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Chalcopyrite

This page kindly sponsored by Norman King
Formula:
Cu1+Fe3+S2
System:
Tetragonal
Colour:
Brass yellow, often with ...
Lustre:
Metallic
Hardness:
3½ - 4
Name:
Named in 1725 by Johann Friedrich Henckel from the Greek "chalkos", copper, and "pyrites", strike fire.
Chalcopyrite Group. Chalcopyrite-Eskebornite Series.

A major ore of copper. Common in sulfide veins and disseminated in igneous rocks.
Weathering may lead to the formation of malachite, azurite, brochantite, langite and numerous other secondary copper minerals.

A Zn-rich variety is known from Atlantis II Deep (see zincian chalcopyrite).

Compare, e.g., 'UM1988-17-S:CuFe' and 'UM1988-18-S:CuFe'.

Visit gemdat.org for gemological information about Chalcopyrite.


Classification of Chalcopyrite

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
2.CB.10a

2 : SULFIDES and SULFOSALTS (sulfides, selenides, tellurides; arsenides, antimonides, bismuthides; sulfarsenites, sulfantimonites, sulfbismuthites, etc.)
C : Metal Sulfides, M: S = 1: 1 (and similar)
B : With Zn, Fe, Cu, Ag, etc.
Dana 7th ed.:
2.9.1.1
2.9.1.1

2 : SULFIDES
9 : AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
3.1.25

3 : Sulphides, Selenides, Tellurides, Arsenides and Bismuthides (except the arsenides, antimonides and bismuthides of Cu, Ag and Au, which are included in Section 1)
1 : Sulphides etc. of Cu

Physical Properties of Chalcopyrite

Metallic
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Opaque
Colour:
Brass yellow, often with an iridescent tarnish.
Streak:
Greenish black
Hardness (Mohs):
3½ - 4
Hardness (Vickers):
VHN100=187
Hardness Data:
Measured
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Poor/Indistinct
Indistinct on {011}, sometimes distinct.
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven
Density:
4.1 - 4.3 g/cm3 (Measured)    4.18 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Chemical Properties of Chalcopyrite

IMA Formula:
Cu1+Fe3+S2
Elements listed in formula:
Common Impurities:
Ag,Au,In,Tl,Se,Te

Crystallography of Chalcopyrite

Crystal System:
Tetragonal
Class (H-M):
4 2m - Scalenohedral
Space Group:
I4 2d
Cell Parameters:
a = 5.289 Å, c = 10.423 Å
Ratio:
a:c = 1 : 1.971
Unit Cell Volume:
V 291.57 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
4
Morphology:
Typically found as equant to wedge-shaped tetrahedral crystals, often modified by scalenohedral faces. Major deposits of massive material are known.
Twinning:
Twinned on {112} and {012}, penetration or cyclic.
Comment:
Subcell: I-centred tetragonal, a = 3.74, c = 5.21 Å.

Crystallographic forms of Chalcopyrite

Crystal Atlas:
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Click on an icon to view
Chalcopyrite no.13 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Chalcopyrite no.19 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Chalcopyrite no.37 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Chalcopyrite no.58 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Edge Lines | Miller Indicies | Axes

Transparency
Opaque | Translucent | Transparent

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Along a-axis | Along b-axis | Along c-axis | Start rotation | Stop rotation
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
3.04(100)
2.64(10)
1.87(20)
1.86(40)
1.59(300
1.57(10)
1.21(10)
1.08(10)

Occurrences of Chalcopyrite

Relationship of Chalcopyrite to other Species

Series:
Forms a series with Eskebornite (see here)
Other Members of Group:
EskeborniteCuFeSe2
GalliteCuGaS2
LaforêtiteAgInS2
LenaiteAgFeS2
RoquesiteCuInS2
2.CB.AgmantiniteAg2MnSnS4
2.CB.05aColoradoiteHgTe
2.CB.05aHawleyiteCdS
2.CB.05aMetacinnabarHgS
2.CB.05cPolhemusite(Zn,Hg)S
2.CB.05bSakuraiite(Cu,Zn,Fe)3(In,Sn)S4
2.CB.05aSphaleriteZnS
2.CB.05aStilleiteZnSe
2.CB.05aTiemanniteHgSe
2.CB.05UM1998-15-S:CuFeZnCu2Fe3Zn5S10
2.CB.05aRudashevskyite(Fe,Zn)S
2.CB.10aEskeborniteCuFeSe2
2.CB.10aGalliteCuGaS2
2.CB.10bHaycockiteCu4Fe5S8
2.CB.10aLenaiteAgFeS2
2.CB.10bMooihoekiteCu9Fe9S16
2.CB.10bPutoraniteCu1.1Fe1.2S2
2.CB.10aRoquesiteCuInS2
2.CB.10bTalnakhiteCu9Fe8S16
2.CB.10aLaforêtiteAgInS2
2.CB.15aČernýiteCu2CdSnS4
2.CB.15aFerrokësteriteCu2(Fe,Zn)SnS4
2.CB.15aHocartiteAg2FeSnS4
2.CB.15aIdaiteCu3FeS4
2.CB.15aKësteriteCu2ZnSnS4
2.CB.15aKuramiteCu3SnS4
2.CB.15bMohiteCu2SnS3
2.CB.15aPirquitasiteAg2ZnSnS4
2.CB.15aStanniteCu2FeSnS4
2.CB.15cStannoiditeCu8(Fe,Zn)3Sn2S12
2.CB.15aVelikiteCu2HgSnS4
2.CB.15cUM2006-11-S:CuFeGeZnCu8(Fe,Zn)3Ge2S12 (?)
2.CB.20ChatkaliteCu6FeSn2S8
2.CB.20MawsoniteCu6Fe2SnS8
2.CB.30ColusiteCu12VAs3S16
2.CB.30GermaniteCu13Fe2Ge2S16
2.CB.30GermanocolusiteCu13VGe3S16
2.CB.30NekrasoviteCu13VSn3S16
2.CB.30StibiocolusiteCu13V(Sb,Sn,As)3S16
2.CB.30OvamboiteCu10Fe3WGe3S16
2.CB.30MaikainiteCu10Fe3MoGe3S16
2.CB.35aHemusiteCu41+Cu22+SnMoS8
2.CB.35aKiddcreekiteCu6WSnS8
2.CB.35aPolkovicite(Fe,Pb)3(Ge,Fe)1-xS4
2.CB.35aRenierite(Cu1+,Zn)11Fe4(Ge4+,As5+)2S16
2.CB.35aVincienniteCu10Fe4SnAsS16
2.CB.35aMorozeviczitePb3Ge1-xS4
2.CB.35bCatamarcaiteCu6GeWS8
2.CB.40LautiteCuAsS
2.CB.45CadmoseliteCdSe
2.CB.45GreenockiteCdS
2.CB.45WurtziteZnS
2.CB.45RambergiteMnS
2.CB.45Buseckite(Fe,Zn,Mn)S
2.CB.55aCubaniteCuFe2S3
2.CB.55bIsocubaniteCuFe2S3
2.CB.60PicotpauliteTlFe2S3
2.CB.60RaguiniteTlFeS2
2.CB.65ArgentopyriteAgFe2S3
2.CB.65SternbergiteAgFe2S3
2.CB.70SulvaniteCu3VS4
2.CB.75VulcaniteCuTe
2.CB.80EmpressiteAgTe
2.CB.85MuthmanniteAuAgTe2
3.1.1ChalcociteCu2S
3.1.2DjurleiteCu31S16
3.1.3DigeniteCu1.8S
3.1.4AniliteCu7S4
3.1.5RoxbyiteCu1.78S
3.1.6SpionkopiteCu1.32S
3.1.7GeeriteCu8S5
3.1.8CovelliteCuS
3.1.9BerzelianiteCu2-xSe (x~0.12)
3.1.10BellidoiteCu2Se
3.1.11UmangiteCu3Se2
3.1.12YarrowiteCu9S8
3.1.13AthabascaiteCu5Se4
3.1.14KlockmanniteCu5.2Se6
3.1.15Krut'aiteCuSe2
3.1.16WeissiteCu5Te3
3.1.17RickarditeCu3-xTe2
3.1.18VulcaniteCuTe
3.1.19BambollaiteCu(Se,Te)2
3.1.20LautiteCuAsS
3.1.21Mgriite(Cu,Fe)3AsSe3
3.1.22CubaniteCuFe2S3
3.1.23BorniteCu5FeS4
3.1.24FukuchiliteCu3FeS8
3.1.26MooihoekiteCu9Fe9S16
3.1.27HaycockiteCu4Fe5S8
3.1.28IsocubaniteCuFe2S3
3.1.29IdaiteCu3FeS4
3.1.30NukundamiteCu3.4Fe0.6S4
3.1.31PutoraniteCu1.1Fe1.2S2
3.1.32OrickiteCuFeS2 · nH2O
3.1.33EskeborniteCuFeSe2
3.1.34Chaméanite(Cu,Fe)4As(Se,S)4
3.1.35TalnakhiteCu9Fe8S16

Other Names for Chalcopyrite

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.
Industrial Uses:
It is the principal ore of copper.

References for Chalcopyrite

Reference List:
Henckel, J.F. (1725) Pyritologia, oder Kieß Historie. Verlegts Johann Christian Martini (Leipzig), pages 114-115. [Chalcopyrites (Latin), Kupfer-Kieß (German)].

Palache, C., Berman, H., Frondel, C. (1944) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 834pp.: 219-224.

Mariano, A.N. (1967) Abstract of paper presented at the twelfth annual meeting: Crystallographic polarity in chalcopyrite. The Canadian Mineralogist: 9: 297-298.

Hall, S.R., Stewart, J.M. (1973) The crystal structure refinement of chalcopyrite, CuFeS2. Acta Crystallographica: B29: 579-585.

Hall, S.R. (1975) Crystal structures of the chalcopyrite series. The Canadian Mineralogist: 13: 168-172.

Dutrizac, J.E. (1976) Reactions in cubanite and chalcopyrite. The Canadian Mineralogist: 14: 172-181.

Chen, T.T., Dutrizac, J.E., Owens, D.R., Laflamme, J.H.G. (1980) Accelerated tarnishing of some chalcopyrite and tennantite specimens. The Canadian Mineralogist: 18: 173-180.

Robie, R.A., Wiggins, L.B., Barton, P.B., Jr., Hemingway, B.S. (1985) Low-temperature heat capacity and entropy of chalcopyrite (CuFeS2): estimates of the standard molar enthalpy and Gibbs free energy of formation of chalcopyrite and bornite (Cu5FeS4). Journal of Chemical Thermodynamics: 17: 481-488. [in German].

Kratz, T., Fuess, H. (1989) Simultane Strukturbestimmung von Kupferkies und Bornit an einem Kristall. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie: 186: 167-169.

Gaines, R.V., Skinner, C.W., Foord, E.E., Mason, B., Rosenzweig, A. (1997) Dana's New Mineralogy: The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, 8th. edition: 87.

Goh, S.W., Buckley, A.N., Lamb, R.N., Rosenberg, R.A., Moran, D. (2006) The oxidation states of copper and iron in mineral sulfides, and the oxides formed on initial exposure of chalcopyrite and bornite to air. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta: 70: 2210-2228.

Pearce, C.I., Pattrick, R.A.D., Vaughan, D.J., Henderson, C.M.B., van der Laan, G. (2006) Copper oxidation state in chalcopyrite: Mixed Cu d9 and d10 characteristics. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta: 70: 4635-4624.

Boon, J. W. (2010) The crystal structure of chalcopyrite (CuFeS2) and AgFeS2: The permutoidic reactions KFeS2 -> CuFeS2 and KFeS2 -> AgFeS2. Recueil des Travaux Chimiques des Pays-Bas: 63: 69-80.

Knight, K.S., Marshall, W.G., Zochowski, S.W. (2011) The low-temperature and high-pressure thermoelastic and structural properties of chalcopyrite, CuFeS2. The Canadian Mineralogist: 49: 1015-1034.

Cai, L., Chen, X., Ding, J., Zhou, D. (2012) Leaching mechanism for chalcopyrite in hydrochloric acid. Hydrometallurgy: 113-114: 109-118.

Internet Links for Chalcopyrite

mindat.org URL:
https://www.mindat.org/min-955.html
Please feel free to link to this page.
Specimens:
The following Chalcopyrite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

Significant localities for Chalcopyrite

Showing 24 significant localities out of 26,703 recorded on mindat.org.

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
(TL) indicates type locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) indicates first recorded locality for everything else. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
Australia
 
  • South Australia
    • Yorke Peninsula
      • Moonta
RB94/00041;Janz 1990 (unpublished honours thesis) + self prospected
Bolivia
 
  • Cochabamba Department
    • Chapare Province
Alfredo Petrov collection.
Canada
 
  • Yukon
    • Mayo Mining District
      • Galena Hill
        • Elsa
Oscar Jose Tessari (1979) Model Ages and Applied Whole Rock Geochemistry of Ag-Pb-Zn veins, Keno Hill - Galena Hill Mining Camp, Yukon Territory. MSc Thesis, University of British Columbia.
China
 
  • Hubei Province
    • Huangshi Prefecture
      • Daye Co.
Jingye Jiang, Dafang Tan, Guojun Hu, and Lichun Zhang (1998): Geology and Prospecting 34(6), 5-9; Ottens, B. (2003): Lapis 28(9), 41-47
France
 
  • Grand Est
    • Bas-Rhin
      • Bruche valley (Breuch valley)
        • Schirmeck
Alain Steinmetz and Thierry Brunsperger Collection
Germany
 
  • Saxony-Anhalt
    • Naumburg
      • Bad Kösen
Mineralogical Collection of the Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Germany. Formerly in the Michael Scheven Collection.
Ireland
 
  • Co. Tipperary
    • Monard
Barry Flannery Collection; Steed, G. M. (1983). Gortdrumite, a new sulphide mineral containing copper and mercury, from Ireland. Mineralogical Magazine, 47, 35-6.
Italy
 
  • Tuscany
    • Lucca Province
      • Apuan Alps
        • Stazzema
Am.Min.:77:1301-1304.
Kazakhstan
 
  • Karagandy Province (Qaragandy Oblysy; Karaganda Oblast')
    • Dzhezkazgan (Zhezqazghan)
RWMW specimen; Box, S.E., Syusyura, Boris, Hayes, T.S., Taylor, C.D., Zientek, M.L., Hitzman, M.W., Seltmann, Reimer, Chechetkin, Vladimir, Dolgopolova, Alla, Cossette, P.M., and Wallis, J.C., 2012, Sandstone copper assessment of the Chu-Sarysu Basin, Central Kazakhstan: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2010–5090–E, 63 p. ; Evseev, A. A. (1995) Kazaknstan and Middle Asia. A brief Mineralogical Guide. World of Stone 8:24-30
Kosovo
 
  • District of Kosovska Mitrovica
    • Kosovska Mitrovica
      • Trepča valley
        • Trepča complex
Féraud J. (1979) - La mine " Stari-Trg " (Trepca, Yougoslavie) et ses richesses minéralogiques. Avec la collaboration de Mari D. et G. (1979) Minéraux et Fossiles, n° 59-60, p. 19-28; Pršek, J. et al. (2012) [http://www.mineral.hermuz.hu/acta_07/pdf/114-Prsek.pdf]; Joana Koà Odziejczyk ,Jaroslav Pršek , Halilqela ( 2012) MIneralogical Diversity In Orebodies Within Xth Horizon.At Stan Terg Mine, Kosovo. Buletini i Shkencave Gjeologjike pp84-
Mexico
 
  • Guanajuato
    • Mun. de Guanajuato
      • Guanajuato
Panczner (1987): 152.
Peru
 
  • Ancash Department
    • Bolognesi Province
      • Huallanca District
        • Huallanca
Hyrsl & Rosales (2003) Mineralogical Record, 34, 241-254.; Econ Geol (1985) 80:416-478
Mineralogical Record 28, no. 4 (1997); Hyrsl & Rosales (2003) Mineralogical Record, 34, 241-254.; Hyrsl & Rosales (2003) Mineralogical Record, 34, 241-254.
    • Recuay Province
      • Ticapampa District
Mi.Rec. 28, no.4 (1997)
  • Huancavelica Department
    • Angaraes Province
Crowley, Jack A., Currier, Rock H., & Szenics, Terry (1997) Mines and Minerals of Peru. Mineralogical Record, Vol.28, No.4. 98p.
  • Lima Department
    • Huarochiri Province
      • Casapalca
Mineralogical Record (1997): 28(4).; Hyrsl & Rosales (2003) Mineralogical Record, 34, 241-254.
  • Pasco department
    • Pasco province
      • Tinyahuarco district
        • Colquijirca mining district
Min.Rec., 28, no.4 (1997); Mineralium Deposita September 2003, Volume 38, Issue 6, pp 683-694 ; Economic Geology November 2009 vol. 104 no. 7 905-944
Romania
 
  • Maramureș Co.
    • Cavnic (Kapnic; Kapnik)
Mineral News 14:12 p 1,4
Russia
 
  • Far-Eastern Region
    • Primorskiy Kray
      • Kavalerovo Mining District
        • Dal'negorsk (Dalnegorsk; Tetyukhe; Tjetjuche; Tetjuche)
[MinRec vol 32 pp 14-15]; Rogulina, L.I., and Sveshnikova, O.L. (2008): Geology of Ore Deposits 50(1), 60-74.; Dobovol'skaya, M. G., Baskina, V. A., Balashova, S. P., Kenisarin, A. M., Arakelyants, M. M., Klimachev, L. A., & Muravitskaya, G. N. (1990). Order of Formation of the Ores and Mafic Dikes of the Nikolayevsk Deposit (Southern Primor'ye). International Geology Review, 32(4), 391-403.
USA
 
  • Connecticut
    • Hartford Co.
      • Bristol
Jones, Robert W. (2001): Famous Mineral Localities: The Bristol Copper Mine Connecticut. Mineralogical Record: 32(6):433-450.
  • Kentucky
    • Boyle Co.
      • Danville
        • Caldwell Stone Company Quarry
Rocks and Minerals Magazine Vol. 69 No. 4 (jul/aug 1994); Rocks & Minerals 81:420-440
  • New Mexico
    • Santa Fe Co.
      • New Placers District
M Massis collection; W. W., Jr Atkinson and Sherman P. Marsh (2012) The San Pedro mine - a record of the history, geology, and mineral collection. New Mexico Mineral Symposium Socorro, NM November 10-11, 2012 Abstracts pp. 22-23.
  • New York
    • Ulster Co.
      • Wawarsing
        • Ellenville
Dana 7:I:592.; Econ Geol (1990) 85:182-196
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