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About AlacrániteHide

Orange to pale gray with rose-yellow internal reflections
Vitreous, Resinous, Greasy
Specific Gravity:
Crystal System:
Named after its discovery locality in Chile.
Different from (unnamed) natural beta-As4S4.

Classification of AlacrániteHide

Approval Year:

2 : SULFIDES and SULFOSALTS (sulfides, selenides, tellurides; arsenides, antimonides, bismuthides; sulfarsenites, sulfantimonites, sulfbismuthites, etc.)
F : Sulfides of arsenic, alkalies; sulfides with halide, oxide, hydroxide, H2O
A : With As, (Sb), S

8 : AmXp, with m:p = 1:1

3 : Sulphides, Selenides, Tellurides, Arsenides and Bismuthides (except the arsenides, antimonides and bismuthides of Cu, Ag and Au, which are included in Section 1)
7 : Sulphides etc. of V, As, Sb and Bi

Physical Properties of AlacrániteHide

Vitreous, Resinous, Greasy
Orange to pale gray with rose-yellow internal reflections
yellow-orange in transmitted light
1½ on Mohs scale
VHN20=69 kg/mm2 - Vickers
Very brittle
imperfect on {100}
3.43(3) g/cm3 (Measured)    3.43 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of AlacrániteHide

Biaxial (+)
RI values:
nα = 2.390(1) nγ = 2.520(2)
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.130
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
r < v
400nmR1=13.0%R2= 14.0%
425nmR1=13.2%R2= 14.6%
450nmR1=13.3%R2= 14.8%
475nmR1=13.4%R2= 14.8%
500nmR1=13.3%R2= 14.5%
525nmR1=13.1%R2= 14.3%
550nmR1=13.2%R2= 14.5%
575nmR1=13.4%R2= 14.7%
600nmR1=13.5%R2= 14.8%
625nmR1=13.6%R2= 14.9%
650nmR1=13.7%R2= 15.0%
675nmR1=13.8%R2= 15.0%
700nmR1=13.9%R2= 15.1%

Reflectance graph
Graph shows reflectance levels at different wavelengths (in nm). Top of box is 100%. Peak reflectance is 15.1%.
R1 shown in black, R2 shown in red
Colour in reflected light:
Light gray
Internal Reflections:

Chemical Properties of AlacrániteHide


Crystallography of AlacrániteHide

Crystal System:
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:
Cell Parameters:
a = 9.942 Å, b = 9.601 Å, c = 9.178 Å
β = 101.94°
a:b:c = 1.036 : 1 : 0.956
Unit Cell V:
857.1 ų
Crystals are pinacoidal, prismatic, and flattened on [100] , striated parallel [001] on {100} , other faces dull or tarnished, to 1 mm; as subhedral flattened and prismatic grains.

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Powder Diffraction Data:
6.89 Å(40)
5.91 Å(90)
5.11 Å(80)
4.05 Å(70)
3.291 Å(50)
3.064 Å(100)
2.950 Å(90)
Uzon caldera, Kamchatka, Russia (ICDD 42-537).

Type Occurrence of AlacrániteHide

Place of Conservation of Type Material:
Il’menskii Preserve Museum, Miass; A.E. Fersman Mineralogical Museum, Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia.
Geological Setting of Type Material:
In hydrothermal As–S veins
Associated Minerals at Type Locality:

Synonyms of AlacrániteHide

Other Language Names for AlacrániteHide

Relationship of Alacránite to other SpeciesHide

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
3 photos of Alacránite associated with OrpimentAs2S3
2 photos of Alacránite associated with UzoniteAs4S5
1 photo of Alacránite associated with RealgarAs4S4

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

2.FA.AnorpimentAs2S3Tric. 1 : P1
2.FA.BonazziiteAs4S4Mon. 2/m : B2/b
2.FA.05DuranusiteAs4SOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pmna
2.FA.10DimorphiteAs4S3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
2.FA.15bPararealgarAs4S4Mon. 2/m : P21/b
2.FA.15aRealgarAs4S4Mon. 2/m
2.FA.15dUM1970-18-S:AsAs4S4Mon. 2/m : B2/b
2.FA.30LaphamiteAs2Se3Mon. 2/m
2.FA.30OrpimentAs2S3Mon. 2/m
2.FA.35GetchelliteAsSbS3Mon. 2/m : P21/b
2.FA.40Wakabayashilite[(As,Sb)6S9][As4S5]Orth. mm2 : Pna21

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

3.7.2DuranusiteAs4SOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pmna
3.7.3DimorphiteAs4S3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
3.7.4RealgarAs4S4Mon. 2/m
3.7.5PararealgarAs4S4Mon. 2/m : P21/b
3.7.8OrpimentAs2S3Mon. 2/m
3.7.10LaphamiteAs2Se3Mon. 2/m
3.7.11GetchelliteAsSbS3Mon. 2/m : P21/b
3.7.12Wakabayashilite[(As,Sb)6S9][As4S5]Orth. mm2 : Pna21
3.7.13PääkköneniteSb2AsS2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
3.7.14StibniteSb2S3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
3.7.17BismuthiniteBi2S3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
3.7.19GuanajuatiteBi2Se3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
3.7.22LaitakariteBi4Se2STrig. 3m : R3m
3.7.26TsumoiteBiTeTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3 1m
3.7.27PilseniteBi4Te3Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
3.7.28HedleyiteBi7Te3Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
3.7.29TetradymiteBi2Te2STrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
3.7.30JoséiteBi4TeS2Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
3.7.31Joséite-BBi4Te2STrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
3.7.40JunoiteCu2Pb3Bi8(S,Se)16Mon. 2/m : B2/m

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for AlacrániteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Popova, V.I., Popov, V.A., Clark, A., Polyakov, V.O., Borisovskii, S.E. (1986) Alacránite, As8S9–a new mineral. Zapiski Vsesoyuznogo Mineralogicheskogo Obshchestva: 115(3): 360-368.
Hawthorne, F.C., Burke, E.A.J., Ercit, T.S., Grew, E.S., Grice, J.D., Jambor, J.L., Puziewicz, J., Roberts, A.C., Vanko, D.A. (1988) New mineral names. American Mineralogist: 73: 189.
Burns, P.C., Percival, J.B. (2001) Alacranite, As4S4: A new occurrence, new formula, and determination of the crystal structure. The Canadian Mineralogist: 39: 809-818.
Bonazzi, P., Bindi, L., Popova, V., Pratesi, G., Menchetti, S. (2003) Alacranite, As8S9: Structural study of the holotype and re-assignment of the original chemical formula. American Mineralogist: 88: 1796-1800.
Mineralogical Record 39: 132.
Szakáll, S. (2006) Postmagmatic alacranite (?) from the Ciomadu area, south Harghita, Romania. Acta Mineralogica-Petrographica, Abstract Series 5, Szeged, 114. []
Bonazzi, P., Bindi, L. (2008) A crystallographic review of arsenic sulfides: Effects of chemical variations and changes induced by exposure to light. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie: 223: 132-147.
Pratesi, G., Zoppi, M. (2015) An insight into the inverse transformation of realgar altered by light. American Mineralogist: 100: 1222-1229.

Internet Links for AlacrániteHide

Localities for AlacrániteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
  • Haskovo Province
    • Madzharovo Municipality
Miadenova, V. (2000). Alacranite and Duranusite from Mareshnitsa Occurrence, Eastern Rhodopes---New Minerals for Bulgaria. Comptes Rendus de l'Academie Bulgare des Sciences, 53(4), 67.
Chile (TL)
  • Atacama
    • Copiapó Province
      • Tierra Amarilla
        • Pampa Larga district
          • Alacrán
Clark, A.H. (1970): Alpha-arsenic sulfide, from Mina Alacrán, Pampa Larga, Chile. Am. Mineral. 55, 1338-1344; [Clark, 1993 - "Hey's Mineral Index, 3rd Edition"]
Czech Republic
  • Central Bohemian Region
    • Kutná Hora District
      • Poličany
        • Vrchlice river valley
Pauliš P. Mineralogické lokality okolí Kutné Hory. Kuttna, Kutná Hora 1999. ISBN 80-902719-0-1.
  • Hradec Králové Region
    • Trutnov District
      • Radvanice
Žáček, V., Ondruš, P.: Mineralogy of recently formed sublimates from Kateřina colliery in Radvanice, Eastern Bohemia, Czech Republic. Bulletin of the Czech geological survey, 1998, vol. 73, no. 2, s. 289-302.
  • Karlovy Vary Region
    • Sokolov District
Scharm B., Kuhn P., Kocián J.: Minerály arzénu v terciéru sokolovské pánve. In Nerostné surovinové zdroje, vědecká konference, sekce 2 - geologie, 1975, 62-67.
  • Baden-Württemberg
    • Alpirsbach
      • Reinerzau District
K. Walenta: "Die Mineralien des Schwarzwaldes", Weise (Munich), 1992
    • Schenkenzell
      • Wittichen
        • Böckelsbach valley
Walenta: "Die Mineralien des Schwarzwaldes", Weise (Munich), 1992
        • Burgfelsen
No reference listed
        • Heubach Valley
No reference listed
  • North Rhine-Westphalia
    • Arnsberg
      • Siegen-Wittgenstein
        • Siegen
          • Eisern
Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
  • Saxony
    • Dresden
      • Hänichen
Thalheim, K.; Reichel, W. & Witzke, T. (1991): Die Minerale des Döhlener Beckens.- Schriften des Staatlichen Museums für Mineralogie und Geologie zu Dresden, Nr. 3
      • Possendorf
  • Thuringia
    • Greiz
      • Weida
        • Berga/Elster
          • Culmitzsch
T. Witzke & F. Rüger: Lapis 1998(7/8), 26-64
  • Campania
    • Naples
      • Pozzuoli
        • Solfatara di Pozzuoli
- Russo, M., Campostrini, I., Demartin, F. (2017): I minerali di origine fumarolica dei Campi Flegrei: Solfatara di Pozzuoli (Napoli) e dintorni. Micro, 15, 122-192.
  • Gunma
The Mineral Species of Japan (5th ed) Matsubara; 松原聰, & 宮脇律郎. (2005). 群馬県西ノ牧鉱山産パラ鶏冠石とアラクラン石. Bulletin of the National Science Museum. Series C, Geology & paleontology, 31, 1-6.
  • Batken Region
Bindi, L., Pratesi, G., Muniz-Miranda, M., Zoppi, M., Chelazzi, L., Lepore, G. O., & Menchetti, S. (2015). From ancient pigments to modern optoelectronic applications of arsenic sulfides: bonazziite, the natural analogue of β-As4S4 from Khaidarkan deposit, Kyrgyzstan. Mineralogical Magazine, 79(1), 121-131.
Papua New Guinea
  • New Ireland Province
    • Lihir Island area
Can Min 39 (3), 2001, 809-818; Petersen, S., Herzig, P. M., Hannington, M. D., Jonasson, I. R., & Arribas, A. (2002). Submarine gold mineralization near Lihir Island, New Ireland fore-arc, Papua New Guinea. Economic Geology, 97(8), 1795-1813.
  • Harghita
Szakáll, S. (2006): Postmagmatic alacranite (?) from the Ciomadu area, south Harghita, Romania. Acta Mineralogica-Petrographica, Abstract Series 5, Szeged, 114.]; Kristály, F. & Szakáll, S. (2009): Mitt. Österr. Mineral. Ges. 155, 94. (Abs.)
Russia (TL)
  • Kamchatka Krai
ZVMO,(1986) 115, 360-368; Bonazzi, P., Bindi, L., Popova, V., Pratesi, G. & Menchetti, S. (2003): Alacranite, As8S9: Structural study of the holotype and re-assignment of the original chemical formula. American Mineralogist 88, 1796-1800.
Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
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