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Carbonate-rich Hydroxylapatite

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About Carbonate-rich HydroxylapatiteHide

Crystal System:
Named from the Greek word meaning "to deceive"
A variety of Hydroxylapatite

Apatite Group.

A hydroxylapatite with carbonate group (CO3) substituting for some of the phosphate (PO4) group.

Originally reported from Ødegården Mine (Ødegaarden Mine), Ødegården field, Bamble, Telemark, Norway.

An important biomaterial: bone constituent; its precursor is the Unnamed (Amorphous Calcium Carbonate) (Tolba et al., 2016).

Compare 'Unnamed (Ca-Na Phosphate)' - obtained in an attempt of synthesizing of the current phase.

Classification of Carbonate-rich HydroxylapatiteHide


B : Phosphates, etc., with additional anions, without H2O
N : With only large cations, (OH, etc.):RO4 = 0.33:1

22 : Phosphates, Arsenates or Vanadates with other Anions
4 : Phosphates, arsenates or vanadates with carbonate

Physical Properties of Carbonate-rich HydroxylapatiteHide


Optical Data of Carbonate-rich HydroxylapatiteHide

Uniaxial (-)
RI values:
nω = 1.603 - 1.628 nε = 1.598 - 1.619
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.005 - 0.009
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:

Chemical Properties of Carbonate-rich HydroxylapatiteHide


Crystallography of Carbonate-rich HydroxylapatiteHide

Crystal System:
Cell Parameters:
a = 9.3 Å, c = 6.92 Å
a:c = 1 : 0.744
Unit Cell V:
518.33 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)

Synonyms of Carbonate-rich HydroxylapatiteHide

Other Language Names for Carbonate-rich HydroxylapatiteHide

Varieties of Carbonate-rich HydroxylapatiteHide

Ornithite'Dahllite' pseudomorphs after brushite. From guano.

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
6 photos of Carbonate-rich Hydroxylapatite associated with CollinsiteCa2Mg(PO4)2 · 2H2O
4 photos of Carbonate-rich Hydroxylapatite associated with MagnetiteFe2+Fe3+2O4
3 photos of Carbonate-rich Hydroxylapatite associated with Ferrierite-Mg(Mg,Na2,K2,Ca)3-5Mg[Al5-7Si27.5-31O72] · 18H2O
2 photos of Carbonate-rich Hydroxylapatite associated with CalciteCaCO3
1 photo of Carbonate-rich Hydroxylapatite associated with

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

8.BN.05AlforsiteBa5(PO4)3ClHex. 6/m : P63/m
8.BN.05Belovite-(Ce)NaCeSr3(PO4)3FTrig. 3 : P3
8.BN.05Carbonate-rich FluorapatiteCa5(PO4,CO3)3(F,O)Hex.
8.BN.05ChlorapatiteCa5(PO4)3ClHex. 6/m : P63/m
8.BN.05Mimetite-MPb5(AsO4)3ClMon. 2/m : P21/b
8.BN.05Johnbaumite-MCa5(AsO4)3OHMon. 2/m : P21/m
8.BN.05FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3FHex. 6/m : P63/m
8.BN.05HedyphaneCa2Pb3(AsO4)3ClHex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
8.BN.05HydroxylapatiteCa5(PO4)3(OH)Hex. 6/m : P63/m
8.BN.05JohnbaumiteCa5(AsO4)3OHHex. 6/m : P63/m
8.BN.05MimetitePb5(AsO4)3ClHex. 6/m : P63/m
8.BN.05PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3ClHex. 6/m : P63/m
8.BN.05FluorstrophiteSrCaSr3(PO4)3FHex. 6/m : P63/m
8.BN.05SvabiteCa5(AsO4)3FHex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
8.BN.05VanadinitePb5(VO4)3ClHex. 6/m : P63/m
8.BN.05Belovite-(La)NaLaSr3(PO4)3FTrig. 3 : P3
8.BN.05FluorcaphiteSrCaCa3(PO4)3FHex. 6/m : P63/m
8.BN.05Kuannersuite-(Ce)NaCeBa3(PO4)3F0.5Cl0.5Trig. 3 : P3
8.BN.05Hydroxylapatite-MCa5(PO4)3OHMon. 2/m : P21/b
8.BN.05PhosphohedyphaneCa2Pb3(PO4)3ClHex. 6/m : P63/m
8.BN.05StronadelphiteSr5(PO4)3FHex. 6/m : P63/m
8.BN.05FluorphosphohedyphaneCa2Pb3(PO4)3FHex. 6/m : P63/m
8.BN.05Carlgieseckeite-(Nd)NaNdCa3(PO4)3FTrig. 3 : P3
8.BN.05Miyahisaite(Sr,Ca)2Ba3(PO4)3F Hex. 6/m : P63/m
8.BN.10ArctiteNa2Ca4(PO4)3FTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

22.4.2KovdorskiteMg2(PO4)(OH) · 3H2OMon.
22.4.4Carbonate-rich FluorapatiteCa5(PO4,CO3)3(F,O)Hex.
22.4.5TyroliteCa2Cu9(AsO4)4(CO3)(OH)8 · 11H2OMon. 2/m
22.4.6HeneuiteCaMg5(CO3)(PO4)3(OH)Tric. 1 : P1
22.4.7GirvasiteNaCa2Mg3(PO4)3(CO3)(H2O)6Mon. 2/m : P21/b
22.4.9GartrellitePb(Cu,Fe3+,Zn)2(AsO4,SO4)2 · 2(H2O,OH)Tric. 1 : P1
22.4.10VoggiteNa2Zr(PO4)(CO3)(OH) · 2H2OMon.
22.4.11BonshtedtiteNa3Fe2+(CO3)(PO4)Mon. 2/m : P21/m

Other InformationHide

Soluble in HCl or in HNO3. Varieties containing CO3 may dissolve with slight effervescence.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Carbonate-rich HydroxylapatiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Julien (1865) American Journal of Science: 40: 371 (as Ornithite).
Brögger and Bäckström (1888) Ak. Stockholm, Öfv.: 45: 493 (as Dahllite).
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 879-889.
Tolba, E., Müller, W.E.G., Abd El-Hady, B.M., Neufurth, M., Wurm, F., Wang, S., Schröder, H.C., Wang, X. (2016): High biocompatibility and improved osteogenic potential of amorphous calcium carbonate/vaterite. Journal of Materials Chemistry B: 4: 376-386

Internet Links for Carbonate-rich HydroxylapatiteHide

Localities for Carbonate-rich HydroxylapatiteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
  • Mendoza Province
    • Malargüe Department
Benedetto, C., Forti, P., Galli, E., & Rossi, A. (1998). Chemical deposits in volcanic caves of Argentina. International Journal of Speleology, 27(1), 16.
Trueman, N. A. (1966). Substitutions for phosphate ions in apatite. Nature, 210, 937-938.
Frisia, S., Borsato, A., Drysdale, R.N., Paul, B., Greig, A., Cotte, M. (2012) A re-evaluation of the palaeoclimatic significance of phosphorus variability in speleothems revealed by high-resolution synchrotron micro XRF mapping. Climate of the Past, 8(6), 2039-2051.
  • Tasmania
    • Bass Strait
  • Western Australia
    • Dundas Shire
      • Cocklebiddy Roadhouse
Guano Minerals from Murra-el-Elevyn Cave Western Australia; P.J. Bridge; Govt Chem Laboratories WA; Mineralogical Magazine Dec 1973, vol 39, pp 467-469
  • Carinthia
    • Koralpe
      • Moschkogel - Weinebene area
        • Brandrücken
W. Postl, F. Brandstätter, G. Niedermayr: Carinthia II 180./100.:248-251 (1990)
  • Vorarlberg
R. Exel: Die Mineralien und Erzlagerstätten Österreichs (1993)
  • Potosí
    • Cerro Huañaquino
Alfredo Petrov (1997) Mineral News, 13, #4.
  • Santa Cruz
    • Velasco Province
Woolley, A.R. (1987) Alkaline rocks and carbonatites of the world. p 167-168.
  • Pernambuco
    • São Pedro e São Paulo archipelago
Washington, H.S. (1929) The American Mineralogist, 14, 369-372.
  • British Columbia
    • Omenica Mining Division
      • Francois Lake
  • Northwest Territories
Chakhmouradian, A. R., Reguir, E. P., & Mitchell, R. H. (2002). Strontium-apatite: New occurrences, and the extent of Sr-for-Ca substitution in apatite-group minerals. The Canadian Mineralogist, 40(1), 121-136.
  • Québec
    • Estrie
      • Les Sources RCM
        • Asbestos
Normand (2001) Experimental and field investigation of serpentinization and rodingitization. unpublished Ph.D. thesis McGill University, Montreal, Quebec
  • Hebei
    • Xingtai
      • Xingtai Co.
Zhengmin Cao and Weijiong Zhu (1993): Acta Scientiarum Naturalium Universitatis Pekinensis 29(4)
  • Shaanxi
    • Hanzhong
      • Hantai District
Hein, J.R., Fan, D., Ye, J., Liu, T., and Yeh, H.-W. (1999): Ore Geology Reviews 15(1), 95-134.
Czech Republic
  • Olomouc Region
    • Jeseník District
      • Javorník
        • Horní Hoštice
Pauliš, P., Novák, F., Ševců, J.: Sekundární minerály z uranového ložiska Jelení vrch u Horních Hoštic v Rychlebských horách. Acta Musei Moraviae, Scientiae geologicae, 2004, roč. 89, s. 121 - 138.
  • Greenland
    • Kujalleq
      • Narsaq
Petersen, O.V. (2001): List of all minerals identified in the Ilímaussaq alkaline complex, South Greenland. Geology of Greenland Survey Bulletin. 190, 25-33
Bøggild, O.B. (1953): The Mineralogy of Greenland. Meddelelser om Grønland, Bd. 149. Nr. 3. 445 pages. (p.180)
          • Tunulliarfik Fjord
Bøggild, O.B. (1953): The Mineralogy of Greenland. Meddelelser om Grønland, Bd. 149. Nr. 3. 445 pages (p.180)
  • New Valley
USGS Open-File Report 02–156–A
  • Southern Nations Nationalities and Peoples' Region
    • Lower Omo Valley
American Mineralogist, Vol. 64, 1979, pp. 169-171.
  • Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes
    • Allier
      • Ébreuil
        • Échassières
G. Aubert : "Les coupoles granitiques de Montebras et d'Echassières (Massif Central Français) et la genèse de leur minéralisations (BRGM, 1969)
G. Aubert : "Les coupoles granitiques de Montebras et d'Echassières (Massif Central Français) et la genèse de leur minéralisations (BRGM, 1969)
    • Drôme
      • Clansayes
        • L'Eause
Ref.: G. Demarcq, 1973, "Guides Géologiques Régionaux : Lyonnais, Vallée du Rhône" , p. 124, Masson.
G. Demarcq, 1973, "Guides Géologiques Régionaux : Lyonnais, Vallée du Rhône" , p. 124, Masson.
  • Nouvelle-Aquitaine
    • Corrèze
      • Davignac
M.Deliens, C.Lheur, W.Peraud & D.Virlogeux (2004)- Les minéraux d'uranium du Boucheron, près de Davignac (Corrèze)- Le Cahier des Micromonteurs, n°84, pp 3-25.
  • Occitanie
    • Pyrénées-Orientales
      • Tautavel
Quattropani, L., Charlet, L., Lumley, H. D., & Menu, M. (1999). Early Palaeolithic bone diagenesis in the Arago cave at Tautavel, France. Mineralogical Magazine, 63(6), 801-801.
  • Hesse
    • Lahn-Dill
      • Wetzlar
        • Waldgirmes
Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", 1990
  • North Rhine-Westphalia
    • Arnsberg
      • Hüsten
S. Weiß: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
      • Siegen-Wittgenstein
        • Siegen
          • Niederschelden
SCHNORRER, G. (1995): Mineralogische Neuheiten von bekannten deutschen Fundorten. Lapis 20 (12), 43-48; 62.
  • Saxony
    • Erzgebirgskreis
      • Schneeberg
        • Wolfgang Maaßen Mine field
Lapis 30(7/8):41-70 (2005)
  • Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén County
    • Edelény District
      • Bódvarákó
Sándor, S. & Papp, G. (1997) Az Esztramos-Hegy ásványai (Minerals of the Ezstramos Hill, North Hungary). Topographia Mineralogica Hungariae 5. Miskolc, 1997
  • Veszprém County
    • Ajka district
      • Úrkút
        • Csárda Hill
Szakáll & Jánosi: Minerals of Hungary, 1995; Polgári, M., Hein, J. R., Németh, T., Pál-Molnár, E., & Vigh, T. (2013). Celadonite and smectite formation in the Úrkút Mn-carbonate ore deposit (Hungary). Sedimentary Geology, 294, 157-163.
  • Java
    • Kebumen
      • Karang Bolong Mts
Gunnar Färber
  • Haifa District
    • Mount Carmel
Weiner, S., Goldberg, P., & Bar-Yosef, O. (1993). Bone preservation in Kebara Cave, Israel using on-site Fourier transform infrared spectrometry. Journal of Archaeological Science, 20(6), 613-627.
  • Sicily
    • Trapani Province
      • Castellammare del Golfo
Messana E. (1994): Il sistema carsico del gruppo montuoso di Monte Inici (Castellammare del Golfo, TP). Boll. Accad. Gioenia Sci. Nat., 27, 348, 547–562.
  • Okinawa
    • Daito Islands
Dr. Kameki Kinoshita collection (curated at Geological Survey of Japan)
  • Homa Bay County
USGS Open-File Report 02–156–A
  • Northern Region
    • Mellieħa
      • Marfa Ridge
John, C. M., Mutti, M., & Adatte, T. (2003). Mixed carbonate-siliciclastic record on the North African margin (Malta)—coupling of weathering processes and mid Miocene climate. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 115(2), 217-229.
  • Chihuahua
    • Aldama Municipality
Cross, B. & Culp Zeitner J. (2006), Geodes Natures Treasures, P.23
  • Durango
    • Durango Municipality
      • Victoria de Durango
No reference listed
  • Otjozondjupa Region
    • Grootfontein
      • Kombat
No reference listed
  • Limburg
    • Elsloo
T.G. Nijland, J.C. Zwaan, D. Visser, J. Leloux - De mineralen van Nederland - 2007
T.G. Nijland, J.C. Zwaan, D. Visser, J. Leloux - De mineralen van Nederland - 2007
    • Hoensbroek
T.G. Nijland, J.C. Zwaan, D. Visser, J. Leloux - De mineralen van Nederland - 2007
    • Maastricht
      • Pietersberg
T.G. Nijland, J.C. Zwaan, D. Visser, J. Leloux - De mineralen van Nederland - 2007
    • Valkenburg
      • Ravensbos
T.G. Nijland, J.C. Zwaan, D. Visser, J. Leloux - De mineralen van Nederland - 2007
  • Overijssel
    • Denekamp
Nijland, T.G., Zwaan, J.C., Visser,D. and J. Leloux (2007) Geologie van Nederland - De mineralen van Nederland. Knnv, Uitgeverij. 104p.
    • Ootmarsum
T.G. Nijland, J.C. Zwaan, D. Visser, J. Leloux - De mineralen van Nederland - 2007
      • Kuiperberg
T.G. Nijland, J.C. Zwaan, D. Visser, J. Leloux - De mineralen van Nederland - 2007
T.G. Nijland, J.C. Zwaan, D. Visser, J. Leloux - De mineralen van Nederland - 2007
T.G. Nijland, J.C. Zwaan, D. Visser, J. Leloux - De mineralen van Nederland - 2007
  • Telemark
    • Bamble
Brögger, W. C and Bäckström, H. (1888): Über den "Dahllit", ein neues mineral von Ödegården, Bamle, Norwegen. Öfversigt af Kongliga Vetenskaps-Akademiens Förhandlingar (Stockholm) 1888 (7),1-4. (Neumann, H. (1985): Norges Mineraler. Norges geologiske Undersøkelse Skrifter 68, pp. 123-124); (Science 155, 1977, 1409); Nickel & Nichols (1991, "Mineral Reference Manual" p35).;
  • Visayas
    • Western Visayas Region
      • Palawan Province
        • Palawan Island
Choa, O., Gallet, X., Dizon, E., Ronquillo, W., Jago-on, S. C., Ghaleb, B., ... & Sémah, F (2014). Chronology and palaeoenvironmental significance of Pleistocene deposits in Tabon Cave, Palawan, the Philippines. UISSP Session A26 Southeast Asia: Human Evolution, Dispersals and Adaptation
  • Caraş-Severin
    • Banat Mts
      • Locva Mts (Locvei Mts)
Onac, B.P., Zaharia, L., Kearns, J. & Veres, D. (2007): Vashegyite from Gaura cu Musca Cave (Locvei Mountains, Romania): a new and rare phosphate occurrence. International J. of Speleology, 35, 67-73.
  • Hunedoara
    • Hunedoara
      • Boșorod
Dumitras, D.-G., Constantinescu, E., Marincea, S., and Bourgier, V. (2005): Proceedings of the Annual Scientific Session of The Geological Society of Romania, Rosia Montana, 20-21 May 2005, 31-36.; D. Dumitras , Si. Marincea (2000) Phosphates In The Bat Guano Deposit From The "Dry" Cioclovina Cave, Sureanu Mountains, Romania. Romanian Journal of Mineral Devosits Vol 79 Suppl pp 43-45
  • Chelyabinsk Oblast
    • Karabash
      • Soimon Valley
Murzin, V. V., Varlamov, D. A., Ronkin, Y. L., & Shanina, S. N. (2013). Origin of Au-bearing rodingite in the Karabash massif of alpine-type ultramafic rocks in the southern Urals. Geology of Ore Deposits, 55(4), 278-297.
    • Kaslinsky District
N.A. Grigoriev, Zap. Vses. Mineral. Ob. , 1964, 93 (2), 156.
  • Crimea
    • Bakhchysarai
      • Skalistoye Village
Dvoichenko P.A. The minerals of Crimea (1914) - Zapiski Krymskogo obshchestva estestvoispytatelei (Proceeding of the Crimea Society of Naturalistes), 1914, vol. 4, p. 1-208 (Rus.) - Popov S.P. Mineralogy of the Crimea (1938). - M.-L., AN SSSR, 1938, 352 p. (Rus.)
    • Belogorsk area
Alexander I. Tischenko (1996). Minerals of the Crimea. - World of stones, 1996, #9, p.9 - 18.
  • Murmansk Oblast
    • Khibiny Massif
Pekov, I.V. & Podlesnyi, A.S. (2004): Kukisvumchorr Deposit: Mineralogy of Alkaline Pegmatites and Hydrotermalites. Mineralogical Almanac, vol. 7, 140 pages + xxiv photo's pages
    • Northern Karelia
Zaitsev, A. N., Sitnikova, M. A., Subbotin, V. V., Fernández-Suárez, J., Jeffries, T. E., & Wall, F. (2004). Sallanlatvi complex—a rare example of magnesite and siderite carbonatites. Phoscorites and carbonatites from mantle to mine: the key example of the Kola Alkaline Province. Mineralogical Society, London, 201-245.
Saudi Arabia
  • Mintaqah Makkah
Saudi Geological Survey Open-File Report SGS-OF-2004-12, 68 p.
  • Prešov Region
    • Prešov Co.
      • Vyšná Šebastová
Povondra P., Skála R., Chapman R., 2007: Hydrotermal assemblage of Cl-,F- and OH-bearing apatite-group minerals from Maglovec near Prešov, Slovakia. Canadian Mineralogist, 45, 1355-1366.
  • Catalonia
    • Barcelona
      • Baix Llobregat
        • Gavà
          • Bruguers
Christoph Boutry and Rui Nunes specimens
      • Vallès Occidental
        • Montcada i Reixac
Rosell, J. & Garrido, J.L. (2006) The minerals of Montcada Hill Quarry. Mineral Up, 2006/2, 16-20.
  • Norrbotten County
    • Kiruna
      • Kiruna town
Flink, G. Bidrag till Malmbergsgruvornas och Kirunavaaras Mineralogi (Sthlm 1924, in Swedish)
  • Västernorrland County
    • Sundsvall
      • Alnö
        • Ås
Eckermann, H. von (1948): The Alkaline District of Alnö Island. Sveriges Geologiska Undersökning. Serie Ca 36, 176 pp
  • Lamphun Province
Mineralogical Magazine 1988 52 : 505-508
  • Marmara Region
    • Çanakkale Province
Yigit, O. (2012). A prospective sector in the Tethyan Metallogenic Belt: Geology and geochronology of mineral deposits in the Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey. Ore Geology Reviews, 46, 118-148.
[Specimen in the Natural History Museum, London]
  • Alaska
    • Valdez-Cordova Census Area
      • Chisana Mining District
U. S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 02-195
  • Arkansas
    • Montgomery Co.
      • Fancy Hill Mining District
        • Caddo Gap
Econ Geol (1987) 82:1377-1385
  • California
    • Humboldt Co.
      • Coastal Range
Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 78.
  • Colorado
    • Gunnison Co.
      • Goose Creek Mining District
Page, L. R.; Stocking, H. E.; Smith, H. B. (1956) Contributions to the geology of uranium and thorium by the United States Geological Survey and Atomic Energy Commission for the United Nations International Conference on Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy, Geneva, Switzerland, 1955. USGS Professional Paper 300 pp587-592.
      • White Earth Mining District (Powderhorn Mining District)
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.
    • Park Co.
Carl (Bob) Carnein Collection
  • Maine
    • Androscoggin Co.
      • Poland
King, V. T. and Foord, E. E., 1994, Mineralogy of Maine, Descriptive Mineralogy, volume 1, Maine Geological Survey, Augusta, Maine, USA, pp. 418 + 88 plates.
    • Oxford County
      • Buckfield
King & Foord, 1994. Mineralogy of Maine, V.1.
      • Newry
King & Foord, 1994. Mineralogy of Maine, V.1.
King & Foord, 1994. Mineralogy of Maine, V.1.
      • Paris
King, V. T. and Foord, E. E., 1994, Mineralogy of Maine, Descriptive Mineralogy, volume 1, Maine Geological Survey, Augusta, Maine, USA, pp. 418 + 88 plates.
King & Foord, 1994. Mineralogy of Maine, V.1.
      • Rumford
King & Foord, 1994. Mineralogy of Maine, V.1.
Scott Soucey and Tim Blake specimens
  • Michigan
    • Dickinson Co.
      • Menominee iron range
        • Randville
Mineralogy of Michigan (2004) Heinrich & Robinson
  • Nevada
    • Esmeralda Co.
      • Candelaria Mining District (Columbus Mining District)
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
    • Humboldt Co.
      • Buffalo Mountain Mining District
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
    • Nye Co.
      • San Antonio Mts
        • Tonopah Mining District
Am.Jour.Sci., 4th ser., 33, 475-482 (1921)
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
      • Toquima Range
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
  • New Hampshire
    • Grafton Co.
      • Groton
No reference listed
  • North Carolina
    • Cleveland Co.
      • Kings Mountain Mining District
    • Gaston Co.
      • Bessemer City
Magma Field Trip Reports
  • South Dakota
    • Custer Co.
      • Custer Mining District
        • Fourmile
Mineralogical Record: 17: 237-254; Rocks & Minerals: 60: 117.
    • Pennington Co.
      • Keystone Mining District
        • Keystone
R&M 75:3 pp 156-169
USGS Prof Paper 297A
  • Wyoming
    • Big Horn Co.
Dahllite pseudomorphs after pyrite concretions from Big Horn Basin, Wyoming RS Mitchell… - American Mineralogist, 1958
AmMin 20:693
  • Miranda
Urbani, F. (1996) Venezuelan cave minerals: a review. Boletín de la Sociedad Venezolana de Espeleología, No.30, 1-13.
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