of poker chips as well. Common habit for calcite from Charcas, Mex...
PrasochromeA variety of Calcite rich in chromium oxide, found as an alteration product coating Chromite.
PrunneriteA violet calcite resembling chalcedony
PseudogaylussiteCalcite pseudomorphs after gaylussite.
Roepperite (of Kenngott)
Sand-CalciteA variety of calcite with the crystals grown with sand inclusions.
Slate SparA lamellar variety of calcite.
StinkkalkA variety of calcite distinguished by a foul odor emitted upon fracturing by inclusions of H2S.
Strontian CalciteA strontian calcite.
UsoliteA casual name given to a small number of calcite crystals showing second generations rhombs growing up the edges and terminating a first generation scalenohedron.
Zincian CalciteA zinc-rich variety of Calcite

Relationship of Calcite to other SpeciesHide

Member of:
Other Members of this group:
Cobaltoan calcite-spherocobaltiteCobaltoan dolomite and cobaltoan calcite are frequently mislabeled as spherocobaltite.
GaspéiteNi(CO3)Hex.
MagnesiteMgCO3Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3c
OtaviteCdCO3Trig. 3m (3 2/m)
RhodochrositeMnCO3Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3c
SideriteFeCO3Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3c
SmithsoniteZnCO3Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3c
SpherocobaltiteCoCO3Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3c
Forms a series with:

Common AssociatesHide

BaryteBaSO4
DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
FluoriteCaF2
PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
PyriteFeS2
QuartzSiO2
SideriteFeCO3
Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Quartz7,530 photos of Calcite associated with Quartz on mindat.org.
Pyrite4,441 photos of Calcite associated with Pyrite on mindat.org.
Fluorite3,868 photos of Calcite associated with Fluorite on mindat.org.
Sphalerite2,924 photos of Calcite associated with Sphalerite on mindat.org.
Dolomite2,462 photos of Calcite associated with Dolomite on mindat.org.
Chalcopyrite1,879 photos of Calcite associated with Chalcopyrite on mindat.org.
Baryte1,728 photos of Calcite associated with Baryte on mindat.org.
Siderite1,607 photos of Calcite associated with Siderite on mindat.org.
Galena1,537 photos of Calcite associated with Galena on mindat.org.
Hematite1,213 photos of Calcite associated with Hematite on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

5.AB.05GaspéiteNi(CO3)Hex.
5.AB.05MagnesiteMgCO3Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3c
5.AB.05OtaviteCdCO3Trig. 3m (3 2/m)
5.AB.05RhodochrositeMnCO3Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3c
5.AB.05SideriteFeCO3Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3c
5.AB.05SmithsoniteZnCO3Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3c
5.AB.05SpherocobaltiteCoCO3Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3c
5.AB.10AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2Trig. 3 : R3
5.AB.10DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2Trig. 3 : R3
5.AB.10KutnohoriteCa(Mn,Mg,Fe)(CO3)2Trig. 3 : R3
5.AB.10MinrecorditeCaZn(CO3)2Trig. 3 : R3
5.AB.15AragoniteCaCO3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
5.AB.15CerussitePbCO3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
5.AB.15StrontianiteSrCO3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
5.AB.15WitheriteBaCO3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
5.AB.20VateriteCaCO3Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
5.AB.25HuntiteCaMg3(CO3)4Trig. 3 2 : R3 2
5.AB.30NorsethiteBaMg(CO3)2Trig. 3 2 : R3 2
5.AB.35AlstoniteBaCa(CO3)2Tric.
5.AB.40OlekminskiteSr(Sr,Ca,Ba)(CO3)2Trig.
5.AB.40ParalstoniteBaCa(CO3)2Trig.
5.AB.45BarytocalciteBaCa(CO3)2Mon. 2/m : P21/m
5.AB.50Carbocernaite(Ca,Na)(Sr,Ce,Ba)(CO3)2Orth. mm2
5.AB.55BenstoniteBa6Ca6Mg(CO3)13Trig. 3 : R3
5.AB.60JuangodoyiteNa2Cu(CO3)2Mon. 2/m : P21/b

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

14.1.1.2MagnesiteMgCO3Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3c
14.1.1.3SideriteFeCO3Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3c
14.1.1.4RhodochrositeMnCO3Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3c
14.1.1.5SpherocobaltiteCoCO3Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3c
14.1.1.6SmithsoniteZnCO3Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3c
14.1.1.7OtaviteCdCO3Trig. 3m (3 2/m)
14.1.1.8GaspéiteNi(CO3)Hex.

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

11.4.2AragoniteCaCO3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
11.4.3VateriteCaCO3Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
11.4.4MonohydrocalciteCaCO3 · H2OTrig. 3 : P31
11.4.5IkaiteCaCO3 · 6H2OMon.
11.4.6DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2Trig. 3 : R3
11.4.7HuntiteCaMg3(CO3)4Trig. 3 2 : R3 2
11.4.8SergeeviteCa2Mg11(CO3)9(HCO3)4(OH)4•6H2O

Fluorescence of CalciteHide

May be fluorescent under LW UV, mid-range UV or SW UV as well as under X-rays, cathode rays and even sunlight, in a number of colors and shades, commonly an intense red under SW with Mn as an activator (such as at Franklin, New Jersey, USA, and Långban in

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.
Industrial Uses:
Mined extensively for a wide variety of uses ranging from lime (cement) to limestone and marble building stones and aggregates, agricultural supplements and optical calcite.

Calcite in petrologyHide

An essential component of rock names highlighted in red, an accessory component in rock names highlighted in green.

References for CalciteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Irby (1879) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 3: 610.
Rogers (1901) School of Mines Quarterly: 22: 429 (morphological summary).
Schaller, Waldemar Theodore (1909) Some calcite crystals with new forms: Washington Academy of Science Proceedings: 11: 1-16.
(1910) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie: 48: 148-157.
Whitlock (1910) New York State Museum Mem. 13.
Goldschmidt, V. (1913) Atlas der Krystallformen. 9 volumes, atlas, and text, vol. 2: 5.
Bragg (1914) Proceedings of the Royal Society of London: 89A: 246.
Johnston, J., Merwin, H.E., Williamson, E.D. (1916) Various forms of calcium carbonate. American Journal of Science 41: 473-512.
Wyckoff, R.W.G. (1920) The crystal structures of some carbonates of the calcite group. American Journal of Science: 50: 317-360.
Compton et al (1925) Physical Review, a Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Physics: 25: 618.
Krieger, P. (1930) Notes on an X-ray diffraction study of the series calcite-rhodochrosite. American Mineralogist 15: 23-29.
Bearden (1931) Physical Review, a Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Physics: 38: 1389.
Lipson, H., and Riley, D.P. (1943) Absolute X-ray wave-lengths. Nature: 151: 250.
Effenberger, H., Mereiter, K., and Zemann, J. (1981) Crystal structure refinements of magnesite, calcite, rhodochrosite, siderite, smithonite [sic], and dolomite, with discussion of some aspects of the stereochemistry of calcite type carbonates. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie 156: 233-243.
Schulman, J.H., Evans, L.W, Ginter, R.J., and Murata, K.J. (1947) The sensitized luminescence of manganese-activated calcite. Journal of Applied Physics: 18: 732-739.
Palache, C., Berman, H., and Frondel, C. (1951) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: Halides, Nitrates, Borates, Carbonates, Sulfates, Phosphates, Arsenates, Tungstates, Molybdates, Etc. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 142-161.
Kerr (1959) Optical Mineralogy 3rd ed. 422pp.
Goldsmith, J.R., D.L. Graf, J. Witters, and Northrop, D.A. (1962) Studies in the system CaCO3•MgCO3•FeCO3: (1) Phase relations; (2) A method for major element spectrochemical analyses; and (3) Composition of some ferroan dolomites. Journal of Geology: 70: 659-688.
Van der Veen, A.H. (1965) Calcite-dolomite intergrowths in high-temperature carbonate rocks. American Mineralogist: 50: 2070-2077.
Merrill, L., and Bassett, W.A. (1972) Crystal structures of the high pressure phases of calcite. EOS: 53: 1121.
Singh, A.K., and Kennedy, G.C. (1974) Compression of calcite to 40 kbar. Journal of Geophysical Research: 79: 2615-2622.
Irving, A.J., and Wyllie, P.J. (1975) Subsolidus and melting relationships for calcite, magnesite and the join CaCO3 - MgCO3 to 36 kbar. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta: 39: 35-53.
Merrill, L., and Bassett, W.A. (1975) The crystal structure of CaCO3 (II), a high-pressure metastable phase of calcium carbonate. Acta Crystallographica: B31: 343-349.
Reeder, R.J., Editor (1983) Carbonates: Mineralogy and Chemistry. Reviews in Mineralogy, Mineralogical Society of America: 11.
Markgraf, S.A., and Reeder, R.J. (1985) High-temperature structure refinements of calcite and magnetite: American Mineralogist: 70: 590.
Brock, K. (1993) The crystal forms of Calcite. Mineralogical Record: 24: 451-470.
Maslen, E.N., Streltsov, V.R., and Streltsova, N.R. (1993) X-ray study of the electron density in calcite, CaCO3. Acta Crystallographica B: 49: 636-641.
Gaines, R.V., Catherine, H., Skinner, W., Foord, E.E., Mason, B., and Rosenzweig, A. (1997) Dana's New Mineralogy: The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, 8th. edition: 426.
Smyth, J.R., and Ahrens, T.J. (1997) The crystal structure of calcite III: Geophysical Research Letters: 25: 1595-1598.
Weise, C., publisher (1998) Calcit - extraLapis Nr.14. Christian Weise Verlag, München.
Richards, P. (1999) The Four Twin Laws of Calcite and How to Recognize Them. Rocks and Minerals: 74(5): 308-317.
Neumeier, G., and Staebler, G., publishers (2003) ExtraLapis English No. 4: Calcite, The Mineral with the Most Forms. Lapis International.
Marco Bruno, Francesco Roberto Massaro, Marco Rubbo, Mauro Prencipe, and Dino Aquilano (2010) (10.4), (01.8), (01.2), and (00.1) Twin Laws of Calcite (CaCO3): Equilibrium Geometry of the Twin Boundary Interfaces and Twinning Energy. Cryst. Growth Des., 10 (7), 3102–3109.
Bots, P., Rodriguez-Blanco, J.D., Roncal-Herrero, T., Benning, L.G., and Shaw, S. (2012) Mechanistic insights into the crystallization of amorphous calcium carbonate to vaterite. Crystal Growth and Design: 12: 3806-3814.
Skalwold, E.A., and Bassett, W.A. (2015) Double Trouble: Navigating Birefringence. Mineralogical Society of America, Chantilly, VA, 20 pages. ISBN 978-0-939950-02-7 (booklet, abstract and free download on the MSA website: http://www.minsocam.org/msa/openaccess_publications/#Skalwold_01)
Sugiura, Y., Onuma, K., and Yamazaki, A. (2016) Growth dynamics of vaterite in relation to the physico-chemical properties of its precursor, amorphous calcium carbonate, in the Ca-CO3-PO4 system. American Mineralogist: 101: 289-296.
Bindschedler, S., Cailleau, G., and Verrecchia, E. (2016) Role of Fungi in the Biomineralization of Calcite. Minerals: 6(2): 41. [a review]
Hélisson Nascimento dos Santos, Reiner Neumann, Ciro Alexandre Ávila (2017): Mineral Quantification with Simultaneous Refinement of Ca-Mg Carbonates Non-Stoichiometry by X-ray Diffraction, Rietveld Method. Minerals 2017, 7(9), 164.

Internet Links for CalciteHide

Significant localities for CalciteHide

Showing 96 significant localities out of 28,153 recorded on mindat.org.

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Argentina
 
  • Tucumán
    • Burruyacú Department
      • Sierra de La Ramada
Raúl Tauber Larry´s collection. Ruiz, D. R., Ávila, J.C. & Lazarte, J.E. : Las vetas de calcita de Farrallón Blanco, Sierra de la Ramada, Tucumán. Facultad de Ciencias Naturales e Instituo Miguel Lillo. Miguel Lillo 205. 4000. Tucumán, Argentina. doraruiz10@hotmail.com2, CONICET.
Austria
 
  • Carinthia
    • Gailtaler Alpen & Karnische Alpen
      • Bleiberg District
        • Bad Bleiberg
G. Niedermayr, I. Praetzel: Mineralien Kärntens, 1995
G. Niedermayr, I. Praetzel: Mineralien Kärntens, 1995
        • Kreuth
H. Meixner: Der Karinthin 6: 108-120 (1949); H. Meixner (1950): Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 2(3), 195-209
Belgium
 
  • Hainaut Province (Henegouwen; Hennegau)
    • Charleroi
      • Mont-sur-Marchienne
Hubert, F. (2001): La carrière de Mont-sur-Marchienne, Hainaut, Belgique: La calcite dans tous ces états, Association des Micromonteurs de Minéraux de Montigny-le-Tilleul
    • Montigny-le-Tilleul
      • Landelies
Croisez, M. (2012): La cristallographie de la Calcite a la carriere des Calcaires de la Sambre a Landelies, Hainaut, Belgique. Association des Micro-Monteurs de Mineraux de Montigny-le-Tilluil (4M ASBL), 97 pp
    • Tournai (Doornik)
      • Antoing
Mikael Gonzales collection
  • Luxembourg Province
    • Wellin
Neutkens, H. & Orinx, M. (2007): Neu und Schön: Calcit und fluorit aus Belgien. LAPIS 32 (2), 13-18
  • Namur Province
    • Namur
Les mineraux de Belgique and Geonieuws nr.2-1983; Blondieau, M., Hatert, F. et Defoy, M. (2012) - Minéralogie de la carrière de Beez, Province de Namur (Belgique). Le Règne Minéral, 104, 5-26.
Bulgaria
 
  • Burgas Oblast (Bourgas Oblast)
    • Sozopol Obshtina
      • Rosen ore field (Rossen ore field)
Bonev, I. K., Garcia-Ruiz, J. M., Atanassova, R., Otalora, F., & Petrussenko, S. (2005). Genesis of filamentary pyrite associated with calcite crystals. European journal of mineralogy, 17(6), 905-913.
Canada
 
  • Nunavut
    • Baffin Island
      • Nanisivik
[MinRec 21:533]
  • Ontario
    • Hastings Co.
      • Mayo Township
No reference listed
  • Québec
    • Abitibi-Témiscamingue
      • La Vallée-de-l'Or RCM
        • Réservoir-Dozois
Age of the Cabonga nepheline syenite, Grenville Province, western Quebec Hudon, Pierre; Friedman, Richard M.; Gauthier, Gilles; Martignole, Jacques Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, vol. 43, issue 9, pp. 1237-1249 Olivier Langelier Collection
China
 
  • Hunan Province
    • Changde Prefecture
      • Shimen Co.
        • Shimen As-(Au) deposit (Huangchang As-(Au) deposit)
Xianxiao Xiong (1999): Geology of Chemical Minerals 21(2), 76-80
Colombia
 
  • Boyacá Department
    • Vasquez-Yacopí Mining District
      • Mun. de San Pablo de Borbur
Saenz, L. D. (2005): PETROGRAFÍA Y GEOTERMOMETRÍA DE LOS YACIMIENTOS DE ESMERALDA DE PEÑA BLANCA (SAN PABLO DE BORBUR, BOYACÁ, COLOMBIA)
France
 
  • Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes
    • Drôme
      • Beauvoisin
Yves Masson collection; ; Collection Yves Masson
    • Loire
      • Saint-Galmier
        • Bellegarde-en-Forez
Personnaly collected by M. Diot.
      • Saint-Symphorien-de-Lay
        • Regny
Gruner L. E. (1857) - Description géologique et minéralogique du département de la Loire, pp: 446-447
  • Nouvelle-Aquitaine
    • Corrèze
      • Larche
suspected; Van King; Michel TREILLARD Collection
      • Uzerche
Michel TREILLARD (visual identification)
  • Occitanie
    • Ariège
      • Foix
        • Alzen
Inventaire mineralogique de l'Ariege ( Edition BRGM 1984)
  • Pays de la Loire
    • Mayenne
      • Louverné
  • Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur
    • Alpes-de-Haute-Provence
Favreau G., Meisser N., Chiappero P.J. (2004), Saint-Maime (Alpes-de-Haute-Provence): un exemple de pyrométamorphisme en région provençale, n°3, pp: 59-92
    • Hautes-Alpes
      • Saint Crépin
Self collected S. MAURY 2013
Germany
 
  • North Rhine-Westphalia
    • Münsterland
      • Steinfurt
        • Wettringen
bert.deruiter@gmail.com
  • Schleswig-Holstein
    • Helgoland Island
Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990 Markus Gerstmann - Collection
Iceland
 
  • Eastern Region
    • Suður-Múlasýsla
[var: Iceland Spar] No reference listed
Ireland
 
  • Co. Galway
    • Renville
O’Reilly, C., Feely, M., McArdle, P., Mc Dermot, C. Geoghegan, M. & Keary, R. (1997). Mineral localities in the Galway Bay Area. Geol. Surv. Ireland. Special Report Series. RS/97/1(Mineral Resources) ISSN0790-0279, 70p. & 1:150,000 Geological and Mineral Localities Map of the Galway Bay Area.
  • Co. Kerry
    • Castleisland
S. Moreton, unpublished observation.
  • Co. Sligo
    • Ballysadare
Dr Stephen Moreton
  • Co. Tipperary
    • Silvermines District
Barry Flannery (Personal Collection)
Italy
 
  • Emilia-Romagna
    • Parma Province
      • Berceto
        • Taro Valley
Ref.: Battilocchi G., (2005)- La calcite di Rio Capanne, Val di Taro, Appennino Parmense - Mineralparma, n.1, IV year, 12-14.
Mexico
 
  • Coahuila
    • Mun. de Melchor Múzquiz
Reiner Mielke; Schneider, S. (2004): Collecting Fluorescent Minerals. Published by Schiffer Publishing, Ltd., Atglen, PA, 2004. 192p. [photos on p. 119]
    • Mun. de Ocampo
      • Boquillas Del Carmen
Schneider, S. (2004): Collecting Fluorescent Minerals. Published by Schiffer Publishing, Ltd., Atglen, PA, 2004. 192p. [photos on p. 118]
Norway
 
  • Aust-Agder
    • Arendal
      • Stokken
Aminoff, G. (1916): Calcitgrupp från Garta (Arendal). Geologiska Föreningen i Stockholm Förhandlingar. 38, 201-206
  • Buskerud
    • Drammen
      • Konnerud
Goldschmidt, V.M. (1911): Die Kontaktmetamorphose im Kristianiagebiet . Videnskapsselskapets Skrifter. 1.Mat.-Naturv. Klasse 1911. No 1. Kristiania. 483p (pp. 283-287)
    • Kongsberg
      • Kongsberg Silver Mining District
        • Overberget Mining Field
Münster, Ths. (1883) Bemærkninger om Kongsbergmineralerne. Nyt Mag. Naturv. 27, 309-322; Neumann, H. (1985): Norges Mineraler. Norges geologiske Undersøkelse Skrifter 68, p. 90
Peru
 
  • Ancash Department
    • Bolognesi Province
      • Huallanca District
        • Huallanca
Econ Geol (1985) 80:416-478; Imai, H. (1999): Mineralizations of base metal deposits of acid-sulfate type coexisting with adularia-sericite type. Resource Geology 49, 147-156.
Portugal
 
  • Leiria District
    • Alcobaça
      • Turquel
        • Moita do Poço
Rui Nunes collection
Russia
 
  • Far-Eastern Region
    • Primorskiy Kray
      • Kavalerovo Mining District
        • Dal'negorsk (Dalnegorsk; Tetyukhe; Tjetjuche; Tetjuche)
[MinRec vol.32:, p 12 (20001)]; Rogulina, L.I., and Sveshnikova, O.L. (2008): Geology of Ore Deposits 50(1), 60-74.; Dobovol'skaya, M. G., Baskina, V. A., Balashova, S. P., Kenisarin, A. M., Arakelyants, M. M., Klimachev, L. A., & Muravitskaya, G. N. (1990). Order of Formation of the Ores and Mafic Dikes of the Nikolayevsk Deposit (Southern Primor'ye). International Geology Review, 32(4), 391-403.
Slovakia
 
  • Banská Bystrica Region
    • Revúca Co.
      • Gemerská Ves
Bálintová, T. et al., 2006: Mineralogické štúdium fantómových kalcitov z Gemerskej Vsi. Miner. Slov., 38, 2, 124-130.
Spain
 
  • Catalonia
    • Barcelona
      • Vallès Occidental-Baix Llobregat
        • Sant Cugat del Vallès-El Papiol
Fluorite: The Collector's Choice. Extra Lapis English No. 9
    • Lleida (Lérida)
      • Pallars Sobirà
        • Baix Pallars
          • Peramea
[var: Cobaltoan Calcite] Calvo, M. (2012): Minerales y Minas de España. Vol. V, Carbonatos y Nitratos. Boratos. Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingenieros de Minas de Madrid - Fundación Gómez Pardo. 711 pp
  • Madrid
Garcia G., Gonzalez C., Bueno A. (2004) - Cadalso de los Vidrios (Madrid), Bocamina, n° 14, pp: 12-46.
Sweden
 
  • Närke
    • Örebro
      • Glanshammar
Torbjörn Lorin Collection
UK
 
  • England
    • Cumbria
      • Alston Moor District
        • Nenthead
Collected by many collectors over many years .
    • Devon
      • East Devon
        • Sidmouth
Martin Allen collection
  • Northern Ireland
    • Co. Antrim
      • Giant's Causeway
Trevor Boyd Collection
USA
 
  • Colorado
    • Moffat Co.
Maneotis: 2009
Mathew Maneotis data. Colorado School of Mines.
    • Saguache Co.
Jim Hall 2009
    • San Miguel Co.
      • Ouray District (Uncompahgre District)
        • Telluride
Rocks & Min 70:5 pp 298-310
  • Connecticut
    • Fairfield Co.
      • Danbury
Januzzi, Ronald E. (1959): The Minerals of Western Connecticut and Southeastern New York. The Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.; Januzzi, Ronald E. (1994), Mineral Data Book - Western Connecticut and Environs. The Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.
      • Trumbull
        • Long Hill
J. Zolan Collection; Harold Moritz collection
    • Hartford Co.
      • East Granby
Wolfe, C. W. and Vilks, I. (1960): Pseudomorphs after Datolite, Prehnite and Apophyllite from East Granby, Connecticut. Am. Mineral. 45, 443-447.; Rocks & Minerals (1995) 70:396-409
      • Farmington
Bartsch, Rudolf C. B. (1940): New England Notes. Rocks & Minerals, vol. 15, no. 8, p. 274.
      • New Britain
Harold Moritz collection
      • Newington
Harold Moritz collection
    • Litchfield Co.
      • Thomaston
Harold Moritz collection
        • Thomaston Dam
Zodac, Peter. (1959), Minerals at Thomaston Dam, Connecticut; Rocks & Minerals: 34: 3.; Myer, George H. (1962), Hydrothermal Wurtzite at Thomaston Dam, Connecticut. American Mineralogist: 47(7-8): 977-979.; Segeler, Curt and Molon, Joseph. (1985), The Thomaston Dam Site, Thomaston, Connecticut; Rocks & Minerals: 60(3): 119-124.; Vogt, Wolfgang. (1991), Rediscovering Thomaston Dam. Lapidary Journal: April.
    • New Haven Co.
      • Cheshire
Harold Moritz collection
      • East Haven
Powell, Richard C. and Wolfgang Vogt. (1987), Cinque Quarry, A Suburban Site in Connecticut Makes Collecting a Cinch. Rock and Gem: (6): 36-39.
      • Southbury
Bill Barrett collection
Weber, Marcelle H. and Earle C. Sullivan. (1995): Connecticut Mineral Locality Index. Rocks & Minerals (Connecticut Issue): 70(6): 407.; P. Cristofono collection.
    • Tolland Co.
      • Willington
        • West Willington
Ague, J. J. (1995): Deep Crustal Growth of Quartz, Kyanite and Garnet into Large-Aperature, fluid-filled fractures, northeastern Connecticut, USA. Journal of Metamorphic Geology: 13: 299-314.
  • Florida
    • Citrus Co.
      • Lecanto
    • Okeechobee Co.
      • Fort Drum
Min Rec 36:3 pp 289-290 www.gamineral.org/ft_drum-pics.html.
  • Georgia
    • Floyd Co.
      • Rome
Rocks & Min.:64:195.
    • Pickens Co.
      • Marble Hill
Rocks & Min.: 64:203.
  • Kentucky
T. Kennedy collection
    • Hart Co.
      • Horse Cave
Visual Identification by Mike Polletta
    • Henry Co.
      • Lockport
Barite Deposits of Kentucky, Ky. Geo. Survey, Ser. XI, Bulletin 1 and T. Kennedy collection
  • Massachusetts
    • Bristol Co.
      • Acushnet
No reference listed
    • Middlesex Co.
Harvard Museum of Natural History, no. 125172
  • Michigan
    • Houghton Co.
      • Hancock
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
      • Pewabic
Mineralogy of Michigan (2004) Heinrich & Robinson
  • Missouri
    • Jasper Co.
      • Tri-State District
        • Joplin Field
Publications of the Field Columbian Museum Geological Series Vol 1 1895-1902 pp 232-241
    • Reynolds Co.
      • Viburnum Trend District
        • Ellington
[www.johnbetts-fineminerals.com]; U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.; Econ.Geol.: 83; 355-376; Econ Geol (1993) 88:957-960
  • Nevada
    • Elko Co.
      • Bootstrap District
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
  • New Jersey
    • Essex Co.
      • Livingston Township
        • Livingston
Gary Moldovany; communications with collector;
    • Passaic Co.
      • Little Falls Township
Specimens in numerous collections including Mark Bianchi, Frank A. Imbriacco III
      • Woodland Park (West Paterson)
Specimens from Frank Imbriacco III pictured on Mindat.
    • Sussex Co.
      • Sparta Township
        • Franklin Marble
A Quest for New Jersey Minerals, Robert Speiser (1978):9.
  • New York
    • Monroe Co.
      • Penfield
Jensen, David E. (1942), Minerals of the Lockport dolomite in the vicinity of Rochester, N.Y. Rocks & Minerals: 17(6): 199-203.
    • St. Lawrence Co.
      • Rossie
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 155; Mineralogical Record: 32: 273.
  • Pennsylvania
    • Snyder Co.
      • Middleburg Township
        • Paxtonville
Collection of Jeff Wilson (Field Trips, The North Jersey Mineralogical Society)
Lapham & Geyer, 1965. Mineral Collecting in Pennsylvania
      • West York
Berkheiser, Jr. Samuel W. (1983), Reconnaissance Survey of Potential Carbonate Whiting Sources in Pennsylvania, Mineral Resource Report 83.
Lapham & Geyer, 1965. Mineral Collecting in Pennsylvania
Lapham & Geyer, 1965. Mineral Collecting in Pennsylvania
  • Rhode Island
    • Providence Co.
      • Lincoln
        • Lime Rock
Rocks & Minerals (1986): 61: 266; Rocks & Minerals (1986): 61: 286-289
Miller, C. E. (1971) Rhode Island Minerals and Their Locations, O. D. Hermes, Ed., University of Rhode Island, Kingston; Rocks & Min.: 17:51; 20:463-464.; Rocks & Minerals (1986) 61:264-275; Rocks & Minerals (1986): 61: 286-289
  • South Dakota
    • Jackson Co.
SDSMT Bull 18 Roberts and Rapp "Mineralogy of the Black Hills"
  • Tennessee
    • Smith Co.
      • Central Tennessee Ba-F-Pb-Zn District
        • Carthage
Kearns, L.E. and F.H. Campbell (1978), Famous Min. Locs: the Elmwood and Gordonsville zinc mines near Catrhage, TN, Min.Rec.: 9:213-218; Econ Geol (1976) 71:892-903
  • Wisconsin
    • Lafayette Co.
      • Upper Mississippi Valley District
        • Shullsburg area
Rocks & Min.: 59:68 & 64:14.; U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.; U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
  • Wyoming
    • Park Co.
C. Tucker collection
Mineral and/or Locality  
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