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May contain some Ge replacing Sn, and some Te replacing S.
Steel gray with reddish tint
Specific Gravity:
6.2 - 6.3
Crystal System:
Named in 1893 by Samuel Lewis Penfield in honor of Frederick Alexander Canfield [April 7, 1849 Randolph, New Jersey, USA - July 3, 1926), of Dover, New Jersey, USA. Canfield was a mining engineer and mineral collector. Canfield's family was long interested in running the Dickerson Suckasunny Mining Company, with iron mines in Morris County, New Jersey. Much of Canfield's professional mining work was in New Jersey and Bolivia. Canfield was also a third generation mineral collector having acquired his great uncles' mineral collection as well as his own father's collection.
This page provides mineralogical data about Canfieldite.

Hide all sections | Show all sections

Classification of CanfielditeHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)

2 : SULFIDES and SULFOSALTS (sulfides, selenides, tellurides; arsenides, antimonides, bismuthides; sulfarsenites, sulfantimonites, sulfbismuthites, etc.)
B : Metal Sulfides, M: S > 1: 1 (mainly 2: 1)
A : With Cu, Ag, Au

5 : AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 3:2

6 : Sulphosalts - Sulphostannates, Sulphogermanates,Sulpharsenates, Sulphantimonates, Sulphovanadates and Sulphohalides
2 : Sulphogermanates

Physical Properties of CanfielditeHide

Steel gray with reddish tint
Tarnishes black with blue to purple tint
Greyish black
2½ on Mohs scale
VHN25=91 - 171 kg/mm2 - Vickers
Irregular/Uneven, Conchoidal
6.2 - 6.3 g/cm3 (Measured)    6.311 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Chemical Properties of CanfielditeHide


May contain some Ge replacing Sn, and some Te replacing S.
Common Impurities:

Crystallography of CanfielditeHide

Crystal System:
Class (H-M):
mm2 - Pyramidal
Cell Parameters:
a = 15.298(2) Å, b = 7.548(1) Å, c = 10.699(1) Å
a:b:c = 2.027 : 1 : 1.417
Unit Cell V:
1,235.41 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Crystals to 1cm with pseudo-octahedron and dodecahedron, botyroidal.
Commonly on {111}

Type Occurrence of CanfielditeHide

Other Language Names for CanfielditeHide

Simplified Chinese:硫银锡矿

Varieties of CanfielditeHide

Tellurian CanfielditeCanfieldite with a large portion of the sulfur replaced by tellurium. E.g.: 9.4 weight% S, 18.9% Te in Pirquitas mine, Argentina; 9.5% S, 17.9% Te in Julio Verne mine, Argentina; 13.95% S, 8.69% Te in Revelstoke mine, Canada.
TellurocanfielditeOriginally approved but approval has subsequently been withdrawn because a subsequent single-crystal structural analysis has shown that Te is disordered over the three sulphur sites and thus the material is in fact Te-rich canfieldite.

Relationship of Canfieldite to other SpeciesHide

Other Members of this group:
ArgyroditeAg8GeS6Orth. mm2 : Pna21
Putzite(Cu4.7Ag3.3)GeS6Iso. 4 3m : F4 3m
SpryiteAg8(As3+0.5As5+0.5)S6Orth. mm2 : Pna21
Forms a series with:

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Silver3 photos of Canfieldite associated with Silver on
Pyrargyrite1 photo of Canfieldite associated with Pyrargyrite on

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

2.BA.05ChalcociteCu2SMon. 2/m : P21/b
2.BA.05DjurleiteCu31S16Mon. 2/m
2.BA.05GeeriteCu8S5Trig. 3
2.BA.05RoxbyiteCu9S5Tric. 1 : P1
2.BA.10AniliteCu7S4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
2.BA.10DigeniteCu9S5Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
2.BA.15BorniteCu5FeS4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbca
2.BA.20BellidoiteCu2SeTet. 4/m : P42/n
2.BA.20BerzelianiteCu2SeIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
2.BA.35AcanthiteAg2SMon. 2/m : P21/m
2.BA.40MckinstryiteAg5-xCu3+xS4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
2.BA.40StromeyeriteAgCuSOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
2.BA.45SelenojalpaiteAg3CuSe2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/amd
2.BA.55AguilariteAg4SeSMon. 2/m
2.BA.55NaumanniteAg2SeOrth. 2 2 2 : P21 21 21
2.BA.60CervelleiteAg4TeSMon. 2/m
2.BA.60HessiteAg2TeMon. 2/m : P21/b
2.BA.65Henryite(Cu,Ag)3+xTe2 , with x ~ 0.40 Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3c
2.BA.65StütziteAg5-xTe3, x = 0.24-0.36Hex.
2.BA.70ArgyroditeAg8GeS6Orth. mm2 : Pna21
2.BA.70Putzite(Cu4.7Ag3.3)GeS6Iso. 4 3m : F4 3m
2.BA.75FischesseriteAg3AuSe2Iso. 4 3 2 : I41 3 2
2.BA.75PetziteAg3AuTe2Iso. 4 3 2 : I41 3 2
2.BA.75UytenbogaardtiteAg3AuS2Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3c

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide mm2 : Pna21

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

6.2.1GermaniteCu13Fe2Ge2S16Iso. 4 3m : P4 3n
6.2.3Renierite(Cu1+,Zn)11Fe4(Ge4+,As5+)2S16Tet. 4 2m : P4 2c
6.2.4ArgyroditeAg8GeS6Orth. mm2 : Pna21

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.
Industrial Uses:
Minor ore of tin and silver.

References for CanfielditeHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Penfield (1894), American Journal of Science: 47: 451.
Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 356-358.
Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR: 203: 122-125.
Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Monatshefte (1978): 269-272.

Internet Links for CanfielditeHide

Localities for CanfielditeHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
  • Jujuy
    • Rinconada Department
Brodtkorb, "Las Especies Minerales de la Republica Argentina" (2002)
Amer.Min.(2000) 85, 1066-1075
  • Salta
    • Los Andes department
      • San Antonio de los Cobres
        • Organullo mining district
Milka K. de Brodtkorb (2002) Las Especies Minerales de la Republica Argentina. Vol. 1 (elements, sulphides and sulphosalts). (Asociacion Mineralogica Argentina)
  • Tasmania
    • Northern Midlands municipality
      • Rossarden district
Bottrill & Baker (in prep) Catalogue of minerals of Tasmania
    • West Coast municipality
      • Zeehan district
        • North Dundas
STILLWELL, F. L.; EDWARDS, A . B . 1943. Mineral composition of the tin ores at Renison Bell, Tasmania. Proc . Australas. Inst. Min . Metall. 131-132: 173-186.
  • Salzburg
    • Lungau
      • Murwinkel
        • Rotgülden
          • Lower Rotgülden lake
Horner, J., Neubauer, F., Paar, W.H., Hansmann, W., Koeppel, V., and Robl, K. (1997): Mineralium Deposita 32, 555-568.
  • Potosí Department
    • Antonio Quijarro Province
      • Carguaicollo Mine (Carguaycollo Mine; Carhuaycollo Mine)
Ahlfeld, F. and Schneider-Scherbina, A. (1964) Los Yacimientos Minerales y de Hidrocarburos de Bolivia. (Ministerio de Minas y Petroleo, La Paz)
    • Chayanta Province
[MinRec 32:469]
James A. Ferraiolo
    • Sud Chichas Province
      • Atocha-Quechisla District
        • Chocaya-Animas (Animas-Chocaya)
[MinRec 32:461]
Handbook of Mineralogy
[MinRec 32:480
  • British Columbia
Handbook of Mineralogy
  • New Brunswick
    • Gloucester Co.
      • Beresford Parish
  • Fujian Province
    • Nanping Prefecture
      • Jianyang Co.
Handbook of Mineralogy
Anthony, J.W. et al.: Handbook of Mineralogy.
  • Guangdong Province
    • Heyuan Prefecture
      • Lianping Co.
Weining Zhou (1994): Mineral Resources and Geology 8(4), 233-244
    • Yunfu Prefecture
      • Yuncheng District
Canhui Huang (1991): Guangdong Non-Ferrous Metal Geology 1991(1), 13-30; Jiarong Pan and Yangzhong Yu (2013): Gold Science and Technology 21(6), 36-41
  • Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region
    • Hechi Prefecture
      • Nandan Co.
        • Dachang Sn-polymetallic ore field
Weining Zhou (1994): Mineral Resources and Geology 8(4), 233-244
    • Hezhou Prefecture
      • Zhongshan Co.
        • Shanhu W-Sn ore field (Shanhu Mine)
Yunying Shu and Peiling Zhou (1990): Journal of Guilin University of Technology 10(2)
  • Hunan Province
    • Chenzhou Prefecture
      • Guiyang Co.
Zhengqin Li (1991): Acta Mineralogica Sinica 11(2), 148-154
        • Huangshaping Pb-Zn-polymetallic ore field
Zhengqin Li (1991): Acta Mineralogica Sinica 11(2), 148-154
      • Linwu Co.
        • Xianghualing Sn-polymetallic ore field
Zhengqin Li (1991): Acta Mineralogica Sinica 11(2), 148-154; Weining Zhou (1994): Mineral Resources and Geology 8(4), 233-244
      • Yizhang Co.
        • Dongpo ore field
Weining Zhou (1994): Mineral Resources and Geology 8(4), 233-244
Yi Li and Youbin Liang (1991): Geology and Prospecting 27(8), 21-25; Weining Zhou (1994): Mineral Resources and Geology 8(4), 233-244
  • Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region
    • Hinggan League (Xing'an Prefecture)
      • Horqin Right Middle Banner (Ke'erqin Youyi Zhongqi)
Tianwei Guo and Zhongwen Han (1990): Northeastern Geological Science and Technology Information 11(2), 1-11; Qian Zhang, Xinzhi Zhan, Yuzhuo Qiu, Shuxun Shao, and Zhihao Liu (2002): Geochimica 31(3), 253-258
    • Hulunbuir League (Hulunbei'er Prefecture)
      • New Barag Right Banner (Xin Barag Youqi)
Zhicheng Lu, Peiping Zhang, Guozheng Duan, Libo Hao, and Dianchao Li (2002): Acta Mineralogica Sinica 22(1), 75-80
    • Ulanhad League (Chifeng Prefecture)
      • Bairin Left Banner (Balin Zuoqi)
Yongsheng Kuang, Guangrui Zheng, Minjie Lu, Yanlin Liu, Shaojie Zhang, Ruiyang Li, and Wenjing Cheng (2014): Mineral Deposits 33(4), 847-856
  • Jiangxi Province
    • Ganzhou Prefecture
      • Dayu Co.
        • Xihuashan ore field
Weining Zhou (1994): Mineral Resources and Geology 8(4), 233-244
    • Shangrao Prefecture
      • Wannian Co.
Leiming Xu, Hengyu Wu, Ge Bai, and Quanbo He (1993): Acta Mineralogica Sinica 13(3), 254-262
    • Yingtan Prefecture
      • Guixi Co.
        • Lengshuikeng Ag-Pb-Zn-Au deposit
Ran Lu, Jingwen Mao, Jianjing Gao, Huimin Su, and Jiahao Zheng (2012): Acta Petrologica Sinica 28(1), 105-121
  • Liaoning Province (Manchuria; Dongbei Region)
    • Huludao Prefecture
      • Jianchang Co.
Xuehui Xia, Jiazhong Yuan, Yuhai Zhao, and Fei Yan (2003): Geology of Chemical Minerals 25(4), 129-144
Xuehui Xia, Jiazhong Yuan, Yuhai Zhao, and Fei Yan (2003): Geology of Chemical Minerals 25(4), 129-144
  • Tibet Autonomous Region
    • Nagchu Prefecture (Naqu Prefecture)
      • Nagchu Co. (Naqu Co.)
Zhixing Feng, Xinbiao Lü, and Tao Wang (2010): Geology and Exploration 46(4), 628-633; Zhixing Feng, Xinbiao Lü, and Tao Wang (2011): Mineral Deposits 30(3), 469-476
Czech Republic
  • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
    • Central Bohemia Region
      • Kutná Hora (Kuttenberg)
No reference listed
Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990
Handbook of Mineralogy
    • Karlovy Vary Region
      • Aš (Asch)
Steffen Möckel analysis
  • Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes
    • Cantal
      • Laroquebrou
        • Saint-Santin-Cantalès
      • Massiac
        • Molèdes
R. Pierrot, P. Picot, J.J. Périchaud : "Inventaire Minéralogique du Cantal", BRGM and Editions G. de Bussac, 1971
  • Brittany
    • Finistère
      • Huelgoat (Locmaria-Berrien)
R.PIERROT, L. CHAURIS, C. LAFORET (1973) : "Inventaire minéralogique de la France : 29- Finistère.", B.R.G.M. Paris.
  • Saxony
    • Erzgebirge
      • Freiberg District
        • Brand-Erbisdorf
Hofmann, F. (1986): Die Freiberger Mineralien. LAPIS 11 (7-8), 28-55
  • Aegean Islands Department (Aiyaíon)
    • Kykládes Prefecture
      • Cyclade Islands (Cyclades; Kikladhes; Nomos Kikladhon)
        • Tinos Island
Tombros, S.F. (2008): Later stages of evolution of an epithermal system: Au-Ag mineralization at Apigania Bay, Tinos, Island, Cyclades, Hellas, Greece. Min.Pet. (in press)
  • Sermersooq
    • Arsuk Fjord
      • Ivittuut (Ivigtut)
Petersen, O.V. and Secher, K. (1993): The minerals of Greenland. Mineralogical Record 24 (2): 1-65 (p.36)
  • Haryana
    • Bhiwani District
Murao, S., Deb, M., and Furuno, M. (2008): Ore Geology Reviews 33, 490-504.
  • Java (Jawa)
    • Banten Province
      • Cikotok Gold District
Econ Geol (1994) 89:227-245; Marcoux, E., Milesi, J. P., Sohearto, S., & Rinawan, R. (1993). Noteworthy mineralogy of the Au-Ag-Sn-W (Bi) epithermal ore deposit of Cirotan, West Java, Indonesia. The Canadian Mineralogist, 31(3), 727-744.
  • Hokkaido
    • Sapporo
      • Minami-ku
Min. Jour. (Japan): 15:222-232.; 矢島淳吉, & 太田英順. (1979). Two-stage mineralization and formation process of the Toyoha deposits, Hokkaido, Japan. 鉱山地質, 29(157), 291-306.; Eijun Ohta (1991) Polymetallic Mineralization at the Toyoha Mine, Hokkaido, Japan. Mining Geology 41:279-295
  • Honshu Island
    • Chugoku Region
      • Shimane Prefecture
        • Masuda
Soeda, A., Watanabe, M., Hoshino, K., & Nakashima, K. (1984). Mineralogy of tellurium-bearing canfieldite from the Tsumo mine, SW Japan and its implications for ore genesis. Neues Jahrbuch Fur Mineralogie-abhandlungen, 150(1), 11-23.
    • Kanto region
      • Tochigi Prefecture
        • Nikko City
          • Ashio-machi
Nakamura, T. & Aikawa,N. (1973) Journal of Geosciences, Osaka City University, 16, 1-10.
          • Kuriyamamura
Shimizu, M., Matsubara, S., Shimizu, M., Kyouno, Y., Harada, A., & Cook, N. J. (2007). High-grade Ag–Cu–Sn–In mineralization in the Nishizawa-Ashio area, Tochigi Prefecture, central Japan. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 71(suppl 1).
    • Kinki Region
      • Hyogo Prefecture
        • Asago City
          • Ikuno-cho-ono
Handbook of Mineralogy; Taguchi and Kizawa (1973) Koubutsugaku Zasshi, 11, 192-204.
        • Shisou City
Nakamura, T. & Aikawa,N. (1973) Journal of Geosciences, Osaka City University, 16, 1-10.
    • Tohoku Region
      • Aomori Prefecture
        • Minami-Tsugaru-gun
          • Ikarigaseki
Mineralogical Magazine (1998) 62, 793-799
  • Kyushu Region
    • Kagoshima Prefecture
      • Satsuma Peninsula
        • Iwato mine
Econ Geol (1989) 84:663-675
  • Ancash Department
    • Bolognesi Province
      • Huallanca District
        • Huallanca
Econ Geol (1985) 80:416-478
  • Castelo Branco District
    • Covilhã
D. Wimmers (1985) Silver Minerals of Panasqueira, Portugal: A New Occurrence of Te-Bearing Canfieldite. Mineralogical Magazine 49:745-748.
  • Vila Real District
    • Sabrosa
Gaspar, O., Bowles, F.W., 1985; Mineralizações e Recuros em W/Sn...
  • Alba Co.
    • Bucium Commune
      • Bucium (Bucsony; Bucsum; Bucsim)
Cioacă, M. E., Munteanu, M., Qi, L., & Costin, G. (2014). Trace element concentrations in porphyry copper deposits from Metaliferi Mountains, Romania: A reconnaissance study. Ore Geology Reviews, 63, 22-39.
    • Lupșa Commune
      • Mușca (Muska; Kismuska; Muszka; Russendorf; Russenhof)
Cioacă, M. E., Munteanu, M., Qi, L., & Costin, G. (2014). Trace element concentrations in porphyry copper deposits from Metaliferi Mountains, Romania: A reconnaissance study. Ore Geology Reviews, 63, 22-39.
    • Roşia Montanã Commune
Gheorghe C. POPESCU, Antonela NEACȘU (2011): Preliminary data on two tin-sulfosalts (canfieldite and pirquitasite) from Roşia Montană. Romanian Journal of Earth Sciences, 85, 35-41.
  • Hunedoara Co.
    • Stanija (Sztanizsa)
Cook, N. J., & Ciobanu, C. L. (2003). Cervelleite, Ag4TeS, from three localities in Romania, substitution of Cu, and the occurrence of the associated phase, Ag2Cu2TeS. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie-Monatshefte, 2003(7), 321-336.
  • Eastern-Siberian Region
    • Sakha Republic (Saha Republic; Yakutia)
      • Sarychev Range
G. N. Gamyanin et al. (2001) Geology of Ore Deposits, 43, 442–467; Mills S.J., Kartashov P.M., Gamyanin G.N., Whitfield P.S., Kern A., Guerault H., Kampf A.R., Raudsepp M. (2011) Fluorocronite, the natural analogue of β-PbF2, from the Saha Republic, Russian Federation. European Journal of Mineralogy, 23, 695-700.
      • Verkhoyansk Fold Belt
        • Verkhoyansk Silver Province
          • Deputatsky ore cluster
Pavlova, G.G., and Borisenko, A.S. (2009): Ore Geology Reviews 35, 164-185.
Pavlova, G.G., and Borisenko, A.S. (2009): Ore Geology Reviews 35, 164-185.
Pavlova, G.G., and Borisenko, A.S. (2009): Ore Geology Reviews 35, 164-185.
Pavlova, G.G., and Borisenko, A.S. (2009): Ore Geology Reviews 35, 164-185.
          • Southern Verkhoyansk District
Pavlova, G.G., and Borisenko, A.S. (2009): Ore Geology Reviews 35, 164-185.
          • Western Verkhoyansk District
            • Mangazeisky ore cluster
Pavlova, G.G., and Borisenko, A.S. (2009): Ore Geology Reviews 35, 164-185.
Nekrasov, I.Ya., Gamyanin, G.N., Zhdanov, Yu.Ya., Leskova, N.V., Goryachev, N.A (1988): Mineralogy and geochemistry of silver mineralization in the Verkhoyan Kolyma fold region. Mineral associations of tin-silver and silver-lead-zinc deposits. Mineralog. Zhurnal: l0(l: 3-14 (in Russian); in: Jambor, J.L., Vanko, D.A. (1990): New mineral Names. American Mineralogist: 75: 711
    • Transbaikalia (Zabaykalye)
      • Chitinskaya Oblast'
Handbook of Mineralogy
  • Far-Eastern Region
    • Kamchatka Oblast'
[Der Aufschluss 1995:4 p163-180]
    • Magadanskaya Oblast'
      • Engteri ore cluster
Palyanova, G.A., Savva, N.E., Zhuravkova, T.V., Kolova, E.E. (2016): Gold and silver minerals in low-sulfidaton ores of the Julietta deposit (northeastern Russia). Russian Geology and Geophysics: 57: 1171-1190; (2016)
      • Kolyma River Basin
        • Ducat District
          • Omsukchan
R.G. Kravtsova, A.S. Makshakov, L.A. Pavlova (2015): Mineral and geochemical compositions, regularities of distribution, and specific formation of ore mineralization of the Rogovik gold-silver deposit (northeastern Russia). Russian Geology and Geophysics 56, 1367–1383.
Handbook of Mineralogy
Goryachev, N. A., Gamyanin, G. N., Prokof’ev, V. Y., Savva, N. E., Velivetskaya, T. A., & Ignat’ev, A. V. (2014). Silver-cobalt mineralization in the Upper Seymchan ore cluster, Northeastern Russia. Geology of Ore Deposits, 56(5), 322-345.
    • Primorskiy Kray
      • Kavalerovo Mining District
        • Dal'negorsk (Dalnegorsk; Tetyukhe; Tjetjuche; Tetjuche)
Simanenko, L.F., Ratkin, V.V. & Turchin, V.A. (2015): Mineral assemblages of the porphyry tin-polymetallic ores of Mount Krasnaya paleovolcano of the Krasnogorsky deposit in the Dal’negorsk ore district. Russ. J. of Pac. Geol. 9, 120-135.
Dobrovol’skaya, M.G., Genkin, A.D., Bortnikov, N.S., and Golovanova, T.I. (2008): Geology of Ore Deposits 50(1), 75-85.
      • Vostok
  • Prešov Region
    • Prešov Co.
Duda et. all.,1981:Minerály severnej časti Slanských vrchov. Min.Slovca,Monografia 2,Bratislava, 98 p
  • Wallis (Valais)
    • Binn Valley
      • Fäld (Imfeld; Im Feld; Feld)
Bindi, L., Nestola, F., Guastoni, A., Zorzi, F., Peruzzo, L., Raber, T. (2012): Tellurian canfieldite, Ag8Sn(S,Te)6, from Lengenbach quarry, Binntal, Canton Valais, Switzerland: occurrence, description and crystal structure. Canadian Mineralogist, 50, 111-118; Raber, T. & Roth, P. (2014): Tellur-reicher Canfieldit. Schweizer Strahler 48 (1), 34-35.
  • Arizona
    • Cochise Co.
      • Mule Mts
        • Warren District
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd. ed.:65
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 153-154, 379.
  • Colorado
    • Lake Co.
      • Leadville District
        • Alicante
          • Iron Hill
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckels, E. B.
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckels, E. B.
  • Montana
    • Silver Bow Co.
      • Butte District (Summit Valley District)
        • Walkerville
Van King
  • Nevada
    • Lander Co.
      • Lewis District
      • McCoy District
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
    • Nye Co.
      • Hot Creek Range
Rocks & Minerals. Nov. 1999
In the collection of Brent Thorne. XRD analyzed by Excalibur Minerals.
  • Navoiy Viloyati (Navoi)
    • Central Kyzylkum Region
      • Bel'tau Mts
Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
  • Tashkent Viloyati (Toshkent)
    • Angren Region
      • Chatkal-Kuraminskii Range
Evseev, A. A. (1995) Kazaknstan and Middle Asia. A brief Mineralogical Guide. World of Stone 8:24-30
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