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Caracolite

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Formula:
Na3Pb2(SO4)3Cl
Colour:
Colourless, grayish, greenish stained; colourless in transmitted light.
Lustre:
Vitreous
Hardness:
Specific Gravity:
5.1
Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Name:
After Caracoles, a town near the type locality of the Beatriz Mine, Sierra Gorda, Atacama, Chile.
This page provides mineralogical data about Caracolite.


Hide all sections | Show all sections

Classification of CaracoliteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
First Published:
1886
7.BD.20

7 : SULFATES (selenates, tellurates, chromates, molybdates, wolframates)
B : Sulfates (selenates, etc.) with additional anions, without H2O
D : With only large cations
30.3.2.1

30 : ANHYDROUS SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
3 : (AB)5(XO4)3Zq
26.25

26 : Sulphates with Halide

Physical Properties of CaracoliteHide

Vitreous
Transparency:
Transparent
Colour:
Colourless, grayish, greenish stained; colourless in transmitted light.
Hardness:
4½ on Mohs scale
Cleavage:
None Observed
Density:
5.1 g/cm3 (Measured)    4.5 g/cm3 (Calculated)
Comment:
Measured density approximate.

Optical Data of CaracoliteHide

Type:
Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 1.743 nβ = 1.754 nγ = 1.764
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.021
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
High
Dispersion:
r > v moderate

Chemical Properties of CaracoliteHide

Formula:
Na3Pb2(SO4)3Cl
IMA Formula:
Na2(Pb2Na)(SO4)3Cl

Crystallography of CaracoliteHide

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Cell Parameters:
a = 19.62 Å, b = 7.14 Å, c = 9.81 Å
β = 120°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 2.748 : 1 : 1.374
Unit Cell V:
1,190.14 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Morphology:
Occurs as crystalline incrustations. Imperfect crystals to 1 mm apparently hexagonal with a hexagonal pyramid and prism plus a large base.
Twinning:
Pseudo-hexagonal trillings, analogous to aragonite. Exhibits complex polysynthetic twinning with rather large extinction angles.

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
8.45 (31)
4.03 (31)
3.55 (55)
2.927 (100)
2.876 (45)
2.132 (35)
1.906 (56)

Type Occurrence of CaracoliteHide

General Appearance of Type Material:
Crystalline incrustations with pseudohexagonal crystals to 1mm.
Associated Minerals at Type Locality:
Reference:
Websky, M. (1886) Über caracolite und percylit. Sitzungsberichte der Königlich Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Berlin: 48: 1045-1050.

Other Language Names for CaracoliteHide

German:Caracolit
Simplified Chinese:氯铅芒硝
Spanish:Caracolita

Relationship of Caracolite to other SpeciesHide

Other Members of this group:
AiolositeNa4Bi(SO4)3ClHex. 6/m : P63/m
CesaniteNa3Ca2(SO4)3(OH)Hex.
FluorphosphohedyphaneCa2Pb3(PO4)3FHex. 6/m : P63/m
HedyphaneCa2Pb3(AsO4)3ClHex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
Miyahisaite(Sr,Ca)2Ba3(PO4)3F Hex. 6/m : P63/m
MorelanditeCa2Ba3(AsO4)3Cl
PhosphohedyphaneCa2Pb3(PO4)3ClHex. 6/m : P63/m

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Changoite4 photos of Caracolite associated with Changoite on mindat.org.
Kröhnkite3 photos of Caracolite associated with Kröhnkite on mindat.org.
Glauberite2 photos of Caracolite associated with Glauberite on mindat.org.
Quartz2 photos of Caracolite associated with Quartz on mindat.org.
Chalcedony1 photo of Caracolite associated with Chalcedony on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

7.BD.05SulphohaliteNa6(SO4)2FClIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m)
7.BD.05SulfohaliteNa6(SO4)2FCl
7.BD.10GaleiteNa15(SO4)5F4ClTrig.
7.BD.10SchaireriteNa21(SO4)7ClF6Trig. 3m (3 2/m)
7.BD.15KogarkoiteNa3(SO4)FMon.
7.BD.20CesaniteNa3Ca2(SO4)3(OH)Hex.
7.BD.20AiolositeNa4Bi(SO4)3ClHex. 6/m : P63/m
7.BD.25BurkeiteNa6(CO3)(SO4)2Orth.
7.BD.30HanksiteNa22K(SO4)9(CO3)2ClHex. 6/m : P63/m
7.BD.35CannoniteBi2(SO4)O(OH)2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
7.BD.40LanarkitePb2(SO4)OMon. 2/m : B2/m
7.BD.45GrandreefitePb2(SO4)F2Mon. 2/m
7.BD.50ItoitePb3Ge4+(SO4)2O2(OH)2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
7.BD.55ChiluiteBi3Te6+Mo6+O10.5Hex.
7.BD.60HectorfloresiteNa9(SO4)4(IO3)Mon. 2/m : P21/b
7.BD.65PseudograndreefitePb6(SO4)F10Orth. 2 2 2 : F2 2 2
7.BD.70SundiusitePb10(SO4)O8Cl2Mon.

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

26.1KogarkoiteNa3(SO4)FMon.
26.2SulphohaliteNa6(SO4)2FClIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m)
26.3SchaireriteNa21(SO4)7ClF6Trig. 3m (3 2/m)
26.4GaleiteNa15(SO4)5F4ClTrig.
26.5ConnelliteCu19(SO4)(OH)32Cl4 · 3H2OHex. 6 m2 : P62c
26.6ChlorothioniteK2Cu(SO4)Cl2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
26.7KamchatkiteKCu3(SO4)2OClOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
26.8SpangoliteCu6Al(SO4)(OH)12Cl · 3H2OTrig. 3m : P3 1c
26.9AubertiteCuAl(SO4)2Cl · 14H2OTric. 1
26.10Magnesioaubertite(Mg,Cu)Al(SO4)2Cl · 14H2O
26.11Svyazhinite(Mg,Mn2+,Ca)(Al,Fe3+)(SO4)2F · 14H2OTric.
26.12D'AnsiteNa21Mg(SO4)10Cl3Iso.
26.13AnhydrokainiteKMg(SO4)Cl
26.14KainiteKMg(SO4)Cl · 3H2OMon. 2/m : B2/m
26.15Mosesite(Hg2N)(Cl,SO4,MoO4) · H2OIso.
26.16Kleinite(Hg2N)(Cl,SO4) · nH2OHex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
26.17WilcoxiteMgAl(SO4)2F · 17H2OTric. 1 : P1
26.18CreediteCa3SO4Al2F8(OH)2 · 2H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
26.19LannoniteMg2Ca4Al4(SO4)8F8 · 24H2O Tet. 4/m : I4/m
26.20Chukhrovite-(Y)Ca3(Y,Ce)[F|SO4|(AlF6)2] · 10H2OIso.
26.21Chukhrovite-(Ce)Ca3(Ce,Y)[F|SO4|(AlF6)2] · 10H2OIso.
26.22GrandreefitePb2(SO4)F2Mon. 2/m
26.23PseudograndreefitePb6(SO4)F10Orth. 2 2 2 : F2 2 2
26.24SundiusitePb10(SO4)O8Cl2Mon.
26.26MammothitePb6Cu4AlSb5+O2(OH)16Cl4(SO4)2Mon. 2 : B2
26.27AtlasoviteK(BiO)Cu6Fe3+(SO4)5O3ClTet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P4/ncc
26.28XitieshaniteFe3+(SO4)Cl · 6H2OMon.
26.29NabokoiteKCu7(SO4)5(Te4+O3)OClTet.

Other InformationHide

Notes:
Decomposes in H2O, leaving PbSO4.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for CaracoliteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Websky, M. (1886) Über caracolite und percylit. Sitzungsberichte der Königlich Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Berlin: 48: 1045-1050.
Fletcher, L. (1889) On Crystals of Percylite, Caracolite, and an Oxychloride of Lead (Daviesite), from Mina Beatriz, Sierra Gorda, Atacama, South America. Mineralogical Magazine: 8: 172-180.
Goldschmidt, V. (1913) Atlas der Krystallformen. 9 volumes, atlas, and text: vol. 2: 2: 104.
Larsen, E.S. (1921) The Microscopic Determination of the Nonopaque Minerals, First edition, USGS Bulletin 679: 52.
Palache, C., Berman, H., Frondel, C. (1951) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 546-547.
Schneider, W. (1967) Caracolit, das Na3Pb2(SO4)3Cl mit apatitstruktur. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Monatshefte: 1967: 284-289.
Schneider, W. (1969) Determination of the superstructure of caracolite. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie: 128: 455-455.
Schneider, W. (1969) Bestimmung einer überstruktur am caracolit. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Monatshefte: 1969: 58-64.
Pasero, M., Kampf, A.R., Ferraris, C., Pekov, I.V., Rakovan, J.R., White, T.J. (2010) Nomenclature of the apatite supergroup minerals. European Journal of Mineralogy: 22: 163-179.

Internet Links for CaracoliteHide

Localities for CaracoliteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Chile
 
  • Antofagasta Region
    • Antofagasta Province
      • Cuevitas
        • San Cristóbal
Smith, G.F.H. and Prior, G.T. (1906) Paratacamite, a new oxychloride of copper. Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 14, n° 65, 170-177.
      • Sierra Gorda District
        • Caracoles
Brugger J, Meisser N, Ansermat S, Krivovichev S V, Kahlenberg V, Belton D, Ryan C G (2012) Leucostaurite, Pb2[B5O9]Cl·0.5H2O, from the Atacama Desert: The first Pb-dominant member of the hilgardite group, and micro-determination of boron minerals by PIGE. American Mineralogist 97, 1206-1212
Periodico di Mineralogia 54 (1985), 34; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 82, 547.
Smith, G.F.H. and Prior, G.T. (1906) Paratacamite, a new oxychloride of copper. Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 14, n° 65, 170-177.; Palache, C., Berman, H., and Frondel, C. (1951) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 75.
Smith, G.F.H. and Prior, G.T. (1906) Paratacamite, a new oxychloride of copper. Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 14, n° 65, 170-177.; Palache, C., Berman, H., and Frondel, C. (1951) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 75.
Maurizio Dini
Vajdak, Josef (2006) Mineral News: 22: 11; U. Kolitsch collection.
Handbook of Mineralogy
        • Caracoles mining district
          • Quebrada Honda
Handbook of Mineralogy
Collection U. Kolitsch (gift from Arturo Molina)
  • Tarapacá Region
    • El Tamarugal Province
      • Challacollo
Tim Jokela Jr
Schluter, J., Pohl, D., & Britvin, S. (2005). The new mineral challacolloite, KPb2Cl5, the natural occurrence of a technically known laser material. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie-Abhandlungen, 182(1), 95-101.
China
 
  • Xinjiang Autonomous Region
    • Tulufan Prefecture (Turfan Prefecture; Turpan Prefecture)
      • Shanshan Co. (Piqan Co.; Pichan Co.)
        • Kanggur-Xifengshan gold belt
Kaiyin Bai and Zhaoxin Han (2007): Northwestern Geology 40(2), 114-117
Germany
 
  • North Rhine-Westphalia
    • Ruhr Coal Mining area
      • Marl
        • Marl-Hüls
Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", 1990
    • Sauerland
      • Brilon
        • Thülen
Dietrich, A. (2003) Interessante Neufunde, Peri- und Pseudomorphosen vom Steinbruch Thülen bei Brilon, Sauerland. Mineralien Welt: 14(4): 26-31.
Greece
 
  • Aegean Islands Department (Aiyaíon)
    • Kykládes Prefecture
      • Cyclade Islands (Cyclades; Kikladhes; Nomos Kikladhon)
        • Santorini Island (Thera)
Sotiropoulou, S., Perdikatsis, V., Apostolaki, C., Karydas, A. G., Devetzi, A., & Birtacha, K. (2010). Lead pigments and related tools at Akrotiri, Thera, Greece. Provenance and application techniques. Journal of Archaeological Science, 37(8), 1830-1840.
Ukraine
 
  • Zhytomyr Oblast' (Zhitomir Oblast')
Lyckberg, P., Chornousenko, V. & Wilson, W. E. (2009): Volodarsk-Volynski, Zhitomir Oblast, Ukraine. Mineralogical Record, 40, 473-506.
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