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About CanfielditeHide

Frederick A. Canfield
May contain some Ge replacing Sn, and some Te replacing S.
Steel gray with reddish tint
Specific Gravity:
6.2 - 6.3
Crystal System:
Named in 1893 by Samuel Lewis Penfield in honor of Frederick Alexander Canfield [April 7, 1849 Randolph, New Jersey, USA - July 3, 1926), of Dover, New Jersey, USA. Canfield was a mining engineer and mineral collector. Canfield's family was long interested in running the Dickerson Suckasunny Mining Company, with iron mines in Morris County, New Jersey. Much of Canfield's professional mining work was in New Jersey and Bolivia. Canfield was also a third generation mineral collector having acquired his great uncles' mineral collection as well as his own father's collection.
This page provides mineralogical data about Canfieldite.

Classification of CanfielditeHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)

2 : SULFIDES and SULFOSALTS (sulfides, selenides, tellurides; arsenides, antimonides, bismuthides; sulfarsenites, sulfantimonites, sulfbismuthites, etc.)
B : Metal Sulfides, M: S > 1: 1 (mainly 2: 1)
A : With Cu, Ag, Au

5 : AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 3:2

6 : Sulphosalts - Sulphostannates, Sulphogermanates,Sulpharsenates, Sulphantimonates, Sulphovanadates and Sulphohalides
2 : Sulphogermanates

Physical Properties of CanfielditeHide

Steel gray with reddish tint
Tarnishes black with blue to purple tint
Greyish black
2½ on Mohs scale
VHN25=91 - 171 kg/mm2 - Vickers
Irregular/Uneven, Conchoidal
6.2 - 6.3 g/cm3 (Measured)    6.311 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Chemical Properties of CanfielditeHide


May contain some Ge replacing Sn, and some Te replacing S.
Common Impurities:

Crystallography of CanfielditeHide

Crystal System:
Class (H-M):
mm2 - Pyramidal
Cell Parameters:
a = 15.298(2) Å, b = 7.548(1) Å, c = 10.699(1) Å
a:b:c = 2.027 : 1 : 1.417
Unit Cell V:
1,235.41 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Crystals to 1cm with pseudo-octahedron and dodecahedron, botyroidal.
Commonly on {111}

Geological EnvironmentHide

Geological Setting:
Late forming mineral in polymetallic veins.

Type Occurrence of CanfielditeHide

Other Language Names for CanfielditeHide

Simplified Chinese:硫银锡矿

Varieties of CanfielditeHide

Tellurian CanfielditeCanfieldite with a large portion of the sulfur replaced by tellurium. E.g.: 9.4 weight% S, 18.9% Te in Pirquitas mine, Argentina; 9.5% S, 17.9% Te in Julio Verne mine, Argentina; 13.95% S, 8.69% Te in Revelstoke mine, Canada.
TellurocanfielditeOriginally approved but approval has subsequently been withdrawn because a subsequent single-crystal structural analysis has shown that Te is disordered over the three sulphur sites and thus the material is in fact Te-rich canfieldite.

Relationship of Canfieldite to other SpeciesHide

Other Members of this group:
ArgyroditeAg8GeS6Orth. mm2 : Pna21
Putzite(Cu4.7Ag3.3)GeS6Iso. 4 3m : F4 3m
SpryiteAg8(As3+0.5As5+0.5)S6Orth. mm2 : Pna21
Forms a series with:

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
3 photos of Canfieldite associated with SilverAg
1 photo of Canfieldite associated with PyrargyriteAg3SbS3

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

2.BA.DzierżanowskiteCaCu2S2Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1
2.BA.05ChalcociteCu2SMon. 2/m : P21/b
2.BA.05DjurleiteCu31S16Mon. 2/m
2.BA.05GeeriteCu8S5Trig. 3
2.BA.05RoxbyiteCu9S5Tric. 1 : P1
2.BA.10AniliteCu7S4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
2.BA.10DigeniteCu9S5Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
2.BA.15BorniteCu5FeS4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbca
2.BA.20BellidoiteCu2SeTet. 4/m : P42/n
2.BA.20BerzelianiteCu2SeIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
2.BA.35AcanthiteAg2SMon. 2/m : P21/m
2.BA.40MckinstryiteAg5-xCu3+xS4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
2.BA.40StromeyeriteAgCuSOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
2.BA.45SelenojalpaiteAg3CuSe2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/amd
2.BA.55AguilariteAg4SeSMon. 2/m
2.BA.55NaumanniteAg2SeOrth. 2 2 2 : P21 21 21
2.BA.60CervelleiteAg4TeSMon. 2/m
2.BA.60HessiteAg2TeMon. 2/m : P21/b
2.BA.65Henryite(Cu,Ag)3+xTe2 , with x ~ 0.40 Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3c
2.BA.65StütziteAg5-xTe3, x = 0.24-0.36Hex. 6 : P6
2.BA.70ArgyroditeAg8GeS6Orth. mm2 : Pna21
2.BA.70Putzite(Cu4.7Ag3.3)GeS6Iso. 4 3m : F4 3m
2.BA.75FischesseriteAg3AuSe2Iso. 4 3 2 : I41 3 2
2.BA.75PetziteAg3AuTe2Iso. 4 3 2 : I41 3 2
2.BA.75UytenbogaardtiteAg3AuS2Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3c

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide mm2 : Pna21

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

6.2.1GermaniteCu13Fe2Ge2S16Iso. 4 3m : P4 3n
6.2.3Renierite(Cu1+,Zn)11Fe4(Ge4+,As5+)2S16Tet. 4 2m : P4 2c
6.2.4ArgyroditeAg8GeS6Orth. mm2 : Pna21

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.
Industrial Uses:
Minor ore of tin and silver.

References for CanfielditeHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Penfield (1894), American Journal of Science: 47: 451.
Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 356-358.
Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR: 203: 122-125.
Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Monatshefte (1978): 269-272.

Internet Links for CanfielditeHide

Localities for CanfielditeHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
  • Jujuy Province
    • Rinconada Department
Brodtkorb, "Las Especies Minerales de la Republica Argentina" (2002); Board, W. S., Kennedy, B., & Yeomans, T. (2011). NI 43-101 Technical Report on the Pirquitas Mine.; Coira, B. L., & de Brodtkorb, M. K. (1995) Polymetallic mineralization associated with Cenozoic volcanism in Northern Puna, Argentina. In Pacrim (Vol. 95, pp. 135-140).
Slater, E. T. (2016). The Cortaderas Zone, Pirquitas Mine, NW Argentina: An Example of Miocene Epithermal Ag-Zn-Pb-Sn Mineralization in the Andean Tin Belt (Masters thesis, Laurentian University of Sudbury).
Amer.Min.(2000) 85, 1066-1075
  • Salta Province
    • Los Andes department
      • San Antonio de los Cobres
        • Organullo mining district
Milka K. de Brodtkorb (2002) Las Especies Minerales de la Republica Argentina. Vol. 1 (elements, sulphides and sulphosalts). (Asociacion Mineralogica Argentina)
  • Tasmania
    • Northern Midlands municipality
      • Rossarden district
Bottrill, R.S., Baker, W.E. (2008) A Catalogue of the Minerals of Tasmania. Geological Survey Tasmania Bulletin 73, 254 pages.
    • West Coast municipality
      • Zeehan district
        • North Dundas
STILLWELL, F. L.; EDWARDS, A . B . 1943. Mineral composition of the tin ores at Renison Bell, Tasmania. Proc . Australas. Inst. Min . Metall. 131-132: 173-186.
  • Salzburg
    • Tamsweg District
      • Murwinkel
        • Rotgülden
          • Lower Rotgülden lake
Horner, J., Neubauer, F., Paar, W.H., Hansmann, W., Koeppel, V., and Robl, K. (1997): Mineralium Deposita 32, 555-568.
  • Oruro
    • Poopó Province
Torres, B., Melgarejo, J. C., Torró, L., Camprubí, A., Castillo-Oliver, M., Artiaga, D., ... & Arce-Burgoa, O. R. (2019). The Poopó Polymetallic Epithermal Deposit, Bolivia: Mineralogy, Genetic Constraints, and Distribution of Critical Elements. Minerals, 9(8), 472.
  • Potosí
    • Antonio Quijarro Province
      • Carguaicollo Mine (Carguaycollo Mine; Carhuaycollo Mine)
Ahlfeld, F. and Schneider-Scherbina, A. (1964) Los Yacimientos Minerales y de Hidrocarburos de Bolivia. (Ministerio de Minas y Petroleo, La Paz)
    • Chayanta Province
[MinRec 32:469]
James A. Ferraiolo
    • Sud Chichas Province
      • Chocaya-Animas (Animas-Chocaya)
[MinRec 32:461]
Handbook of Mineralogy
[MinRec 32:480
  • British Columbia
Handbook of Mineralogy
  • New Brunswick
    • Gloucester Co.
      • Beresford Parish
  • Fujian
    • Nanping
      • Jianyang District
Handbook of Mineralogy
Anthony, J.W. et al.: Handbook of Mineralogy.
  • Guangdong
    • Heyuan
      • Lianping Co.
Weining Zhou (1994): Mineral Resources and Geology 8(4), 233-244
    • Yunfu
      • Yuncheng District
Canhui Huang (1991): Guangdong Non-Ferrous Metal Geology 1991(1), 13-30; Jiarong Pan and Yangzhong Yu (2013): Gold Science and Technology 21(6), 36-41
  • Guangxi
    • Hechi
      • Nandan County
        • Dachang Sn-polymetallic ore field
Weining Zhou (1994): Mineral Resources and Geology 8(4), 233-244
    • Hezhou
      • Zhongshan Co.
        • Shanhu W-Sn ore field (Shanhu Mine)
Yunying Shu and Peiling Zhou (1990): Journal of Guilin University of Technology 10(2)
  • Hunan
    • Chenzhou
      • Guiyang Co.
Zhengqin Li (1991): Acta Mineralogica Sinica 11(2), 148-154
        • Huangshaping Pb-Zn-polymetallic ore field
Zhengqin Li (1991): Acta Mineralogica Sinica 11(2), 148-154
      • Linwu Co.
        • Xianghualing Sn-polymetallic ore field
Zhengqin Li (1991): Acta Mineralogica Sinica 11(2), 148-154; Weining Zhou (1994): Mineral Resources and Geology 8(4), 233-244
      • Yizhang Co.
        • Dongpo ore field
Weining Zhou (1994): Mineral Resources and Geology 8(4), 233-244
Yi Li and Youbin Liang (1991): Geology and Prospecting 27(8), 21-25; Weining Zhou (1994): Mineral Resources and Geology 8(4), 233-244
  • Inner Mongolia
    • Chifeng City (Ulanhad League; Chifeng Prefecture)
      • Bairin Left Banner (Balin Zuoqi)
Yongsheng Kuang, Guangrui Zheng, Minjie Lu, Yanlin Liu, Shaojie Zhang, Ruiyang Li, and Wenjing Cheng (2014): Mineral Deposits 33(4), 847-856; Zhai, D., Williams-Jones, A. E., Liu, J., Selby, D., Voudouris, P. C., Tombros, S., ... & Sun, H. (2020). The Genesis of the Giant Shuangjianzishan Epithermal Ag-Pb-Zn Deposit, Inner Mongolia, Northeastern China. Economic Geology, 115(1), 101-128.
    • Hinggan League (Xing'an Prefecture)
      • Horqin Right Middle Banner (Ke'erqin Youyi Zhongqi)
Tianwei Guo and Zhongwen Han (1990): Northeastern Geological Science and Technology Information 11(2), 1-11; Qian Zhang, Xinzhi Zhan, Yuzhuo Qiu, Shuxun Shao, and Zhihao Liu (2002): Geochimica 31(3), 253-258
    • Hulunbuir City (Hulunbei'er Prefecture)
      • New Barag Right Banner (Xin Barag Youqi)
Zhicheng Lu, Peiping Zhang, Guozheng Duan, Libo Hao, and Dianchao Li (2002): Acta Mineralogica Sinica 22(1), 75-80
  • Jiangxi
    • Ganzhou
      • Dayu Co.
        • Xihuashan ore field
Weining Zhou (1994): Mineral Resources and Geology 8(4), 233-244
    • Shangrao
      • Wannian Co.
Leiming Xu, Hengyu Wu, Ge Bai, and Quanbo He (1993): Acta Mineralogica Sinica 13(3), 254-262
    • Yingtan
      • Guixi Co.
        • Lengshuikeng Ag-Pb-Zn-Au deposit
Ran Lu, Jingwen Mao, Jianjing Gao, Huimin Su, and Jiahao Zheng (2012): Acta Petrologica Sinica 28(1), 105-121
  • Liaoning
    • Huludao
      • Jianchang County
Xuehui Xia, Jiazhong Yuan, Yuhai Zhao, and Fei Yan (2003): Geology of Chemical Minerals 25(4), 129-144
Xuehui Xia, Jiazhong Yuan, Yuhai Zhao, and Fei Yan (2003): Geology of Chemical Minerals 25(4), 129-144
  • Tibet
    • Nagchu Prefecture (Naqu Prefecture)
      • Seni District
Zhixing Feng, Xinbiao Lü, and Tao Wang (2010): Geology and Exploration 46(4), 628-633; Zhixing Feng, Xinbiao Lü, and Tao Wang (2011): Mineral Deposits 30(3), 469-476
Czech Republic
  • Central Bohemian Region
    • Kutná Hora District
No reference listed
Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990
Handbook of Mineralogy
  • Karlovy Vary Region
    • Cheb District
Steffen Möckel analysis
  • Greenland
    • Sermersooq
      • Arsuk Fjord
        • Ivittuut (Ivigtut)
Petersen, O.V. and Secher, K. (1993): The minerals of Greenland. Mineralogical Record 24 (2): 1-65 (p.36)
  • Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes
    • Cantal
      • Laroquebrou
        • Saint-Santin-Cantalès
      • Massiac
        • Molèdes
R. Pierrot, P. Picot, J.J. Périchaud : "Inventaire Minéralogique du Cantal", BRGM and Editions G. de Bussac, 1971
  • Brittany
    • Finistère
      • Huelgoat
R.PIERROT, L. CHAURIS, C. LAFORET (1973) : "Inventaire minéralogique de la France : 29- Finistère.", B.R.G.M. Paris.
  • Saxony
    • Mittelsachsen
      • Brand-Erbisdorf
Hofmann, F. (1986): Die Freiberger Mineralien. LAPIS 11 (7-8), 28-55
  • South Aegean
    • Tinos
      • Tinos Island
Tombros, S.F. (2008): Later stages of evolution of an epithermal system: Au-Ag mineralization at Apigania Bay, Tinos, Island, Cyclades, Hellas, Greece. Min.Pet. (in press)
  • Haryana
    • Bhiwani District
Murao, S., Deb, M., and Furuno, M. (2008): Ore Geology Reviews 33, 490-504.
  • Banten Province
    • Cikotok Gold District
Econ Geol (1994) 89:227-245; Marcoux, E., Milesi, J. P., Sohearto, S., & Rinawan, R. (1993). Noteworthy mineralogy of the Au-Ag-Sn-W (Bi) epithermal ore deposit of Cirotan, West Java, Indonesia. The Canadian Mineralogist, 31(3), 727-744.; Yuningsih, E. T., Matsueda, H., & Rosana, M. F. (2014). Epithermal Gold-Silver Deposits in Western Java, Indonesia: Gold-Silver Selenide-Telluride Mineralization. Indonesian Journal on Geoscience, 1(2), 71-81.
  • West Java Province
Yuningsih, E. T., Matsueda, H., & Rosana, M. F. (2014). Epithermal Gold-Silver Deposits in Western Java, Indonesia: Gold-Silver Selenide-Telluride Mineralization. Indonesian Journal on Geoscience, 1(2), 71-81.
  • Aomori Prefecture
    • Minamitsugaru District
      • Ikarigaseki
Mineralogical Magazine (1998) 62, 793-799
  • Gifu Prefecture
    • Hida City
      • Kamioka mine
MARIKO, T., KAWADA, M., MIURA, M., & ONO, S. (1996). Ore Formation Processes of The Mozumi Skarn-type Pb-Zn-Ag Deposit in the Kamioka Mine, Gifu Prefecture, Central Japan. Shigen-Chishitsu, 46(260), 337-354.
  • Hokkaidō Prefecture
    • Ishikari Subprefecture
      • Sapporo City
        • Minami-ku
Min. Jour. (Japan): 15:222-232.; 矢島淳吉, & 太田英順. (1979). Two-stage mineralization and formation process of the Toyoha deposits, Hokkaido, Japan. 鉱山地質, 29(157), 291-306.; Eijun Ohta (1991) Polymetallic Mineralization at the Toyoha Mine, Hokkaido, Japan. Mining Geology 41:279-295
  • Hyogo Prefecture
    • Asago City
      • Ikuno-cho-ono
Handbook of Mineralogy; Taguchi and Kizawa (1973) Koubutsugaku Zasshi, 11, 192-204.
    • Shisou City
Nakamura, T. & Aikawa,N. (1973) Journal of Geosciences, Osaka City University, 16, 1-10.
  • Kagoshima Prefecture
    • Ibusuki City
      • Iwato mine
Econ Geol (1989) 84:663-675
  • Shimane Prefecture
    • Masuda City
Soeda, A., Watanabe, M., Hoshino, K., & Nakashima, K. (1984). Mineralogy of tellurium-bearing canfieldite from the Tsumo mine, SW Japan and its implications for ore genesis. Neues Jahrbuch Fur Mineralogie-abhandlungen, 150(1), 11-23.
  • Tochigi Prefecture
    • Nikko City
      • Ashio-machi
Nakamura, T. & Aikawa,N. (1973) Journal of Geosciences, Osaka City University, 16, 1-10.
      • Kuriyamamura
Shimizu, M., Matsubara, S., Shimizu, M., Kyouno, Y., Harada, A., & Cook, N. J. (2007). High-grade Ag–Cu–Sn–In mineralization in the Nishizawa-Ashio area, Tochigi Prefecture, central Japan. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 71(suppl 1).
  • Áncash
    • Bolognesi Province
      • Huallanca District
        • Huallanca
Econ Geol (1985) 80:416-478
  • Lima
    • Oyon Province
EDS analysis Frank Keutsch; end member no Ge detected
  • Castelo Branco
    • Covilhã
D. Wimmers (1985) Silver Minerals of Panasqueira, Portugal: A New Occurrence of Te-Bearing Canfieldite. Mineralogical Magazine 49:745-748.
  • Vila Real
    • Sabrosa
Gaspar, O., Bowles, F.W., 1985; Mineralizações e Recuros em W/Sn...
  • Alba
    • Bucium Commune
      • Bucium (Bucsony; Bucsum; Bucsim)
Cioacă, M. E., Munteanu, M., Qi, L., & Costin, G. (2014). Trace element concentrations in porphyry copper deposits from Metaliferi Mountains, Romania: A reconnaissance study. Ore Geology Reviews, 63, 22-39.
    • Lupșa Commune
      • Mușca (Muska; Kismuska; Muszka; Russendorf; Russenhof)
Cioacă, M. E., Munteanu, M., Qi, L., & Costin, G. (2014). Trace element concentrations in porphyry copper deposits from Metaliferi Mountains, Romania: A reconnaissance study. Ore Geology Reviews, 63, 22-39.
    • Roşia Montanã Commune
Gheorghe C. POPESCU, Antonela NEACȘU (2011): Preliminary data on two tin-sulfosalts (canfieldite and pirquitasite) from Roşia Montană. Romanian Journal of Earth Sciences, 85, 35-41.
  • Hunedoara
    • Stănija (Sztanizsa)
Cook, N. J., & Ciobanu, C. L. (2003). Cervelleite, Ag4TeS, from three localities in Romania, substitution of Cu, and the occurrence of the associated phase, Ag2Cu2TeS. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie-Monatshefte, 2003(7), 321-336.; Cook, N. J., & Ciobanu, C. L. (2004). Bismuth tellurides and sulphosalts from the Larga hydrothermal system, Metaliferi Mts, Romania: Paragenesis and genetic significance. Mineralogical Magazine 68:301–321
  • Kamchatka Krai
[Der Aufschluss 1995:4 p163-180]; Okrugin, V. M. (2004). Miocene to Quaternary center volcanic, hydrothermal and ore-forming activity in the Southern Kamchatka. In Metallogeny of the Pacific Northwest (Russian Far East)-Tectonics, Magmatism and Metallogeny of Active Continental Margin, Interim IAGOD Conference, Excursion Guidebook, Dalnauka, Vladivostok, 2004 (pp. 147-176).
  • Magadan Oblast
    • Engteri ore cluster
Palyanova, G.A., Savva, N.E., Zhuravkova, T.V., Kolova, E.E. (2016): Gold and silver minerals in low-sulfidaton ores of the Julietta deposit (northeastern Russia). Russian Geology and Geophysics: 57: 1171-1190; http://forum.amiminerals.it/viewtopic.php?f=5&t=12972 (2016)
    • Kolyma River Basin
      • Ducat District
        • Omsukchan
R.G. Kravtsova, A.S. Makshakov, L.A. Pavlova (2015): Mineral and geochemical compositions, regularities of distribution, and specific formation of ore mineralization of the Rogovik gold-silver deposit (northeastern Russia). Russian Geology and Geophysics 56, 1367–1383.
Handbook of Mineralogy; Goryachev, N. A. and M. L. Gelman (2001) Granitoids of the Okhotsk-Kolyma Divide and Related Ore Mineralization. pp5-28 in Khanchuk, A.I., Gonevchuk, G.A. & Seltmann, R. (Eds) Metallogeny of the Pacific Northwest (Russian Far East): Tectonics, Magmatism and Metallogeny of Active Continental Margins. IAGOD Guidebook series 11, Dalnauka Publishing House, Vladivostok 2004, 176 p; Sidorov, A. A., & Eremin, R. A. (1994). Metallogeny and gold lode deposits of northeastern Russia. ICAM-94 proceedings, 247-256.
Goryachev, N. A., Gamyanin, G. N., Prokof’ev, V. Y., Savva, N. E., Velivetskaya, T. A., & Ignat’ev, A. V. (2014). Silver-cobalt mineralization in the Upper Seymchan ore cluster, Northeastern Russia. Geology of Ore Deposits, 56(5), 322-345.
  • Primorsky Krai
    • Arminsky ore district
      • Vostok
    • Dalnegorsk Urban District
      • Dalnegorsk
Simanenko, L.F., Ratkin, V.V. & Turchin, V.A. (2015): Mineral assemblages of the porphyry tin-polymetallic ores of Mount Krasnaya paleovolcano of the Krasnogorsky deposit in the Dal’negorsk ore district. Russ. J. of Pac. Geol. 9, 120-135.
Dobrovol’skaya, M.G., Genkin, A.D., Bortnikov, N.S., and Golovanova, T.I. (2008): Geology of Ore Deposits 50(1), 75-85.
  • Sakha Republic (Yakutia)
    • Sarychev Range
G. N. Gamyanin et al. (2001) Geology of Ore Deposits, 43, 442–467; Mills S.J., Kartashov P.M., Gamyanin G.N., Whitfield P.S., Kern A., Guerault H., Kampf A.R., Raudsepp M. (2011) Fluorocronite, the natural analogue of β-PbF2, from the Saha Republic, Russian Federation. European Journal of Mineralogy, 23, 695-700.
    • Verkhoyansk Fold Belt
      • Verkhoyansk Silver Province
        • Deputatsky ore cluster
Pavlova, G.G., and Borisenko, A.S. (2009): Ore Geology Reviews 35, 164-185.
Pavlova, G.G., and Borisenko, A.S. (2009): Ore Geology Reviews 35, 164-185.
Pavlova, G.G., and Borisenko, A.S. (2009): Ore Geology Reviews 35, 164-185.
Pavlova, G.G., and Borisenko, A.S. (2009): Ore Geology Reviews 35, 164-185.
        • Southern Verkhoyansk District
Pavlova, G.G., and Borisenko, A.S. (2009): Ore Geology Reviews 35, 164-185.
        • Western Verkhoyansk District
          • Mangazeisky ore cluster
Pavlova, G.G., and Borisenko, A.S. (2009): Ore Geology Reviews 35, 164-185.
Nekrasov, I.Ya., Gamyanin, G.N., Zhdanov, Yu.Ya., Leskova, N.V., Goryachev, N.A (1988): Mineralogy and geochemistry of silver mineralization in the Verkhoyan Kolyma fold region. Mineral associations of tin-silver and silver-lead-zinc deposits. Mineralog. Zhurnal: l0(l: 3-14 (in Russian); in: Jambor, J.L., Vanko, D.A. (1990): New mineral Names. American Mineralogist: 75: 711
  • Zabaykalsky Krai
    • Buriatia Republic (Buryatia)
      • Okinsky District
        • Muya District
Chugaev, A. V., Plotinskaya, O. Y., Chernyshev, I. V., Lebedev, V. A., Belogub, E. V., Goltsman, Y. V., ... & Oleinikova, T. I. (2017). Age and sources of matter for the Kedrovskoe gold deposit, Northern Transbaikal tegion, Republic of Buryatia: Geochronological and isotopic geochemical constraints. Geology of Ore Deposits, 59(4), 281-295.
    • Chitinskaya Oblast
      • Kukulbeisky ore district
Handbook of Mineralogy
  • Prešov Region
    • Prešov District
Duda et. all.,1981:Minerály severnej časti Slanských vrchov. Min.Slovca,Monografia 2,Bratislava, 98 p
  • Andalusia
    • Almería
      • Cuevas del Almanzora (Cuevas de Vera)
        • Sierra Almagrera
          • Las Herrerías
Navarro, A., & Cardellach, E. (2009). Mobilization of Ag, heavy metals and Eu from the waste deposit of the Las Herrerias mine (Almería, SE Spain). Environmental geology, 56(7), 1389-1404.
  • Valais
    • Goms
      • Binn
        • Fäld (Imfeld; Im Feld; Feld)
Bindi, L., Nestola, F., Guastoni, A., Zorzi, F., Peruzzo, L., Raber, T. (2012): Tellurian canfieldite, Ag8Sn(S,Te)6, from Lengenbach quarry, Binntal, Canton Valais, Switzerland: occurrence, description and crystal structure. Canadian Mineralogist, 50, 111-118; Raber, T. & Roth, P. (2014): Tellur-reicher Canfieldit. Schweizer Strahler 48 (1), 34-35.
  • Arizona
    • Cochise County
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd. ed.:65
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 153-154, 379.
  • Colorado
    • Lake Co.
      • Alicante
        • Iron Hill
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.
  • Montana
    • Butte-Silver Bow (Butte; Silver Bow Co.)
      • Butte Mining District (Summit Valley Mining District)
        • Walkerville
Van King
  • Nevada
    • Lander Co.
      • Lewis Mining District
      • McCoy Mining District
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
    • Nye Co.
      • Hot Creek Range
Rocks & Minerals. Nov. 1999
In the collection of Brent Thorne. XRD analyzed by Excalibur Minerals.
  • Navoiy
    • Central Kyzylkum Region
      • Bel'tau Mountains
Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
  • Tashkent
    • Okhangaron District
Evseev, A. A. (1995) Kazaknstan and Middle Asia. A brief Mineralogical Guide. World of Stone 8:24-30
Mineral and/or Locality  
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