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Chalcanthite

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Formula:
CuSO4 · 5H2O
Colour:
Green, green blue, light blue, or dark blue; colourless to pale blue in transmitted light.
Lustre:
Vitreous, Resinous
Hardness:
Specific Gravity:
2.286
Crystal System:
Triclinic
Name:
From the Greek chalkos, "copper" and anthos, "flower."
Chalcanthite Group.
Copper analogue of siderotil and pentahydrite.

Chalcanthite is natural, water-soluble copper sulphate. A secondary mineral that is formed in arid climates or in rapidly oxidizing copper deposits. It is usually of post-mining formation, forming on mine walls and by the action of acidic surface waters on copper veins.

CAUTION: Many, usually well-crystallised chalcanthite specimens offered for sale (e.g. on-line auctions), are artificially grown.


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Classification of ChalcanthiteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
7.CB.20

7 : SULFATES (selenates, tellurates, chromates, molybdates, wolframates)
C : Sulfates (selenates, etc.) without additional anions, with H2O
B : With only medium-sized cations
Dana 7th ed.:
29.6.7.1
29.6.7.1

29 : HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
6 : AXO4·xH2O
25.2.3

25 : Sulphates
2 : Sulphates of Cu and Ag

Pronounciation of ChalcanthiteHide

Pronounciation:
PlayRecorded byCountry
Jolyon & Katya RalphUnited Kingdom

Physical Properties of ChalcanthiteHide

Vitreous, Resinous
Transparency:
Transparent, Translucent
Colour:
Green, green blue, light blue, or dark blue; colourless to pale blue in transmitted light.
Streak:
White
Hardness:
2½ on Mohs scale
Hardness Data:
Measured
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Imperfect/Fair
Imperfect on {110}, Indistinct on {111}; and, {110} in traces.
Parting:
None reported.
Fracture:
Conchoidal
Density:
2.286 g/cm3 (Measured)    2.282 g/cm3 (Calculated)
Comment:
Measured on artificial material.

Optical Data of ChalcanthiteHide

Type:
Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 1.514 nβ = 1.537 nγ = 1.543
2V:
Measured: 56° , Calculated: 56°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.029
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Low
Dispersion:
r < v

Chemical Properties of ChalcanthiteHide

Formula:
CuSO4 · 5H2O
CAS Registry number:
7758-99-8

CAS Registry numbers are published by the American Chemical Society
Common Impurities:
Fe,Mg,Co

Crystallography of ChalcanthiteHide

Crystal System:
Triclinic
Class (H-M):
1 - Pinacoidal
Space Group:
P1
Cell Parameters:
a = 6.11 Å, b = 10.673 Å, c = 5.95 Å
α = 97.58°, β = 107.17°, γ = 77.55°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.572 : 1 : 0.557
Unit Cell V:
361.03 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
2
Morphology:
Crystal short prismatic {001} or less commonly tabular {111}. Natural crystals rather rare. Commonly found as stalactic material, massive, granular filling veins (cross-fiber veinlets) and as crusts.
Twinning:
Rarely forms cruciform twins, with the edges [001] and [100] on one crystal respectively parallel to [100] and [001] on the other, and with {010} in common.
Comment:
Non-standard unit cell.

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
5.48(60)
4.73(100)
3.99(60)
3.71(90)
3.30(60)
2.82(40)
2.75(50)
2.66(40)

Type Occurrence of ChalcanthiteHide

Synonyms of ChalcanthiteHide

Other Language Names for ChalcanthiteHide

Varieties of ChalcanthiteHide

PhillipiteProbably an impure Fe-bearing chalcanthite.

Relationship of Chalcanthite to other SpeciesHide

Other Members of this group:
JôkokuiteMnSO4 · 5H2OTric.
PentahydriteMgSO4 · 5H2OTric.
SiderotilFeSO4 · 5H2OTric.

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Coquimbite21 photos of Chalcanthite associated with Coquimbite on mindat.org.
Copiapite18 photos of Chalcanthite associated with Copiapite on mindat.org.
Amarantite16 photos of Chalcanthite associated with Amarantite on mindat.org.
Pyrite13 photos of Chalcanthite associated with Pyrite on mindat.org.
Alunogen12 photos of Chalcanthite associated with Alunogen on mindat.org.
Calcite10 photos of Chalcanthite associated with Calcite on mindat.org.
Quartz7 photos of Chalcanthite associated with Quartz on mindat.org.
Melanterite7 photos of Chalcanthite associated with Melanterite on mindat.org.
Halotrichite5 photos of Chalcanthite associated with Halotrichite on mindat.org.
Gypsum4 photos of Chalcanthite associated with Gypsum on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

7.CB.05Dwornikite(Ni,Fe)SO4 · H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
7.CB.05GunningiteZnSO4 · H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
7.CB.05KieseriteMgSO4 · H2OMon. 2/m
7.CB.05Poitevinite(Cu,Fe,Zn)SO4 · H2OTric.
7.CB.05SzmikiteMnSO4 · H2OMon.
7.CB.05SzomolnokiteFeSO4 · H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
7.CB.05CobaltkieseriteCoSO4 · H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
7.CB.07SanderiteMgSO4 · 2H2OOrth. 2 2 2 : P21 21 21
7.CB.10BonattiteCuSO4 · 3H2OMon.
7.CB.15Aplowite(Co,Mn,Ni)SO4 · 4H2OMon. 2/m
7.CB.15Boyleite(Zn,Mg)SO4 · 4H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
7.CB.15Ilesite(Mn,Zn,Fe)SO4 · 4H2OMon. 2/m
7.CB.15RozeniteFeSO4 · 4H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
7.CB.15StarkeyiteMgSO4 · 4H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
7.CB.15DrobeciteCdSO4 · 4H2OMon. 2/m : P21/m
7.CB.15CranswickiteMgSO4 · 4H2OMon. m : Bb
7.CB.20JôkokuiteMnSO4 · 5H2OTric.
7.CB.20PentahydriteMgSO4 · 5H2OTric.
7.CB.20SiderotilFeSO4 · 5H2OTric.
7.CB.25Bianchite(Zn,Fe)SO4 · 6H2OMon. 2/m : P2/m
7.CB.25Chvaleticeite(Mn,Mg)SO4 · 6H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
7.CB.25FerrohexahydriteFeSO4 · 6H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
7.CB.25HexahydriteMgSO4 · 6H2OMon. 2/m : P2/m
7.CB.25Moorhouseite(Co,Ni,Mn)SO4 · 6H2OMon.
7.CB.25Nickelhexahydrite(Ni,Mg,Fe)SO4 · 6H2OMon.
7.CB.30RetgersiteNiSO4 · 6H2OTet. 4 2 2 : P41 21 2
7.CB.35BieberiteCoSO4 · 7H2OMon. 2/m : P2/m
7.CB.35BoothiteCuSO4 · 7H2OMon.
7.CB.35MallarditeMnSO4 · 7H2OMon. 2/m : P2/m
7.CB.35MelanteriteFeSO4 · 7H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
7.CB.35Zincmelanterite(Zn,Cu,Fe)SO4 · 7H2OMon.
7.CB.35Alpersite(Mg,Cu)[SO4] · 7H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
7.CB.40EpsomiteMgSO4 · 7H2OOrth. 2 2 2 : P21 21 21
7.CB.40GoslariteZnSO4 · 7H2OOrth. 2 2 2 : P21 21 21
7.CB.40MorenositeNiSO4 · 7H2OOrth. 2 2 2 : P21 21 21
7.CB.45AlunogenAl2(SO4)3 · 17H2OTric. 1
7.CB.45Meta-alunogenAl2(SO4)3 · 12H2O
7.CB.50AluminocoquimbiteFeAl(SO4)3 · 9H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3 1c
7.CB.55CoquimbiteFe2-xAlx(SO4)3 · 9H2O, x ~0.5Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3 1c
7.CB.55ParacoquimbiteFe2(SO4)3 · 9H2OTrig. 3 : R3
7.CB.55Rhomboclase(H5O2)Fe3+(SO4)2 · 2H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
7.CB.60KorneliteFe2(SO4)3 · 7H2OMon. 2/m : P21/m
7.CB.65QuenstedtiteFe2(SO4)3 · 11H2OTric. 1 : P1
7.CB.70LauseniteFe2(SO4)3·5H2OMon. 2/m : P21/m
7.CB.75LishizheniteZnFe2(SO4)4 · 14H2OTric. 1 : P1
7.CB.75RömeriteFe2+Fe3+2(SO4)4 · 14H2OTric. 1 : P1
7.CB.80RansomiteCuFe2(SO4)4 · 6H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
7.CB.85ApjohniteMn2+Al2(SO4)4 · 22H2OMon.
7.CB.85BíliniteFe2+Fe3+2(SO4)4 · 22H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
7.CB.85Dietrichite(Zn,Fe2+,Mn2+)Al2(SO4)4 · 22H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
7.CB.85HalotrichiteFeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2OMon. 2 : P2
7.CB.85PickeringiteMgAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
7.CB.85Redingtonite(Fe2+,Mg,Ni)(Cr,Al)2(SO4)4·22H2OMon.
7.CB.85Wupatkiite(Co,Mg,Ni)Al2(SO4)4·22H2OMon.
7.CB.90MeridianiiteMgSO4 · 11H2OTric. 1 : P1

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

29.6.7.2SiderotilFeSO4 · 5H2OTric.
29.6.7.3PentahydriteMgSO4 · 5H2OTric.
29.6.7.4JôkokuiteMnSO4 · 5H2OTric.

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

25.2.1ChalcocyaniteCuSO4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
25.2.2BonattiteCuSO4 · 3H2OMon.
25.2.4BoothiteCuSO4 · 7H2OMon.
25.2.5DolerophaniteCu2(SO4)OMon. 2/m : B2/m
25.2.6AntleriteCu3(SO4)(OH)4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
25.2.7BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6Mon. 2/m : P21/b
25.2.8PosnjakiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · H2OMon. m : Pm
25.2.9LangiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2OMon. m
25.2.10WroewolfeiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2OMon. m : Pm
25.2.11KröhnkiteNa2Cu(SO4)2 · 2H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
25.2.12NatrochalciteNaCu2(SO4)2(OH) · 2H2OMon. 2/m : B2/m
25.2.13PiypiteK4Cu4O2(SO4)4 · (Na,Cu)ClTet.
25.2.14FedotoviteK2Cu3(SO4)3OMon. 2/m : B2/b
25.2.15CyanochroiteK2Cu(SO4)2 · 6H2OMon. 2/m
25.2.16EuchlorineKNaCu3(SO4)3OMon.
25.2.17DevillineCaCu4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
25.2.18LeightoniteK2Ca2Cu(SO4)4 · 2H2OTric.
25.2.19ChalcoalumiteCuAl4(SO4)(OH)12 · 3H2OMon. 2 : P21
25.2.20CyanotrichiteCu4Al2(SO4)(OH)12 · 2H2OOrth.
25.2.21WoodwarditeCu1-xAlx(OH)2[SO4]x/2 · nH2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
25.2.22CampigliaiteMn2+Cu4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 4H2OMon.
25.2.23GuilditeCuFe3+(SO4)2(OH) · 4H2OMon.
25.2.24RansomiteCuFe2(SO4)4 · 6H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
25.2.26KlyuchevskiteK3Cu3(Fe3+,Al)(SO4)4O2Mon.
25.2.27Poitevinite(Cu,Fe,Zn)SO4 · H2OTric.
25.2.28ArgentojarositeAgFe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m : R3m

Other InformationHide

Notes:
Soluble in water. Dehydrates in dry air forming lighter powder.
Health Risks:
Hazardous in case of skin contact (irritant), of eye contact (irritant), of ingestion, of inhalation. Acute oral toxicity (LD50): 300 mg/kg [Rat.].
Industrial Uses:
On occasion, it is found in sufficient volume to be mined as an ore of copper.

References for ChalcanthiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Kupffer (1826) Annalen der Physik, Halle, Leipzig: 8: 217.
Beudant, F.S. (1832) Traité élémentaire de Minéralogie, second edition, 2 volumes: 2: 486 (as Cyanose).
von Kobell, Fr. (1853) 31 (as Chalkanthit).
Pape (1874) Annalen der Physik, Halle, Leipzig: 6: 35.
Retgers (1889) Zeitschrift für Physikalische Chemie, Leipzig, Berlin: 3: 289.
Lavenir (1891) Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 14: 115.
Dana, E.S. (1892) System of Mineralogy, 6th. Edition, New York: 944.
Retgers (1894) Zeitschrift für Physikalische Chemie, Leipzig, Berlin: 15: 563.
Retgers (1895) Zeitschrift für Physikalische Chemie, Leipzig, Berlin: 16: 583.
Stortenbeker (1895) Zeitschrift für Physikalische Chemie, Leipzig, Berlin: 17: 647.
Stortenbeker (1900) Zeitschrift für Physikalische Chemie, Leipzig, Berlin: 34: 111.
Schaller (1903) University of California, Department of Geology Bull.: 3: 191.
Zeitschrift für Kristallographie: 192: 1-53.
Boeris (1905) Att. soc. ital. sc. nat. Milan: 44: 73.
Boeris (1907) Rivista di mineralogia e cristallografia italiana, Padua: 33: 5.
Groth, P. (1908) Chemische Krystallographie. Leipzig. 5 volumes: vol. 2: 419 (orientation of Barker).
Tutton, A.E.H. (1911) Crystals 301 pp., London: 301.
Goldschmidt, V. (1918) Atlas der Krystallformen. 9 volumes, atlas, and text: vol. 5: 105.
Haas (1920) Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 43: 228.
Tutton, A.E.H. (1922) Crystallography and Practical Crystal Measurement. 946 pp., London. Second edition: vol. 1 (Form and Structure): 282.
Collins (1923) Mineralogical Magazine: 20: 32.
Doelter, C. (1927) Handbuch der Mineral-chemie: 4[2]: 280.
Mélon (1928) Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 51: 194.
Gossner and Brückl (1929) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 69: 422.
Vavrinecz (1929) Magyar Chemiai Folyóirat, Budapest: 35: 4.
Barth and Tunell (1933) American Mineralogist: 18: 187.
Beevers and Lipson (1934) Proceedings of the Royal Society of London: 146A: 570.
Ungemach (1935) Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 58: 214.
Bandy (1938) American Mineralogist: 23: 718.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 488-491.
Gaines, Richard V., H. Catherine, W. Skinner, Eugene E. Foord, Brian Mason, Abraham Rosenzweig (1997) Dana's New Mineralogy: The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, 8th. edition: 605.

Internet Links for ChalcanthiteHide

Localities for ChalcanthiteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

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Mineral and/or Locality  
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